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Environmental anomalies, energetic reserves and fatty acid modifications in oysters coincide with an exceptional mortality event ArchiMer
Pernet, Fabrice; Barret, Jean; Marty, Claire; Moal, Jeanne; Le Gall, Patrik; Boudry, Pierre.
Mortality of oysters Crassostrea gigas occurred along the coasts of France during summer 2008, causing a serious crisis in French oyster production. During spring to summer 2008, 5 groups of 1-yr old oysters of different origins and ploidy levels deployed in the Thau lagoon (France) were sampled for biometrical and biochemical analyses; environmental parameters were monitored in the same area. Mortality occurred in 2 episodes: 13 May to 10 June and 24 June to 9 July. Wild-collected oysters showed mortality sooner than other groups but total overall mortality was 85% in all groups. Mortality occurred when seawater temperature was >19 degrees C during the reproductive season when energetic reserves of oysters were at their lowest. Energy reserve levels...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bivalves; Energetic reserve; Environment; Fatty acid; Summer mortality; Trophic signatures; Temperature.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00003/11388/7964.pdf
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Environmental factors contributing to the development of brown muscle disease and perkinsosis in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and trematodiasis in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) of Arcachon Bay ArchiMer
Binias, Cindy; Do, Van Tu; Jude-lemeilleur, Florence; Plus, Martin; Froidefond, Jean-marie; De Montaudouin, Xavier.
The aim of the present study was to identify environmental factors that could explain the distribution of different pathologies of commercially exploited intertidal bivalves in an Atlantic lagoon, Arcachon Bay. In particular, the role of the salinity gradient as a driver was explored. The Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum experienced two severe pathologies, perkinsosis, which is due to a protozoan parasite, and brown muscle disease (BMD), the etiological agent of which remains unknown. Perkinsus olseni infection was very low in a small low-salinity area but, at the scale of the entire lagoon, was more influenced by organic matter content in the sediment and by emersion time. BMD prevalence was also 2.6 times higher in the higher organic content area but...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Arcachon bay; Bivalves; Diseases; Distribution; Parasites.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00200/31083/31922.pdf
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Epidémiologie analytique et descriptive des agents pathogènes, étude de la diversité des virus de type herpès (action 1). Etude des relations hôtes/agents pathogènes, pathogénèse des infections à virus de type herpèsvirus (action 2) - Contrat Région Poitou-Charentes 2000-2006 ArchiMer
Renault, Tristan; Le Roux, Frederique; Berthe, Franck; Arzul, Isabelle; Miossec, Laurence; Robert, Maeva; Chollet, Bruno.
Nous disposons aujourd'hui d'o utils diagnostiques sensibles et spécifiques (PCR, HIS ... ) et d'un protocole de transmission de l' infection qui permettent d'assurer un suivi des productions larvaires en écloserie de bivalves pour les espèces considérées comme sensibles aux infections à herpèsvirus, mais également pour de nouvelles espèces. En effet, des mortalités massives (100 %) ont été rapportées dans une écloserie de coquille St-Jacques en Bretagne et ont pu être associées à la détection de OsHV -1. Les résultats obtenus concernant cette espèce, Pecten maximus, complètent et reflètent l'ensemble des travaux réalisés.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Pathologie; Epidémiologie; Virus; Herpès virus; Bivalves; Crassostrea gigas; Ruditapes philippinarum; Pecten maximus.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00043/15472/12851.pdf
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Epidémiologie des bivalves ArchiMer
Grizel, Henri.
The notions of pathology and epidemiology in marine aquaculture are relatively new, especially as far as molluscs are concerned, as they've only been used for about thirty years. Although numerous studies have been conducted, and the concepts in these specific fields have evolved, only very few actions are proposed to stop the spreading of a disease. Only a few main mollusc species are cultivated throughout the world and most of them suffered or suffer from epizooties. Today, their pathological history is more solid: several infectious diseases are now known, numerous pathogens or potential pathogens have been described, diverse mortalities have been studied and several types of tumours have been observed. We now live in some cases, as for the flat oyster...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Aquaculture marine; Pathologie; Conchyliculture; Bivalves; Epidémiologie.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1992/acte-6580.pdf
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Epidémiologie moléculaire des espèces Marteilia en Europe ArchiMer
Le Roux, Frédérique; Audemard, Corinne; Cochennec, Nathalie; Thebault, Anne; Berthe, Franck.
