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Enlargement of the European Union: A movement towards the optimal trade bloc size? AgEcon
Glebe, Thilo W..
This paper analyses how the enlargement of a trade bloc will affect national welfare. We establish a partial equilibrium model of a trade bloc either operating as a monopoly with a competitive fringe or facing a duopolistic game in production taxes/subsidies. Given this framework, we demonstrate how member countries’ welfare effects depend on their trade flow and the market power of the trade bloc. A numerical estimation of the effects of EU enlargement on the major grain crop markets suggests that welfare effects are negligible. Economic reasons are therefore unlikely to be a motivating force for further enlargement.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Trade bloc; Trade liberalisation; Game theory; European Union; International Relations/Trade; D42; F11; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58061
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Enlargement of Trade Blocs: National Welfare Effects If Trade Is Liberalized AgEcon
Glebe, Thilo W.; Salhofer, Klaus.
Small countries may benefit from the formation of a trade bloc, since their combined market power will enable them to manipulate the terms of trade. The question of interest is whether countries will benefit from the enlargement of a trading bloc, if trade liberalization induces countries to substitute domestic support measures for conventional border protection. The paper deals with this question by analyzing the conditions for positive welfare effects resulting from the enlargement of a trade bloc. Based on a partial equilibrium trade model, we consider a game in production taxes/subsidies between two trade blocs. The tax/subsidy instrument may capture the production effect which can be induced by a combination of environmental, health or safety rules....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade bloc; Trade liberalization; Game theory; European Union; International Relations/Trade; D6; F11; Q17; C7.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25529
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Erhebung zu Bio-Marktdaten in Europa – Datenlücken, Klassifizierungen, Definitionen und Qualitätschecks Organic Eprints
Schaack, Diana; Willer, Helga.
One of the aims of the EU-funded OrganicDataNetwork project is to collect, store in a common format and provide access to currently available data on organic markets in Europe. Two surveys on production, retail sales, international trade data were carried out. The surveys have shown that a wide range of data is available but a number of challenges need to be tackled in the future. These challenges include lack of data, non-timeliness and incompleteness of data, as well as classification issues as – other than with the area and production data – almost every country uses a different classification/nomenclature for retail sales, export and import data. Other issues include non-harmonised definitions and data quality. For the first time, organic market data...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Markets and trade; European Union.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/27166/1/27166_schaack.pdf
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Estimating the economic performance of the EU aquaculture sector ArchiMer
Guillen, Jordi; Natale, Fabrizio; Fernandez Polanco, Jose M., Jose M..
Despite the growing importance and high priority assigned by the EU policy makers to the development of aquaculture, little attention has been given to analyze the economic performance of the sector at EU level. Recently, the profitability of the EU aquaculture sector has been estimated by the European Commission’s Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF). However, the few studies that have estimated the profitability of the EU aquaculture sector show sometimes divergent results. In this paper, the economic performance of the EU aquaculture sector is analyzed by country, segment and main species for the years 2006, 2009 and 2010 using financial and accounting data extracted from the Amadeus database and results are compared to...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Economic performance; European Union; EBIT; Profit margin; ROI; Profitability.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00252/36349/34889.pdf
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Etude comparative des coefficients de conversion utilisés pour estimer le poids vif des captures des flottilles de pêche de l'Union ArchiMer
Caillart, Benoït; Borel, Gidas; Merrien, Claude.
Conversion coefficients are the factors used in estimating the live-weight equivalent of fish caught. Live weight is the only measure used in catch statistics, being the basis in particular for monitoring the drawdown of quotas and estimates of the state of stocks. The study looked first at how figures on catches in live-weight equivalent are gathered, validated and calculated in three Member States, namely Denmark, France and the United Kingdom. These three countries employ related methods involving the database storage of sales data together with details of the presentation of the fish. The information in logbooks is mainly used as a cross-check on the sales data. If sales data are not available, logbook details are entered raw in the catch databases....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: European Union; Fleet of fishing; State of stocks; Quota; Statistic; Fish caught; Conversion coeffcient; Union européenne; Flotille de pêche; Etat des stocks; Quota; Statistique; Capture; Coeffcient de conversion.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1996/rapport-1640.pdf
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EU organic farming legislation and its development Organic Eprints
Sanders, Jürn; Schmid, Otto.
