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Effects of grazing strategy to limiting nitrate leaching in grazed grass-clover pastures on coarse sandy soil Organic Eprints
Hansen, E.M.; Eriksen, J.; Søegaard, K.; Kristensen, K..
Urinations of ruminants on grazed pastures increase the risk of nitrate leaching. The study investigated the effect of reducing the length of the grazing season on nitrate leaching from a coarse sandy, irrigated soil during 2006-2007. In both years precipitation was above the long-term mean. The experiment was initiated in a 4-year-old grass-clover in south Denmark. Three treatments were included: grazing only (G), spring cut followed by grazing (CG) and both spring and autumn cuts with summer grazing (CGC). Nitrate leaching was calculated by extracting water isolates from 80 cm depth using ceramic suction cups. Because of considerable variation in measured nitrate concentrations, the 32 installed suction cups per treatment were insufficient to reveal...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions; Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/20649/7/20649.pdf
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Effects of green manure storage and incorporation methods on greenhouse gas fluxes and N mineralization after soil application Organic Eprints
Carter, Mette S.; Sørensen, Peter; Petersen, Søren O.; Ambus, Per.
Organic arable farming faces challenges with low crop yields, partly due to inefficient use of green manure-derived nitrogen (N). Under current farming practices, green manure leys are often cut and mulched during the growing season with the associated risk of environmental N losses, leading to eutrophication and global warming. In this 3-month incubation experiment, we tested a new green manure management strategy as part of the ICROFS project HighCrop. With the new strategy, green manure leys are instead harvested and preserved until the following spring either as compost mixed with straw (grass-clover:straw, 4:1, w:w) or as silage of harvested ley biomass. In spring, these two green manure materials can then be used for targeted fertilization of spring...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/25941/19/25941a.pdf
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Effects of green manure storage and incorporation methods on nitrogen release and N2O emissions after soil application Organic Eprints
Carter, Mette S.; Sørensen, Peter; Petersen, Søren O.; Ma, Xiuzhi; Ambus, Per.
More efficient use of green manure-derived nitrogen (N) may improve crop yields and reduce environmental impacts in stockless organic arable farming. In this 3-month incubation study, we tested a new strategy where green manure leys are harvested and preserved until the following spring either as compost mixed with straw or as silage of harvested ley biomass. Grass-clover compost or silage was soil-incorporated by either simulated ploughing (green manure placed at 15 cm depth) or harrowing (green manure mixed into the upper 5-cm soil horizon) in order to assess treatment effects on net release of plant-available N, nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, and soil respiration. Grass-clover silage provided the highest net N release with similar results for the two...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/25158/7/25158.pdf
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Effects of green manure storage and incorporation methods on nitrogen release and N2O emissions after soil application Organic Eprints
Carter, Mette S.; Sørensen, Peter; Petersen, Søren O.; Ma, Xiuzhi; Ambus, Per.
More efficient use of green manure-derived nitrogen (N) may improve crop yields and reduce environmental impacts in stockless organic arable farming. In this 3-month incubation study, we tested a new strategy where green manure leys are harvested and preserved until the following spring either as compost mixed with straw or as silage of harvested ley biomass. Grass-clover compost or silage was soil-incorporated by either simulated ploughing (green manure placed at 15 cm depth) or harrowing (green manure mixed into the upper 5-cm soil horizon) in order to assess treatment effects on net release of plant-available N, nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, and soil respiration. Grass-clover silage provided the highest net N release with similar results for the two...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/26717/13/Carter%20et%20al.%202014_BFOS_online.pdf
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Effects of green manure storage and incorporation methods on nitrogen release and N2O emissions after soil application Organic Eprints
Carter, Mette S.; Sørensen, Peter; Petersen, Søren O.; Ma, Xiuzhi; Ambus, Per.