Responsible for massive epizootics, the Marteilia type parasites are very dangerous infectious agents for oysters. As a matter of fact, in France the spreading out of the parasitosis caused by Marteilia refringens disturbed dangerously the flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, production; destroying a large percentage of the farms on the Atlantic coast. The fight against marteiliose implies a good management of the contamination risk, that is to say the identification of the parasite(s), the characterization of the host(s), vector(s) or reservoir(s) and the understanding of the parasite's transmission mode.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bivalves; Biologie Moléculaire; Marteilia refringens; Epidémiologie.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2001/acte-3271.pdf
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Essais d'affinage en mer ouverte d'huîtres creuses Crassostrea gigas issues de l'étang de Thau ArchiMer
Oheix, Jocelyne; Coatanea, Denis.
Mud blisters related to the Parasite worm Polydora or to the presence of TBT in the Thau Basin waters depreciate the market value of the oysters produced in this lagoon. A solution to this problem was searched by immersing during 1 to 3 months the oysters in the open sea before being marketed, this shell improvment operation being called "affinage en mer". The objective or this study carried out over 2,5 months in automn '1991 was to quantify possible differences, biometrical or biochemical, between oyster immersed for "affinage" on bottom open-sea structures, or remained for a normal cultivation .in the Thau lagoon. No significant differences were measured, although the external aspect of shells was modified for open sea oysters. Complementary studies at...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bivalves; Crassostrea gigas; Affinage; Mer ouverte; Méditerranée; Bivalves; Crassostrea gigas; Fattening; Off-Shore; Mediterranean.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00436/54764/56214.pdf
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Estimation des stocks de bivalves en élevage et des épibiontes dans la lagune de Thau et modélisation de la dynamique des populations d'huîtres creuses (Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg) ArchiMer
Gangnery, Aline.
In Thau Iagoon (Mediterranean Sea), shellfish are cultured in suspension. Molluscs are reared on ropes that are suspended on frames. Principal species concerned by breeding are Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus galloprovincialis and, in a less extent, Ostrea edulis. A new sampling method was developped to assess the total stock of cultured shellfish and was tested in July 1998 and April 1999. The total stock was found to be 19500 tons (± 1120 SE) in 1998 and 14100 tons (± 830 SE) in 1999, thus exhibiting temporal variations. Temporal differences in the total stock are mainly attributable to the breeding cycle but also to sorne exceptionnal events which occurred in Thau lageon in 1997 and 1998 (water anoxia, bacteriological crisis, bloom of toxic algae). In the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Etang de Thau; Bivalves; Echantillonnage; Dynamique; Modèle; Epibiontes.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00443/55478/57008.pdf
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Etude des interactions hôte/virus chez l’huître creuse Crassostrea gigas et son virus Ostreid herpesvirus 1 ArchiMer
Segarra, Amelie.
Ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1) can be considered one of the major infectious agents in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in France and all around the world. Differences in terms of mortality among infected animals were reported suggesting a genetic basis of the susceptibility to the OsHV-1 infection. In this context, the main objective of this thesis was to understand the interactions between Pacific oysters and OsHV-1, in particular, the molecular basis of the viral cycle. Results showed that the virus is able to replicate in the host regardless of its stage of development or its susceptibility. However, multiplication kinetics is faster in the most susceptible individuals compared to less susceptible ones. After an active replication phase, it...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bivalves; Huître creuse; Crassostrea gigas; Mortalités; OsHV-1; Gènes viruax; Interaction hôte-virus; Transcriptome; Sensibilité; PCR en temps réel; Bivalve; Pacific oyster; Crassostrea ggias; Mortality; OsHV-1; Viral gene; Interaction host-virus; Transcriptome; Susceptibility; Real-time PCR.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00252/36297/34826.pdf
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Etude des mécanismes antiviraux développés par l'huître creuse, Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Didier, Yohann.