EU organic farming legislation and its development.
Tipo: Report chapter Palavras-chave: European Union; Regulation.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/28808/1/sanders-schmid-2013-market-and-income-report-chap3_en.pdf
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EU Policy-Making: Reform of the CAP and EU Trade in Beef & Dairy with Developing Countries AgEcon
Halderman, Michael; Nelson, Michael Byron.
The present study is part of the PPLPI effort to identify significant political and institutional factors and processes that currently hinder or prevent the poor in developing countries from taking greater advantage of opportunities to benefit from livestock. The study examines the political economy of policy-making concerning trade in livestock and livestock products (LLPs) between the European Union (EU) and developing countries (DCs). The main objective is to determine and assess how relevant EU policy is made, including the role of key actors and forces both domestic and international. The political economy of relevant LLP trade-related issues are examined at four levels: (a) the EU member state, (b) the European Union itself, (c) the international...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: European Union; Common Agricultural Policy (CAP); Policy Making; Trade; Developing Countries; Livestock; Beef; Dairy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23758
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EU Water Governance: Striking the Right Balance between Regulatory Flexibility and Enforcement? Ecology and Society
Green, Olivia O; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; green.olivia@epa.gov; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; garmestani.ahjond@epa.gov; van Rijswick, Helena F. M. W.; Centre for Environmental Law and Policy, Utrecht University; H.vanRijswick@law.uu.nl; Keessen, Andrea M.; Centre for Environmental Law and Policy, Utrecht University; a.m.keessen@uu.nl.
Considering the challenges and threats currently facing water management and the exacerbation of uncertainty by climate change, the need for flexible yet robust and legitimate environmental regulation is evident. The European Union took a novel approach toward sustainable water resource management with the passage of the EU Water Framework Directive in 2000. The Directive promotes sustainable water use through long-term protection of available water resources, progressively reduces discharges of hazardous substances in ground and surface waters, and mitigates the effects of floods and droughts. The lofty goal of achieving good status of all waters requires strong adaptive capacity, given the large amounts of uncertainty in water management. Striking the...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed article Palavras-chave: Adaptive governance; Environmental law; European Union; Resilience; Water Framework Directive.
Ano: 2013
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Europe and the EU: IRS contribution for the 2003 Organic Food and Farming Report Organic Eprints
Padel, Susanne; Olmos, Santiago.
Organic and in-conversion land area in the EU-15 has grown in 2002 to approximately 5.1m hectares and 3.6 per cent of utilisable agricultural area on 165,500 holdings. In this period land area grew by an estimated 10 per cent with increases in the number of farms at 6 per cent. The EU Commission has recognised the importance of organic farming in encouraging more environmentally farming methods has taken further steps to improve policy support. A consultation for the development of an EU Action Plan for organic farming took place during 2002 and the publication of further steps is expected at the end of 2003. These developments were in some way driven by a high profile policy conference organised by the Danish Government in May 2001. Other EU policy...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; European Union.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/11014/1/sa_2003_organic_farming_in_europe.pdf
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Europe: Current Statistics Organic Eprints
Willer, Helga; Schaack, Diana; Schlatter, Bernhard; Lernoud, Julia.
In this article, key area and operator data about organic farming in Europe and the European Union are presented. > In Europe, 11.2 million hectares were under organic agricultural management, constituting 2.2 percent of the agricultural area. Compared with 2003 (6.3 million hectares), the organic land has almost doubled. In 2012, the area increased by 0.63 million hectares or six percent. > In the countries of the European Union, there were almost 10 million hectares in 2012, constituting 5.6 percent of the agricultural land. Compared with 2003 (5.7 million hectares), the organic land increased by 75 percent. In 2012, the area increased by 0.54 million hectares or six percent. > The country with the largest organic agricultural area is Spain...
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: European Union; Europe.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/25255/1/Willer-et-al-2014-2014-03-05-online.pdf
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European Food Quality Policy: The Importance of Geographical Indications, Organic Certification and Food Quality Assurance Schemes in European Countries AgEcon
Becker, Tilman C..
