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WTO, AGRICULTURE AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A SURVEY OF ISSUES AgEcon
Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio; Robinson, Sherman; Thomas, Marcelle; Yanoma, Yukitsugu.
The objective of this paper is to present a survey of trade issues in agriculture from the perspective of developing countries. Developing countries are a large percentage of the World Trade Organization (WTO) membership, and agriculture is critical for their economic growth, poverty alleviation, food security, and environmental sustainability. First, this paper identifies trends in production, consumption, and trade of food and agriculture over the last four decades. Some of the significant developments food and agricultural trade is the emergence of oilseeds and fruits and vegetables, which are becoming the main exports from developing countries, replacing traditional exports such as sugar, coffee and cocoa. The trends show also a worsening of developing...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16278
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WTO COMPATIBILITY OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY CHANGE IN NORTH AMERICA AgEcon
Josling, Timothy E..
The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) imposed significant constraints on domestic farm policy in the three North American countries, as it did in other parts of the developed world. This paper considers the nature of those constraints, the compatibility of recent policy changes with the letter and the spirit of the URAA, and the position taken by the three North American countries in the agricultural component of the current Doha round of negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO). Some tentative conclusions are reached on the impact that agreement on a package similar to that contained in the recent Harbinson draft text would have on the agricultural policies of Canada, Mexico and the US.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16809
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WTO Constraints and the CAP: Domestic Support in EU-25 Agriculture AgEcon
Butault, Jean-Pierre; Bureau, Jean-Christophe.
The most recent EU notifications to the World Trade Organization regarding domestic support refer to the EU-15, i.e. before significant reforms of the direct payments as well as reforms of the Mediterranean products, hops, sugar, etc. that took place after 2003. We estimate the actual level of domestic support, as measured by WTO Aggregate Measure of Support (AMS), given the 2004 EU enlargement and the recent reforms of the Common agricultural policy. We then compare the different proposals for a new discipline on domestic support that were recently issued under the Doha Development Round and we assess the constraints imposed on the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The EU proposal prior to the 2005 Hong Kong WTO ministerial meeting involved that the EU...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18879
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WTO Constraints on U.S. and EU Domestic Support in Agriculture: Assessing the October 2005 Proposals AgEcon
Brink, Lars.
Proposals on domestic support were submitted in the WTO agriculture negotiations by the USA, the EU, and the G-20 in October 2005, based on the 2004 Framework agreement. This paper pays attention to the de minimis rules and the resulting de minimis allowances and projects future (2014) distorting support for the USA and the EU-15. It calculates the constraints resulting from projected values of production combined with the U.S., EU and G-20 proposals and compares their effectiveness in constraining components of distorting support and the projected future applied support. The de minimis rules make a difference in estimating how much distorting support can be provided in the future. Under the U.S. proposal the Overall commitment does not constrain either...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14601
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WTO Constraints on U.S. and EU Domestic Support in Agriculture: The October 2005 Proposals AgEcon
Brink, Lars.
The USA, the EU and the G-20 submitted proposals on domestic support in the WTO agriculture negotiations in October 2005. This research projects future support, allowances and constraints for the USA and the EU under these proposals. Accounting properly for the de minimis rules generates a "maximum usable components" constraint, which, even when added to the cap on blue, can be more constraining than the new overall commitment. The overall commitment under the U.S. proposal constrains neither the USA nor the EU in the future. However, the overall commitment under the EU and G 20 proposals constrains both the USA and the EU to provide less future overall support than the sum of the cap on blue and maximum usable components. In general the three proposals...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; AMS; De minimis; Domestic support; Overall reduction; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23822
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WTO Constraints on U.S. and EU Domestic Support in Agriculture: The October 2005 Proposals: Technical Annex AgEcon
Brink, Lars.
This document is the technical annex to the full paper "WTO Constraints on U.S. and EU Domestic Support in Agriculture: The October 2005 Proposals" which is available separately.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23826
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WTO Discipline and the CAP: the Constraints on the EU Sugar Sector AgEcon
Gohin, Alexandre; Bureau, Jean-Christophe.
The various assessments of the effects of a liberalization of world sugar markets are inconsistent with each other. One cause seems to be the modeling of the EU supply response. We investigate three possible linkages between sugar production under quota and the out-of-quota or "C" sugar supply: i/ the existence of fixed costs covered by the in-quota sugar; ii / the "overshooting" behavior as prevention against poor yields; iii/ the production of C sugar as "reference building" in view of expected reforms. Modeling these effects results in the introduction of an implicit crosssubsidy between in-quota sugar and C sugar. The resulting specification is included in a detailed model of the EU agricultural sector so as to account for intersectoral linkages. We...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Common agricultural policy; Sugar; General equilibrium models; WTO; International Relations/Trade; D58; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18872
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WTO Doha Round: Impact of an Agreement on Agriculture and the Importance of Sensitive Products AgEcon
Binfield, Julian C.R.; Donnellan, Trevor; Hanrahan, Kevin F.; Westhoff, Patrick C..
