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A single bio-energetics growth and reproduction model for the oyster Crassostrea gigas in six Atlantic ecosystems ArchiMer
Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Bourles, Yves; Maurer, Daniele; Robert, Stephane; Mazurie, Joseph; Gangnery, Aline; Goulletquer, Philippe; Pouvreau, Stephane.
Many studies based on bioenergetics growth models have investigated the effects of environmental factors on oyster (Crassostrea gigas) growth and physiology. However, most of these models are site-specific and cannot be applied to other culture sites without the re-estimation of parameters or re-formulation of some processes. We aimed to develop a generic growth model suitable for application in contrasting environments, with a constant set of parameters. We tested the oyster-DEB model (Bourlès et al. 2009) for the stimulation of C. gigas growth in different cohorts (spats and adults) at major shellfish culture sites in France, in several years: Arcachon (1993–1994); Marennes-Oléron (2007); Quiberon (1999, 2000, 2001); Rade de Brest (2008); Baie du...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: DEB theory; Modelling; Bivalves; Crassostrea gigas; Phytoplankton; Temperature effect; Coastal environment..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00043/15403/12762.pdf
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Ecotoxicological effects of organotin compounds on oyster culture ArchiMer
Alzieu, Claude; Heral, Maurice.
The toxic effect of trialkyltin compounds is used in antifouling paints to protect vessels against biofouling organisrns. Tributyltin oxide (TBTO) or fluoride (TBTS) leaches by diffusion from the paint layer into the seawater. Trialkyltin compounds in aqueous solutions are resistant to hydrolysis and biodegradation, but are rapidly converted into diakyl, monoalkyl and inorganic tin by UV irradiation. As inhibiting agents of the oxidative phosphorylation, organotin compounds are extremely dangerous for aquatic organisms such as molluscs. The following estimated toxicity levels for Crassostrea gigas oyster larvae have been put forward : at 100 µg.l(1) the fecondation is inhibited, at 10 µg.l1 the already of 20 % of the eggs is affected larval development...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Toxicity; Fluoride; Tribultyltin oxide; Toxic effect; Oysters; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 1984 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1984/publication-2931.pdf
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Influence des Peintures Antisalissures a Base d'Organostanniques sur la Calcification de la Coquille de l'Huitre Crassostrea gigas. ArchiMer
Alzieu, Claude; Heral, Maurice; Thibaud, Yves; Dardignac, Marie-jose; Feuillet, Michèle.
Experiments in oyster-breeding areas where oyster Crassostrea gigas suffers from anomalies of calcification, show an obvious correlation between the importance of the malformation of shells and the vicinity of port areas where a great number of boats usually stay. Organotin compounds contained in antifouling paints, and more precisely Tributyltin fluoride (TBTF) induce, in experimental environment, similar anomalies to those observed in natural environment. The amounts of total tin in the tissues of oysters living in the vicinity of spots where organotin products are brought in, can reach high values, though they appear to decrease rapidly whereas the environmental contamination lessens. The authors suggest that results of organotin upon the mechanisms of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Pollution effects; Toxicity; Calcification; Fouling control; Paints.
Ano: 1981 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1981/publication-1898.pdf
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Evaluation des Risques dus a l'emploi des Peintures Anti-Salissures Dansales Zones Conchylicoles. ArchiMer
Alzieu, Claude; Thibaud, Yves; Heral, Maurice; Boutier, Bernard.
The boats cruising in the oyster growing areas are protected against biofouling by paints which release toxic compounds such as copper oxide and organotins into the water. After an estimation of the inputs of copper and organotins in the "Marennes-Oleron", Arcachon (Atlantic) and Thau (Mediterranean Sea) areas, their influence on larval fixation is discussed, taking into account the tributyltin toxicity against D larvae of Crassostrea gigas. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that tributyltin produces morphological abnormalities of the shell and increases tin levels in tissues, interfering with copper and zinc metabolism. The influence of yacht ports on oyster growth and shell morphology, has been demonstrated in the field. The use of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Oyster culture; Abnormalities; Shells; Growth; Paints; Antifouling substances; Pollution effects.