More efficient use of green manure-derived nitrogen (N) may improve crop yields and reduce environmental impacts in stockless organic arable farming. In this 3-month incubation study, we tested a new strategy where green manure leys are harvested and preserved until the following spring either as compost mixed with straw or as silage of harvested ley biomass. Grass-clover compost or silage was soil-incorporated by either simulated ploughing (green manure placed at 15 cm depth) or harrowing (green manure mixed into the upper 5-cm soil horizon) in order to assess treatment effects on net release of plant-available N, nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, and soil respiration. Grass-clover silage provided the highest net N release with similar results for the two...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/27643/25/Carter%20et%20al.%202014_BFOS.pdf
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Effects of green manure storage and incorporation methods on nitrogen release and N2O emissions after soil application Organic Eprints
Carter, Mette S.; Sørensen, Peter; Petersen, Søren O.; Ma, Xiuzhi; Ambus, Per.
More efficient use of green manure-derived nitrogen (N) may improve crop yields and reduce environmental impacts in stockless organic arable farming. In this 3-month incubation study, we tested a new strategy where green manure leys are harvested and preserved until the following spring either as compost mixed with straw (grass-clover:straw, 4:1, w:w) or as silage of harvested ley biomass. Grass-clover compost or silage was soil-incorporated by either simulated ploughing (green manure placed at 15 cm depth) or harrowing (green manure mixed into the upper 5-cm soil horizon) in order to assess treatment effects on net release of plant-available N, nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes, and soil respiration. Grass-clover silage provided the highest net N release with...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/24960/7/24960.pdf
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Effects of plant residues on crop performance, N mineralisation and microbial activity including field CO2 and N2O fluxes in unfertilised crop rotations Organic Eprints
Vinther, F.P.; Hansen, E.M.; Olesen, J.E..
The impacts of crop rotation and input of organic matter in the form of green manure crops, straw residues and incorporation of catch crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, microbial biomass and activity was studied in unfertilised crop rotations differing in input of plant residues, i.e. high-input rotations with a grass-clover crop and catch crops included and low-input cereal rotations without catch crops. The parameters studied included substrate induced respiration (SIR), hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA), arylsulfatase activity (ASA), N mineralisation, N2O emission, and soil respiration. These parameters were measured in bare soil plots, to estimate the effects of previous years crops and input of plant residues. In neighbouring plots crop...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil biology; Soil quality; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/4012/1/Vinther%2C_Hansen_Olesen_2004.pdf
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Effects of separation and anaerobic digestion of slurry on odour and ammonia Emission during Subsequent Storage and land application Organic Eprints
Hansen, Martin N.; Birkmose, Torkild S.; Mortensen, Børge; Skaaning, Kent.
A study was set up to investigate the environmental effects of anaerobic digestion and separa-tion of slurry. Volatilisation of odour and ammonia from treated and untreated slurry were compared both during storage and following land application. It was found that ammonia volatilisation was higher from uncovered stores of anaerobically digested and separated slurry than from untreated slurry, however, when slurry stores were covered efficiently, the loss rate was low and equal for treated and untreated slurry. Ammonia volatilisation following land application was found to be lower from both anaerobically digested and separated slurry compared to untreated slurry. Treatment of slurry by anaerobic digestion and separation did not reduce odour nuisances during...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/5617/1/5617.pdf
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Effekt av gjødsling og kjørebelastning på lystgassproduksjon Organic Eprints
Hansen, Sissel; Bleken, Marina A.; Sitaula, Bishal.
Lystgass (N20) er en viktig bidragsyter til den globale oppvarmingen. Kombinasjonen kjøreskadd, våt jord og rikelige mengder lettløselig nitrogen er svært uheldig og har i enkelte år ført til tap av nitrogen og stor lystgassproduksjon selv ved bruk av moderate mengder kunstgjødsel og moderat kjørebelastning.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/5751/1/gk9_2_hansen_148_152.pdf
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Effekter av kjemiske sprøytemidler Organic Eprints
Koesling, Matthias; Serikstad, Grete Lene.
Mattilsynet analyserer matvarer for rester av kjemisk-syntetiske sprøytemidler, og finner årlig flere prøver med rester over og under grenseverdiene. I tillegg til ønsket effekt av midlene på ulike skadegjørere kan også uønska og skadelige bieffekter på mennesker og dyr oppstå. I økologisk landbruk brukes ikke slike midler.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/10602/1/Tema_13_2007_Effekter_av_kjemiske_sproeytemidler.pdf
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Effizientes Stickstoffmanagement mindert Nitrataustrag Organic Eprints
Haas, Guido.