The Doha round of WTO negotiations has been ongoing since 2001. In the summer of 2008 the negotiations on the modalities for a new WTO agriculture agreement collapsed when seemingly on the verge of a successful conclusion. In this paper we present quantitative analysis of the impact of a new WTO agreement undertaken using a partial equilibrium model of Irish and EU agriculture. Results are presented on the agreement’s impact on Irish and EU-27 agriculture markets and on Irish agricultural sector incomes. Our analysis highlights the importance of the Baseline counter-factual, and will illustrate that protection afforded by the conferral of sensitive product status differs from commodity to commodity. The paper will draw conclusions concerning the economic...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: WTO; Agriculture; Policy analysis; Partial equilibrium modelling; Baseline; Scenario analysis; Tariffs; Tariff rate quota; Sensitive products; International Relations/Trade; Q11; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50936
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WTO, FTA and Seeking Common Agricultural Policy in Asia AgEcon
Honma, Masayoshi.
This article examines the current stage of WTO negotiations on agriculture and discusses the power structure in major players in the negotiations. The difficulty to reach agreement in WTO leads many counties to FTA for further liberalization in trade. But agricultural sector tends to be a stumbling block there also. To discuss agricultural issues in FTA three countries of China, Japan and Korea are selected for an example of a multiple country FTA in Asia. Examined are how agricultural should be treated and possibility of substantially including agricultural sector in China-Japan-Korea FTA. Despite the difficulties, agricultural sector should be included in the list of tariff reductions for the C-J-K FTA. It is a good opportunity for reforming agricultural...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: WTO negotiations; FTA and agriculture; Globalization; C-J-K FTA; Common Agricultural Policy in Asia; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25539
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WTO Impacts on US Rice Producing Households AgEcon
Keeney, Roman; Beckman, Jayson F..
We investigate distributional impacts of WTO reforms on US rice producers. Model results show that rice producer's household income is very sensitive to the amount of market access achieved in export markets and the depth of subsidy cuts in the US, largely explaining the US negotiating position in the WTO.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34812
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WTO Negotiations on Market Access in Agriculture: A Comparison of Alternative Tariff Cut Scenarios for the EU and the US AgEcon
Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Salvatici, Luca.
This paper provides a summary measure of the possible new commitments in the area of market access undertaken by the European Union and the United States, using the Trade Restrictiveness Index (TRI) as the tariff aggregator. Indicators such as the TRI, based on welfare theory, integrate economic behavioural assumptions within a balance of trade framework. We take the 2000 bound tariffs as the starting point and attempt to assess how much liberalisation in agriculture could be achieved in the European Union and the United States as a result of the present negotiations. We compute the index for agricultural commodity aggregates assuming a specific (Constant Elasticity of Substitution) functional form for import demand. The present levels of the TRI under the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International agricultural trade; Agricultural price; Income; Policy analysis; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24883
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WTO Rules in the Audio-Visual Sector AgEcon
Zampetti, Americo Beviglia.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26051
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WTO's Agreement on Agriculture: Implications for Trade, Sustained Agricultural Growth and Poverty Alleviation AgEcon
Chishti, Anwar F.; Malik, Waqar.
A theory-based graphical analysis of WTO's trade liberalization policies (opening of close-economy to international trade and cuts in price-supports, import-tariffs and export-subsidies) suggests that most of such policies would yield net social gains to the society, as a whole. The adverse effects and losses in producer surpluses of some of the policies would be balanced out by greater gains in consumer surpluses and vice versa. Losses in producer surpluses due to cuts in price supports and import tariffs are also expected to be partially subsided by reductions in export subsidies mainly granted by the USA and EU; hence, policies need to be enforced, not in isolation, but in a simultaneous fashion. Trade liberalization would help minimize control of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24850
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WTO-Verhandlungen: Warum die Einigung so schwierig und dennoch so wichtig ist AgEcon
Brockmeier, Martina; Pelikan, Janine.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96732
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Yield Variability and Agricultural Trade AgEcon
Reimer, Jeffrey J.; Li, Man.