Ano: 1980 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1980/publication-1905.pdf
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Etude du secteur de Marennes-Oléron (partie sud du bassin charentais) : suivi de la reproduction de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas en 1999. Bilan de trois années d'observation de 1997 à 1999 ArchiMer
Arnaud, Christophe; Faury, Nicole; Bouquet, Jean-paul.
The Marennes-Oléron is a well known cupped oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and mussel (Mytilus edulis) reproduction area. Every year, a monitoring of the reproduction of these two species is carried out on behalf of the Regional Shellfish Culture Section of Marennes-Oléron. This monitoring aims to determine the periods of larval emission in order to let the professionals know about the best collection times This study presents the main results obtained in 1999 and compares them with those obtained in 1997 and 1998. The year 1999 showed good results as far as larval emission and development are concerned in both oysters and mussels. The comparison of the three consecutive years shows the disparity of larval evolutions.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marennes Oléron; Captage; Larves; Mytilus edulis; Moules; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres; Reproduction.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1999/rapport-6571.pdf
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Suivi de la reproduction des huîtres - Saison 1998 ArchiMer
Arnaud, Christophe; Faury, Nicole; Bouquet, Jean-paul.
Le suivi de la reproduction des huîtres s'est déroulé du 22 juin au 3 septembre 1998. Six points du bassin de Marennes-Oléron sont à nouveau concernés : En Charente: La Mouclière et Les Palles. Au centre du Bassin: Les Doux et Mérignac; En Seudre: Coux et les Faulx. Cette opération est contractualisée avec la Section Régionale de Marennes-Oléron.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Reproduction; Larves; Huîtres; Crassostrea gigas; Bassin de Marennes Oléron.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00049/16067/13528.pdf
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Suivi de la reproduction de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas et de la moule Mytilus edulis dans le bassin de Marennes Oléron ArchiMer
Arnaud, Christophe; Faury, Nicole; Bouquet, Jean-paul; Guesdon, Stephane; Kantin, Roger.
The monitoring of the reproduction of Crassostrea gigas, and more occasionally that of the mussel Mytilus edulis, is carried out in the Marennes-Oléron Basin, each year, from June through to September. This report presents the main results obtained in 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 and compares them. It also recalls the techniques used and provides, in appendix, some bibliographic information on larval development.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Marennes Oléron; Captage; Larves; Reproduction; Mytilus edulis; Moules; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2000/rapport-6569.PDF
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Etude du Secteur de Fouras (Partie Nord du Bassin Charentais) : Suivi de la reproduction de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas en 1998 - Bilan de dix années d'observation de 1989 à 1998 ArchiMer
Arnaud, Christophe; Fillon, Alain.
Le littoral charentais-maritime présente, dans sa partie nord entre l'estuaire de la Charente et la limite nord du département (île de Ré comprise), plusieurs sites intéressant l'ostréiculture pour le captage de juvéniles, dont le centre réputé de Fouras. Pour aider la profession, et selon son souhait, une assistance est fournie par l'IFREMER qui recherche les périodes d'émission de larves d'huîtres creuses afin d'informer les ostréiculteurs des époques les plus propices au captage. Contractualisé pour la première fois en 1996, puis en 1997, entre la SRC RE-CENTRE-QUEST et l'IFREMER, ce travail a été effectué à nouveau en 1998, par le laboratoire côtier DEL de La Rochelle et par la SRC, suite au renouvellement de ce contrat. La nouveauté de cette année est...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Reproduction; Naissain; Huître creuse; Crassostrea gigas; Fouras; Charente-Maritime.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00074/18492/16035.pdf
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Suivi de la reproduction de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas dans la partie Nord du bassin charentais - Année 1997 ArchiMer
Arnaud, Christophe; Fillon, Alain.