La compréhension des mécanismes de défense développés par les bivalves et plus particulièrement dans cette étude, par l'huître creuse, Crassostrea gigas, est une étape fondamentale pour la pérennisation de la conchyliculture. La disparition de l'huître portugaise, Crassostrea angulata, du littoral français a bouleversés l'ostréiculture des années 70 qui a dû s'adapter en substituant C. angulata par l'huître creuse japonaise, C. gigas, espèce peu ou pas sensible aux Iridoviridae. L'impact d'une nouvelle épizootie de ce type poserait des problèmes économiques et sociaux dans le milieu ostréicole. Il apparaît dans ce contexte important de mieux comprendre les mécanismes de défense développés par les coquillages, tout particulièrement vis à vis des infections...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Herpes vrus; Hémocytes; Bivalves.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00025/13633/10715.pdf
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Etude ecophysiologique de quelques mollusques bivalves ArchiMer
Riva, A; Masse, H.
Using an experimental flowing system, the filtration rate of Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes aureus has been measured by an indirect technique under Mediterranean thermal conditions in coastal open sea. The oxygen consumption and excretion rate of ammonia have been estimated and influence of temperature and salinity tested for M. galloprovincialis . The results are discussed and compared to literature data.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ruditapes decussatus; Ostrea edulis; Mytilus galloprovincialis; Bivalvia; Respiration; Excretion; Oxygen consumption; Water filtration; Ecophysiology; Méditerranéee; Excrétion; Respiration; Filtration; Bivalves.
Ano: 1983 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1983/acte-1177.pdf
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Etude et modélisation des mécanismes impliqués dans la croissance de l'huître perlière, Pinctada margaritifera, au sein de l'écosystème conchylicole du lagon de l'atoll de Takapoto (Polynésie Française) ArchiMer
Pouvreau, Stephane.
L'huître perlière, Pinctada margaritifera (Linné, 1758) var. cumingi (Reeve), productrice de perles noires, fait l' objet d'une aquaculture florissante en Polynésie Française. Afin de pérenniser cette activité, un programme de recherche (le PGRN) a été lancé, en 1990, sur l' atoll de Takapoto. L' un des thèmes de ce programme réside dans l'étude de la capacité trophique d'un lagon soumis à une activité de perliculture. A cet égard, un modèle déterministe expliquant la croissance et la reproduction de P. margaritifera à partir des paramètres du milieu (notamment la nourriture disponible) a été mis au point. La construction de ce modèle a impliqué : ( 1) l'analyse de l'hydrobiologie du lagon; (2) l'étude de la physiologie de P. margaritifera; (3) le sui vi...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bivalves; Huîtres perlières; Pinctada margaritifera; Physiologie; Croissance; Reproduction; Hydrobiologie; Atoll; Lagon; Écosystème; Réseau trophique; Modélisation; Capacité trophique; Polynésie française; Bivalves; Pearl oyster; Pinctada ma rgaritifera; Physiology; Growth; Reproduction; Hydrobiology; Atoll; Lagoon; Ecosystem; Trophic web; Modelling; Carrying capacity; French Polynesia.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00034/14558/11856.pdf
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Etudes des activites de peche dans le golfe du Morbihan, peche professionnelle ArchiMer
Peronnet, Isabelle; Talidec, Catherine; Daures, Fabienne.
The objective of the study is to improve knowledge of coastal fishing activity in the halieutic and economic spheres. It consists of three sections: On-board professional fishing, professional shellfish gathering, and leisure fishing, this last one being the subject of an independent report (Lesueur and Drouot). The methodology applied is based on implementation of specific surveys about the ships that frequented the Gulf of Morbihan in 2001. The emphasis was placed on identifying the occupations practiced in this zone, on describing these activities and their intensity as well as on analysing the economic performance of these fleets. The management methods, regulation of shellfish gathering on listed sites as well as their impacts on the environment are...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Urshin; Clams; Shellfish; Fleets; Metiers; Fishing activities; Bay of Morbihan; Brittany; Structure de cout; Oursin; Palourde; Bivalves; Typologie; Flottilles; Metiers; Indicateurs; Activités de peche; Golfe du Morbihan.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2003/rapport-2265.pdf
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Evaluations locales des populations de bivalves dans le golfe de normand breton. Résultats de la campagne BIVALVES2002 ArchiMer
Pitel, Mathilde; Savina, Marie; Fifas, Spyros; Berthou, Patrick.