Stickstoff stellt in der landwirtschaftlichen Flächennutzung den zentralen Nährstoff für die Ertrags- und Qualitätsbildung dar, ist aber auch das Element der mit den größten Umweltwirkungen. Der Ökologische Landbau weist in vielen Vergleichsuntersuchungen geringere Nitratausträge auf. Aber es gibt Schwachpunkte, die mit gezielten Strategien auszuräumen sind.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/2219/1/2219%2Dhaas%2DLE%2DN%2DManagement.pdf
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Efterafgrøder i majs - hvor svært kan det være? Organic Eprints
Hansen, E.M..
Klimaændringer og majs hører sammen, ligesom klimaændringer og risiko for udvaskning formentlig hører sammen. Noget tyder på, at dyrkning af majs og risiko for udvaskning også hører sammen. I et forsøg på grovsandet jord, hvor der blev høstet godt 13 tons tørstof pr. ha, blev der udvasket 86 kg N pr. ha i ugødet majs efter kløvergræs. Der er derfor god grund til at benytte dyrkningsmetoder, der effektivt kan reducere risikoen for udvaskning efter majs. Udlæg af efterafgrøder er en oplagt mulighed, da efterafgrøder er en velkendt metode til at redu-cere udvaskningen – så hvor svært kan det være?
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/17878/1/17878.pdf
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Eignung des ökologischen Landbaus zur Minimierung des Nitrataustrags ins Grundwasser Organic Eprints
Wilbois, Klaus-Peter; Scerencsits, Manfred; Hermanowski, Robert.
This study analyses the specific literature and examines the suitablilty of the organic croping system with special consideration of the situation in Lower Franconia to minimise the leaching of nitrate into the ground water. Furthermore, it outlines a framework for a campagne to extent organic farming in Lower Franconia.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions; Air and water emissions; Soil tillage.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/13270/1/Studie_Wasserschutz_%C3%96ko%2DLandbau_KPW_et_al.pdf
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Einfluss der ökologischen Bewirtschaftung auf die Nitratstickstoffgehalte im Boden Organic Eprints
Gruber, Harriet; Thamm, Uwe; Michel, Volker.
The following paper discribe the influence of ecological managed systems on contents of nitrate-nitrogen in soils. From 1993 to 2003 in a six-year crop rotation in the location of Gülzow (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) samples of soil were taken with an soil auger in a depth between 0 and 90 cm. Nitrate-nitrogen contents was analyzed by hydrazin reduction in an analysing automat (SKALAR). For statistical evaluation SAS (Statistical Analysis System) and for clearing of unorthogonal data procedure MIXED of PIEPHO and MICHEL (2001) were used. The results show that contents of nitrate-nitrogen in autumn and spring are lower for organic management than for conventional. Nitrogen losses during winter are subjected to heavy annual variations. High contents of...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Crop combinations and interactions; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/5129/1/h33%2D08.pdf
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Einfluss der Spaltenbodenreinigung in einem Rinderstall auf die Ammoniakemissionen Organic Eprints
Retz, Stefanie; Georg, Heiko; Van den Weghe, Herman.
Ammonia emissions from barns have a severe impact on the environment. Especially dairy cattle, kept in loose housing, contribute to the total emission of ammonia up to 50%. Soiled walking areas like slatted floors, are realised as one of the main sources of the emission. In this study, a special cleaning device was used in order to remove manure from a slatted floor in an organically run dairy barn. It was investigated how the combination of a rubber-scraper, mechanical star discharge rotors and high-pressure water nozzles affects the ammonia emission from the floor. Six concrete test elements (55cm x 62cm x 20cm) were cut out of the existing slatted floor in order to be able to separate them from other sources of ammonia emission in the barn. With a...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/17381/3/Retz_17381.pdf
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Einfluss fermentierter organischer Dünger auf Spurengasemissionen im Ökologischen Pflanzenbau Organic Eprints
Schauss, Kristina; Ratering, Stefan; Schnell, Sylvia.