Le littoral charentais-maritime présente, dans sa partie nord entre l'estuaire de la Charente et la limite nord du département (île de Ré comprise), plusieurs sites intéressant l'ostréiculture pour le captage de juvéniles, dont le centre réputé de Fouras. Pour aider la profession, et selon son souhait, une assistance est fournie par l' IFREMER qui recherche les périodes d'émission de larves d'huîtres creuses afin d'informer les ostréiculteurs des époques les plus propices au captage. Contractualisé pour la première fois en 1996 entre la SRC RE-CENTRE OUEST et l' IFREMER, ce travail a été effectué à nouveau en 1997 par le laboratoire côtier DEL de La Rochelle, suite au renouvellement de ce contrat. Le présent rapport expose les différents aspects de ce...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Reproduction; Larves; Crassostrea gigas; Charente Maritime.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00049/16068/13529.pdf
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Suivi de la reproduction de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas dans la partie nord du bassin charentais ArchiMer
Arnaud, Christophe; Fillon, Alain.
The Charente-Maritime coast has, on its northern part, between the Charente estuary and the northern boundary of the department (Isle of Ré included), many sites which interest the oyster culture industry, especially as far as juvenile collection is concerned. The well-known centre of Fouras is one of them. To help the professionals, and for its own purposes, the Ifremer studies the periods of emission of cupped oyster larvae in order to let the oyster farmers know about the best collection times. Contractualized for the first time in 1996 between the SRC FIE-Centre Ouest and the Ifremer, this work has been carried out again in 1997 by the DEL coastal laboratory of La Rochelle, following the renewal of this contract. This report presents the different...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Captage; Marennes Oléron; Crassostrea gigas; Larves; Reproduction.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1998/rapport-6568.PDF
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Infection à virus de type Herpes chez les bivalves : transmission expérimentale et induction de l'infection ArchiMer
Arzul, Isabelle.
Depuis 1991, d'importantes mortalités sont observées chez des lots de larves et de naissain d'huître creuse, Crassostrea gigas, mais également sur des lots de larves d'autres espèces de bivalve telles que, l'huître plate, Ostrea edulis, les palourdes, Ruditapes decussatus et Ruditapes philippinarum. Ces épizooties se produisent plus généralement à fortes températures en écloserie-nurserie et en période estivale dans le milieu naturel. Les techniques de détection utilisées jusqu'alors pour rechercher ces infections virales, histologie et microscopie électronique à transmission, paraissent assez inadaptées, tant du fait de leur sensibilité, du temps qu'elles nécessitent et de leur coût. Aussi, le laboratoire IFREMER de Ronce les Bains (Charente-Maritime) a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mollusques; Bivalves; Crassostrea gigas; Huître japonaise; Pathologie; Herpèsvirus; Infection; Expérimentation.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00108/21957/19551.pdf
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Transmission expérimentale du virus de type herpes chez l'huître creuse, Crassostrea gigas ArchiMer
Arzul, Isabelle.
Au cours de l'été 1991, d'importantes mortalités de larves d'huître creuse, Crassostrea gigas, ont été observées dans des écloseries, simultanément en France (Comps et Cochennec, 1993) et en Nouvelle-Zélande (Hine & al., 1992). Les examens histologiques ainsi que des examens réalisés en microscopie électronique à transmission d'échantillons de larves présentant des mortalités ont permis de détecter la présence de particules virales associées à des lésions cellulaires. D'après la morphologie, la taille, les localisations intranucléaires et cytoplasmiques du virus, il est possible d'envisager son appartenance à la famille des Herpesviridae. De nouvelles mortalités sporadiques ont été observées au cours des étés suivants sur des lots de larves élevées...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Virus; Herpesviridae; Bivalve; Crassostrea gigas; Etiologie; Epidémiologie; Diagnostic; Reproduction infection.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00106/21711/19289.pdf
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Evidence for interspecies transmission of oyster herpesvirus in marine bivalves ArchiMer
Arzul, Isabelle; Renault, Tristan; Lipart, Cécile; Davison, Andrew.