We examine how changes in yield variability affect the welfare of cereal grain and oilseed buyers and producers around the world. We simulate trade patterns and welfare for 21 countries with a Ricardian trade model that incorporates bilateral trade costs and crop yield distributions. The model shows that world trade volumes would need to increase substantially if crop yield variability were to rise. Net welfare effects, however, are moderate so long as countries do not resort to policies that inhibit trade, such as export restrictions or measures to promote self-sufficiency in crops. Low-income countries suffer the most from increases in yield variability, due to higher bilateral trade costs and lower-than-average productivity.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crops; Geography; Grains; Trade liberalization; Yield variability; Crop Production/Industries; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55543
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Zöldség- és gyümölcs-nagykereskedelem Hollandiában AgEcon
Jasso, Katalin.
Hollandiában is a piacot a fogyasztók igényei irányítják. A hagyományos árutőzsde átalakult, nemcsak a termelők által behozott termékeket értékesítik, hanem más kereskedelmi tevékenységekkel is foglalkoznak. Ez az átalakulás létszükséglet, mert világviszonylatban a zöldség- és gyümölcsértékesítésben fontos szerepet játszik a túltermelés és a konkurencia. A nagykereskedelmi szektorban arra törekszenek, hogy a fogyasztók igényeit folyamatosan egész éven át kielégítsék, miközben a nagykereskedők költségei jelentősen megemelkedtek az EU-szabályozás miatt, mert a piacon maradáshoz fontos a környezetvédelmi, valamint az élelmiszer- és termékbiztonsággal kapcsolatos szabályok betartása. A termelőknek pedig bizonyítaniuk kell a törvényi előírásoknak való...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Zöldség; Gyümölcs; AGF értékesítés; Versenyhelyzet-elemzés; Trendek; Vegetables; Fruit; AGF selling; Competition analysis; Trends; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99141
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Zollkontingente bei US-amerikanischen Käseimporten AgEcon
Gast, Michael W..
A tariff-rate quota (TRQ) is a two-tier tariff. The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture provides for the transformation of remaining import quotas into TRQs in order to eliminate quantity restricting import barriers to trade. However, more often than not are TRQs de-facto-quotas. The profit-maximizing condition for an importer confronted with two differentiated goods under a common quota is derived. The main focus of the present article is the US import regime for cheese which was transformed according to the tariffication process into a TRQ system. Analysis of cheese import quantities shows that this transformation has indeed little changed. Being the only remarkable exception in partially overcoming the import barriers, the case of New Zealand...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Tariff-rate quota; Cheese; USA; Differentiated products; Price discrimination; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98246
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Zur Mikrostruktur des Exportbooms AgEcon
Wagner, Joachim.
Dieser Aufsatz nutzt geheime Einzeldaten aus amtlichen Erhebungen in niedersächsischen Industriebetrieben, um einen Blick hinter die Kulissen des Exportbooms zu werfen. Hierbei zeigt sich eine ausgeprägte Heterogenität der Exportdynamik zwischen Betrieben innerhalb einer Hauptgruppe, Technologieklasse und Größenklasse. Weder die Betriebsgröße noch der Industriezweig noch die Lohnkostenentwicklung weisen einen statistisch signifikanten Zusammenhang mit der Wahrscheinlichkeit auf, dass ein Betrieb zur Kategorie der Exportsteigerer gehört. Zwischen der Arbeitsproduktivitätsund der Exportdynamik bestehen statistisch signifikante positive Abhängigkeiten - aus ökonomischer Sicht sind diese allerdings als sehr gering einzuschätzen This paper uses plant level...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Firm panel data; Export boom; Germany; International Relations/Trade; Productivity Analysis; F10; D21; L60.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26124
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ZUR WETTBEWERBSFAHIGKEIT DER WEISSSRUSSISCHEN MILCHWIRTSCHAFT: EINE ANWENDUNG DES PORTERSCHEN DIAMANTEN AgEcon
Hockmann, Heinrich; Ramanovich, Mikhail.
This Discussion Paper provides an analysis of competitiveness of the Belarus’ dairy sector based on international trade indicators. The ex-post analysis is extended by an ex-ante analysis in order to gain detailed insights into the sector’s future opportunities and challenges. Systematic access is established through relevant determinants with respect to Porter’s diamond. Ex-post analysis results indicate a strong position of Belarus in the international dairy trade although limited to homogenous products like milk powder and evaporated milk. Competitive disadvantages were revealed for highly processed dairy products. The ex-ante analysis through Porter’s diamond model reveals the necessary prerequisites for potentially successful future developments in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Belarus; Foreign trade; Porter; Competitiveness; Milk; Weissrussland; Aussenhandel; Porter; Wettbewerbsfahigkeit; Milch; Agribusiness; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Productivity Analysis; P23; P45; Q17.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91962
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