Agriculture belongs to the major sources of the trace gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). However, little is known about the contribution of the increasing area of organically managed arable soils in organic farming systems to the greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of our study was the quantification of the in-situ N2O- and CH4- emissions in common organic crop cultivation without livestock. In comparison to this control variant, we focused on the manuring effect of fermented herbal organic matter on the emissions (biogas variant). The straw of the crops and the growth of the intercrops were harvested, fermented in a biogas reactor and applied as fertilizer on the field when the nutrient demand of the crops occurred. The results obtained in...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions; Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/3447/1/3447.pdf
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Einfluss von Milchleistung und Nutzungsdauer auf den Product Carbon Footprint von Milch bei ökologisch wirtschaftenden Betrieben in Süddeutschland Organic Eprints
Menzel, Friederike; Kiefer, Lukas; Over, Ralf; Bahrs, Enno.
Quantification and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is an intensively discussed topic. For dairy farms many studies consider a higher milk yield per cow for greenhouse gas mitigation but this often results in a reduction in herd fertility and thus more heifers are needed which may lead to more emissions in total. This paper presents the Product Carbon Footprint of 36 organic dairy farms and analyses the influence of milk yield per cow and longevity of dairy cows. Results are: (1) a product carbon footprint of 1,61 kg CO2eq/kg fat and protein corrected milk on average, (2) increasing milk yield per cow causes decreasing product carbon footprints (coefficient of determination 48 %) and (3) decreasing longevity per cow causes decreasing product carbon...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Dairy cattle; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/26923/1/26923_menzel.pdf
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Einfluss von Zwischenfrüchten auf Lachgasverluste und Nitratauswaschung im ökologischen Marktfruchtbau in Abhängigkeit von der Vorfrucht Organic Eprints
Böldt, M.; Loges, Ralf; Kluss, Cristof; Taube, Friedhelm.
All-arable organic farming systems, especially when they are working without organic fertilizer, are often in challenge with their nutrient management to fulfill the requirements of crops. In this context one of the main issues is to mitigate nutrient losses. Here the use of catch crops may one strategy to counteract against this. We hypothesized that under the climate conditions of north-west Germany winter hard catch crops are more suitable to reduce nitrogen (N) losses than catch crops killed by frost, here especially with cereals or legumes as previous crop. In a field experiment in 2015/16 we tested 3 different catch crops (grown in pure stand and in mixture with legumes) after peas and triticale for their nitrogen loss paths over the winter period....
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Composting and manuring; Nutrient turnover; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/31876/1/Einfluss%20von%20Zwischenfr%C3%BCchten%20auf%20Lachgasverluste%20und.pdf
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Emission and production of greenhouse gases and ammonia during storage of solids separated from pig slurry: effects of covering Organic Eprints
Hansen, Martin N.; Henriksen, Kaj; Sommer, Sven G..
Separation of slurry produces a solid fraction that is stored in manure heaps before being used as a fertiliser in crop production. Considerable amounts of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gases may be emitted during storage, which has deleterious environmental effects. The emission levels can be expected to depend on oxygenation level inside the bulk of the stored manure and therefore on storage conditions. An experiment was thus set up to study gaseous emissions during storage of the solid fraction, and the effects of the oxygenation of manure heaps on emissions of NH3 and various greenhouse gases. Emissions of NH3 and the greenhouse gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) from an uncovered and covered heap of solids separated from...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/5615/1/5615_ny.pdf
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Emission of Climate-Relevant Gases in Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems Organic Eprints
Kuestermann, B.; Huelsbergen, K.-J..
In 81 commercial farms in Germany, emissions of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O from crop production have been computed by model-based analyses. The considered influence factors comprise farm structure, mass and energy inputs as well as cultivation methods. A linear correlation was found between energy input and greenhouse gas potential. Due to lower N and energy inputs and also higher C sequestration as a result of humus restoration, the organic farms revealed area-related emissions (785 kg CO2 eq ha-1 a-1) that were 2.75 times lower than the emissions from conventional farms (2165 kg CO2 eq ha-1 a-1).
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/12813/1/12813.pdf
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