Since 1991, numerous herpesvirus infections associated with high mortality have been reported around the world in various marine bivalve species. In order to determine whether these infections are due to ostreid herpesvirus-l (OsHV1), a previously characterized pathogen of the Japanese oyster (Crassostrea gigas), PCR analysis was carried out on 30 samples of larvae collected from four bivalve species (C. gigas, Ostrea edulis, Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum), most exhibiting mortality prior to collection. All samples were shown to be infected by OsHV1. Viral genomes in three samples of C. gigas and three of R. philippinarum that originated from the same hatchery were unusual in bearing a deletion of at least 2.8 kbp in an inverted repeat...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bivalve; Crassostrea gigas; Herpesvirus; Japanese oyster; Transmission.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2001/publication-705.pdf
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Detection of oyster herpesvirus DNA and proteins in asymptomatic Crassostrea gigas adults ArchiMer
Arzul, Isabelle; Renault, Tristan; Thebault, Anne; Gerard, Andre.
Since 1972, several herpes-like virus infections have been reported among different bivalve species around the world. Most of these reports involved larvae or juveniles presenting high mortalities. Two case reports of herpes-like viruses concerned adult oysters, Crassostrea virginica in USA and Ostrea angasi in Australia. Molecular techniques including PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) have been recently developed to detect the oyster herpesvirus genome. In the present study, 30 Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, adults have been analyzed using three different techniques: PCR, ISH and immunochemistry, in order to detect herpesviruses in asymptomatic individuals. PCR and ISH allowed detection of oyster herpesvirus DNA in 93.3 and 86.6%, respectively, of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Protein; DNA; Healthy carrier; Adult oyster; Crassostrea gigas; Herpesvirus.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2002/publication-697.pdf
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Optimisation des approches de gynogenèse chez l'huître creuse, Crassostrea gigas en utilisant l'inactivation du sperme par les UV ArchiMer
Assati, Sabrina.
La gynogenèse est un mode de reproduction dans lequel l'action du spermatozoïde se limite à l'activation de l'ovocyte. Le génome mâle est inactivé génétiquement suite à une irradiation aux rayons UV. Il y a deux gynogenèses : la méïogynogenèse et la mitogynogenèse. Le but de cette étude a été d'optimiser les paramètres induisant ces deux gynogenèses. Les traitements d'inactivation du sperme ainsi que de rétablissement de la diploïdie ont été optimisés. Le traitement aux rayons UV le mieux adapté à l'inactivation du sperme est de 40 secondes. L'agent antimitotique permettant efficacement l'induction de la diploïdie est la CB. La viabilité des individus issus de gynogenèse a été démontrée. Les naissains issus de méïogynogenèse et mitogynogenèse sont arrivés...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Gynogenèse; Méïogynogenèse; Mitogynogenèse; Crassostrea gigas; Cytochalasine B; 6-DMAP; Cytométrie en flux; Lignée clonale; Irradiation UV.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00369/48022/48108.pdf
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Etude des mouvements calciques dans les hémocytes de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas : 1ères approches expérimentales ArchiMer
Aton, Emilie.
Les cultures de mollusques bivalves sont continuellement exposées à des variations de facteurs d'origine naturelle (variation de la salinité et de température) ou anthropique (métaux lourds, HAP, phytosanitaires) susceptibles d'altérer les systèmes de défense des mollusques bivalves. Ces altérations expliqueraient, dans certains cas, leur sensibilité vis à vis de certains pathoègnes marins et pourraient, en partie, être à l'origine des épisodes de mortalité massive observés périodiquement chez des populations larvaires d'huîtres et de moules. C'est pourquoi de nombreuses études concernant l'immunotoxicité des polluants sont actuellement en cours. Le calcium est un second messager ubiquitaire connu pour assurer la transduction de très nombreux signaux...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Huître creuse; Crassostrea gigas; Hémocytes; Calcium; Transfert calcique; Impact polluant.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00032/14336/11615.pdf
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Etude des mouvements calciques dans les hémocytes de l'huître creuse Crassostrea gigas lors de leur immunostimulation : 1ères approches expérimentales ArchiMer
Aton, Emilie; Cognard, C.; Renault, Tristan; Thomas-guyon, Hélène; Imbert, N..