The exploited stocks of wild bivalves (common cockles, dog cockles, clams, and spisules) in the Norman-Breton gulf vary according to the fishing activity and the environmental conditions. Different studies, carried out by the Ifremer in this region (between 1982 and 1998), enabled the evaluation of the stocks available for fishing as well as the collection of data on these species (demographic structure, growth...). For more information on the 1993-1994 studies and a presentation of the site and the fishery please refer to the reports by Berthou, 1987 and Noël et al, 1995. The bivalve expedition conducted in May 2002, enabled us to update the data on the populations of dog cockles and banded carpet shells, then of spisules and clams, using the same...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bittersweet palourdi; Spisula; Clam; Brittany norman gulf; Bibalves; Brittany; Fishing; Crepidule; Amande de mer; Spisule; Praire; Palourde; Golfe normand breton; Bivalves; Bretagne; Pêche.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2004/rapport-4609.pdf
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Evolution saisonnière de la filtration de bivalves intertidaux dans des conditions naturelles ArchiMer
Deslous-paoli, Jean-marc; Heral, Maurice; Goulletquer, Philippe; Boromthanarat, Wilaiwan; Razet, Daniel; Garnier, Jacqueline; Prou, Jean; Barille, Laurent.
The study of cultivated ecosystems, once the trophic capacity ha! been determined and the molluscan stocks estimated, requires a knowledge of the evolution of the seasonal consumption of food by molluscs in natural conditions. For Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus edulis, Cerastoderma edule, Ruditapes philippinarum, the amount and quality of food have no effect on the filtration rate, except for the high load of mineraI seston. First an increase of the filtration rate was shown for Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule at the end of winter and beginning of spring. Moreover Crassostrea gigas and Ruditapes philippinarum have shown no increase or only a small summer one. This evolution did not seem to be linked with the environmental conditions (temperature,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Natural food; Bivalves; Filtration rates; Nourritures naturelles; Bivalves; Taux de filtration.
Ano: 1987 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1987/publication-3304.pdf
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Exploration fonctionnelle de gènes différentiellement exprimés entre les souches d'huîtres creuses Crassostrea gigas résistantes et sensibles à la mortalité estivale ArchiMer
Fleury, Elodie.
This work contributed to the development of specific genomic tools for the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, aiming to identify molecular markers associated with summer survival of this species. To do so, 29745 ESTs obtained from different sequencing programs were grouped in a unique database. 9058 unigenes have been used to produce a cDNA microarray, to compare lines selected to be Resistant (R) or Sensitive (S) to summer mortality. 34 genes were observed as differentially expressed before the mortality event. Most of these genes are associated with reproduction and oxidative stress. This underlines the implication of the cost of reproduction and the importance of oxidative stress defenses in development of an immune weakness before the mortality event....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Reproduction; Transforming Growth Factor b; Micorarray; Database; Summer mortality; Bivalves; Reproduction; Transforming Growth Factor b; Puce à ADN; Base de données; Mortalité estivale; Bivalves.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/these-6462.pdf
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Feeding and digestion with bivalves ArchiMer
Deslous-paoli, Jean-marc.
On the contrary to the U. S. where they represent but 4.6% of the total marine production , mollusc, principally bivalves, can no longer be considered as a marginal production. In France, 100 000 ton of oysters, 98% of which is represented by Crassostrea gigas (Héral & al., 1985) and 85 000 ton of mussels (Mytilus edulis, Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis) (Dardignac, 1985) are produced yeraly. Elsewhere, new rearings are being developed, such as pectinidae and Ruditapes philippinarum, on the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts. The species presently cultured, some of which dependiing only on natural collections (Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis while others depend on hatchery production, either partially Crasssotrea gigas in...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Ruditapes decussatus; Ostrea edulis; Mytilus edulis; Crassostrea gigas; Bivalves; Physiology; Digestion; Feeding.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1986/acte-7476.pdf
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First record of a pontoniine shrimp (Caridea, Palaemonidae) in association with a boring bivalve of the genus Spengleria (Bivalvia, Euheterodonta, Gastrochaenidae) Naturalis
Fransen, C.H.J.M.; Meij, S.E.T. van der.