In the early 1990s reform of the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy led to a change in emphasis away from price into policies to promote rural development, in part through improvements to food quality. Geographic indicators are only one of a range of EU policies designed to foster these goals. Geographic indicators are put within the context of the wider quality enhancement policies that include quality assurance schemes and organic production. There appears to be considerable regional differences within the EU when it comes to the use of the various quality-enhancing policies available. The member states of the EU can be grouped into four different clusters, each characterized by a different quality policy strategy.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: European Union; Food quality; Geographic indicators; Regional differences; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48796
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European Information System for Organic Markets Organic Eprints
EISfOM is an European Concerted Action (CA), which aims to build up a framework for reporting valid and reliable data for relevant production and market data about the European organic sector in order to meet the needs of policy makers, farmers, processors, wholesalers and other actors involved in organic markets.In the project existing information collection systems in 32 countries will be analysed. Proposals will be made for developing new or enlarging existing data collection and processing systems. The proposals will be the basis for developing a Quality Management System (QMS) for ensuring data quality. Aims and achievements A presentations of the aims and major outputs of the concerted action. Work plan and workpackages A...
Tipo: Project description Palavras-chave: Europe; European Union; Markets and trade; Surveys and statistics.
Ano: 2020
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European Union Agricultural Policy Institutions and Decision Making Processes AgEcon
Vaughan, Odette; Tanguay, Luc; Gilmour, Brad.
This note examines European Union (EU) institutions and policy making processes in relation to its agriculture and food sector. With a market comprised of 495 million people across 27 countries and a comprehensive agricultural policy accounting for the largest share of the EU budget, how the EU policy environment functions is important to Canada. Decisions are made at the supranational EU level for agriculture, fisheries, trade, and regional development, while decision-making related to other policies occurs at the individual country level or through a system of inter-governmental cooperation. Decision-making occurs in three institutions: the Commission, the Council and the Parliament. Agriculture negotiations typically begin with a text drafted by the...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: European Union; Agriculture; Policy; Institution; Legislation; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55322
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European Union Grain Export Practices: Do They Constitute a State Trading Enterprise? AgEcon
Rude, James; Annand, Mel.
One of the disciplines for State Trading Enterprises (STEs), with respect to the WTO, is the requirement to notify the WTO of all endeavors that fit the definition of an STE. This study argues that the European Union’'s system of grain interventions and export refunds fits the WTO'’s definition of an STE. First, a system of agencies that work together for a common purpose can be considered to be an enterprise. Second, the constituents of Europe’'s grain intervention enterprise receive exclusive and special rights to export grain. Third, the grain intervention system has decisive voice over the timing, quantity and destination of exports. For these reasons the system should be notified to the WTO as an STE.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: State Trading Enterprises; European Union; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23920
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Europeʼs new logo for organic food Organic Eprints
Paull, John.
The European Commission introduced a compulsory new logo for organic food on 1 July 2010. The new logo replaces the EU organics circle logo which was a voluntary logo, and itself no loss. The new logo is mandated on all organic products packaged in the EU. The logo design is described as stars in a leaf pattern. It is a green rectangle with the stars reversed out. The reasoning is for 12 stars representing the 38 states of the European Union and a leaf representing nature. In the mind’s eye of a few Eurocrats, the formula is ‘Stars + Leaf = Europe + Nature = Organics’. The logo is accompanied by two lines of code; the first for the certification and the second for the origin of the ingredients. National organics and certifier logos can still be used - the...
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: European Union; Knowledge management; Regulation.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/19514/1/Paull2011EUlogoAcres.pdf
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Evaluating EU Agricultural Policy Reform Using the EU WTO Model AgEcon
Stout, Jim; Leetmaa, Susan E.; Normile, Mary Anne.
This paper provides an overview of the European Union component of the recently developed ERS/Penn State WTO Model. The model is a multi-region, multi-commodity partial equilibrium trade model which allows the user to simulate the effects of reducing or eliminating tariffs and TRQs, export subsidies, and domestic support policies. The paper describes how the model captures the important agricultural policies of the EU, and presents results from model simulations of domestic support liberalization, export subsidy elimination, and tariff removal.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: WTO; Agricultural trade; Domestic support; Export subsidy; European Union; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24941
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EVALUATION OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES FAILURES WITHIN THE 2007-13 REGIONAL POLICY FRAME AgEcon
Sanchez Arenas, F.; Real, Ramos E..