Bivalve mollusc farms are continuously exposed to variations of factors either natural (variation of salinity and temperature) or from man (heavy metals, HAP, phytosanitary) likely to alter the defence systems of bivalve molluscs. These alterations would explain, in certain cases, their sensitivity vis-à-vis certain marine pathogens and could in part be at the source of the episodes of massive mortalities seen periodically in oyster and mussel larval populations. That is why many studies concerning the contaminants' immunotoxicity are currently in progress.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Polluant; Calicum; Hemocytes; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2003/acte-2855.pdf
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A flow cytometric approach to study intracellular-free Ca2+ in Crassostrea gigas haemocytes ArchiMer
Aton, Emilie; Renault, Tristan; Gagnaire, Beatrice; Thomas Guyon, Hélène; Cognard, C; Imbert, N.
Bivalve haemocytes are essential in defence mechanisms including phagocytosis. They also produce molecules including hydrolytic enzymes and antimicrobial peptides that contribute to pathogen destruction. Although haemocyte activities have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about the intracellular signalling pathways that are evoked during haemocyte activation and especially the role of calcium. Flow cytometry has been used for the first time to define the effect of cell incubation in haemolymph and artificial sea water (ASW) on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, haemocytes. Cell viability, enzymatic activities (esterases and amino peptidases), phagocytosis and granulocyte percentage were analysed. Viability and some activities were...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Cellular activities; Fluo 3/AM; Calcium; Flow cytometry; Haemocytes; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/publication-935.pdf
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Reproduction de l'huître creuse dans le bassin d'Arcachon, Année 2006 ArchiMer
Auby, Isabelle; Maurer, Daniele; Cassam Chenai, Yoann; Tournaire, Marie-pierre; Neaud-masson, Nadine; Rumebe, Myriam; Cantin, Christian; Debort, Henriette; Germain, Jean-marie; Navarro, Romuald.
Introduction: During each summer season, the IFREMER laboratory of Arcachon monitors, within the framework of the agreement with the Arcachon- Aquitaine Shellfish Farming Regional Section (SRC), the reproduction of cup oysters in the Arcachon basin. This monitoring has as its goal to furnish oyster farmers with the information needed to implement spat catches: - dates and size of egg clutches, - larvae development rate, - presence in the environment of more evolved stages (close to fixation). Reproduction was monitored between mid-June and mid-September, plankton was fished four times per week at the various sites representative of the basin. Oyster larvae at various stages are enumerated there. At the end of the reproductive season (September to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Crassostrea gigas; Larvae collection; Spat oyster; Larvae development; Reproduction; Arcachon Bassin; Ostreidae; Crassostrea Gigas; Bivalvia; Mollusca; Aquaculture; Naissain; Captage Larve; Developpement Larvaire; Maturation; Reproduction.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/rapport-2216.pdf
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Etude comparée de la croissance de Crassostrea gigas Thunberg dans trois rivières du Morbihan ArchiMer
Auger, Christian; Grizel, Henri; Tige, Gilbert; Langlade, Aime; Rabouin, Marie-agnès.
Breeding Crassostrea gigas was conducted in three rivers of Morbihan (Brittany France). During one year, every four months, their increasement was examined. In one of these rivers, oysters showed, however their age and their origin, an abnormal increasement. Shells were very thick, with many chambers. At the opposite, in the two others rivers, oysters did not show that disordered state. Shells were sound and their linear increasement was harmonious
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Coquilles; Physiologie; Crassostrea gigas; Huîtres.
Ano: 1977 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1977/acte-6245.PDF
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