During fieldwork in Raja Ampat, West Papua, Indonesia, in 2007, a pontoniine shrimp, most likely belonging to the genus Anchistus, was collected from a coral boring bivalve of the genus Spengleria. This is the first record of a pontoniine shrimp living in association with a boring bivalve. As it probably concerns a juvenile shrimp, its identity remains unclear. Its affinities with the Indo-West Pacific mollusc-associated genera and with congenerics are discussed.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Shrimps; Caridea; Palaemonidae; Bivalves; Bivalvia; Euheterodonta; Gastrochaenidae; West Papua; Indonesia.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/409048
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Herpèsvirus infectant les bivalves marins : détection, génome et transmission ArchiMer
Arzul, Isabelle.
Since 1991, high mortality rates of larvae and juveniles of different bivalve mollusc species associated with herpesvirus infections have been reported in different countries. The aim of this study was to determine if more than one helpesvirus species was responsible for these infections or just one species exhibiting polymorphism. The investigations concentrated on the analysis of the virus genome, studies of virus transmission in different mollusc species and on the potential role of bivalve adults in the occurrence of infections. The analysis of various target sequences within the virus genome present in infected larvae samples demonstrated the presence of polymorphism. More notably a variant of the virus was identified and the variation appears...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Herpèsvirus; Bivalves; Transmission; Polymorphisme; OsHV-1; Diagnostic; Herpesviruses; Bivalvia; Transmission; Polymorphism; OsHV-1; Diagnostic.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00105/21675/19253.pdf
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Infection à virus de type Herpes chez les bivalves : transmission expérimentale et induction de l'infection ArchiMer
Arzul, Isabelle.
Depuis 1991, d'importantes mortalités sont observées chez des lots de larves et de naissain d'huître creuse, Crassostrea gigas, mais également sur des lots de larves d'autres espèces de bivalve telles que, l'huître plate, Ostrea edulis, les palourdes, Ruditapes decussatus et Ruditapes philippinarum. Ces épizooties se produisent plus généralement à fortes températures en écloserie-nurserie et en période estivale dans le milieu naturel. Les techniques de détection utilisées jusqu'alors pour rechercher ces infections virales, histologie et microscopie électronique à transmission, paraissent assez inadaptées, tant du fait de leur sensibilité, du temps qu'elles nécessitent et de leur coût. Aussi, le laboratoire IFREMER de Ronce les Bains (Charente-Maritime) a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mollusques; Bivalves; Crassostrea gigas; Huître japonaise; Pathologie; Herpèsvirus; Infection; Expérimentation.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00108/21957/19551.pdf
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Infection dynamics of a V. splendidus strain pathogenic to Mytilus edulis : In vivo and in vitro interactions with hemocytes ArchiMer
Ben Cheikh, Yosra; Travers, Marie-agnes; Le Foll, Frank.
The pathogenic strain V. splendidus 10/068 1T1 has previously been reported for its virulence to the blue mussel and for its capacity to alter immune responses. In this study, we expanded the knowledge on hemocyte-pathogen interactions by using in vitro and in vivo assays. V. splendidus 10/068 1T1 severely inhibited cell adhesion and acidic vacuole formation unlike the innocuous phylogenetically related V. splendidus 12/056 M24T1 which had no effect on these cell functions. Furthermore, the virulent bacteria decreased hemocyte viability (59% of viability after 24 h). Infection dynamics were explored by using a model based on water tank cohabitation with septic mussels infected by GFP-tagged V. splendidus 10/068 1T1. Experimental infections were...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Innate immunity; Bivalves; Vibrio; Infection; Experimental model; Hemocyte.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00400/51136/53772.pdf
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