New 2007-13 planning framework of the EU keeps using economic criteria (GDP) to identify those regions requiring priority attention (convergence objective). Although these criteria are useful for the overall Regional Policy, nevertheless it might result some planning failures of the strategies of rural development. This work focuses in evaluating possible failures of the Rural Development Programmes. For this purpose, a wide range of member Estates and Regions has been selected and two analysis have been applied: first, the coherence analysis (in relation to the economic, social and environmental situation of territories); and second, the conflict (among the rural territories development objectives) analysis. As result of this evaluation, a typology of the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural Development Programmes; Regional Policy; European Union; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44433
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EVOLUÇÃO DAS EXPORTAÇÕES, COMÉRCIO INTRASETORIAL E IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS DOS NEGÓCIOS INTERNACIONAIS DE MADEIREIRA BRASILEIRA AgEcon
Almeida, Rachel Silva; Carvalho, Rosemeiry Melo; Mera, Ruben Dario Mayorga.
O Brasil é importante exportador de madeira do mundo, tendo como principais mercados de destino os Estados Unidos e a União Européia. Desse modo, nesse estudo pretende-se estimar as equações de oferta e demanda por exportação madeireira do Brasil para os Estados Unidos e a União Européia; identificar as fontes de comércio madeireiro do Brasil nos seus principais mercados de destino; e, verificar o efeito do comércio internacional madeireiro sobre a taxa de desmatamento das florestas do Brasil. De acordo com os resultados obtidos verificou-se que a demanda e a oferta de madeira brasileira da União Européia são inelásticas em relação ao preço. Por outro lado, no mercado norte americano a demanda é elástica, enquanto a oferta é inelástica. Adicionalmente, um...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Comércio; Madeira; Brasil; União Européia; Estados Unidos; Trade; Wood; Brazil; European Union; United States; International Relations/Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/108847
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Expansion of Mercosur's Agricultural Exports to the EU: An Empirical Assessment of the Trade Flows AgEcon
Niemi, Jyrki S.; Huan-Niemi, Ellen; Ledebur, Oliver von; Salamon, Petra.
This paper provides new evidence on income and price elasticities of demand for agricultural exports from Mercosur countries to the EU. Econometric models are constructed for eight agricultural commodities - beef, cocoa, coffee, orange juice, poultry, sugar, soya and wheat - exported from Mercosur to the EU. A modelling approach based on the error correction mechanism is used in order to emphasise the importance of the dynamics of trade functions. The results indicate that there is a relatively weak demand response to income and price changes in the EU. However, the results also suggest that relative-price variations affect significantly the demand for Mercosur commodity exports, implying that the exporter's market share is influenced by price...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; European Union; Mercosur; Econometric models; Cointegration; International Relations/Trade; C22; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24606
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Exploiting Soil-Management Strategies for Climate Mitigation in the European Union: Maximizing “Win–Win” Solutions across Policy Regimes Ecology and Society
Henriksen, Christian Bugge; Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen; cbh@life.ku.dk; Hussey, Karen; The Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University; karen.hussey@anu.edu.au; Holm, Peter E.; Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen; peho@life.ku.dk.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has identified a number of soil-management strategies that can be implemented to reduce GHG emissions. However, before deciding which of these strategies are most appropriate in any given situation, it is important to investigate how these strategies affect other aspects of sustainable development. For instance, some attempts to sequester carbon in the landscape could alter the soil’s capacity to filter water. Alternatively, other strategies could unintentionally increase net energy consumption through greater fertilizer use. Focusing specifically on opportunities to implement soil-management strategies in the European Union (EU), we discuss the synergies and trade-offs of those strategies with...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Climate Action and Energy Package; Climate change mitigation; Common Agricultural Policy; Energy security; European Union; Greenhouse gas emissions; Soil management; Water Framework Directive.
Ano: 2011
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