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A MAGYAR BOROK KOMPARATÍV ELŐNYÉNEK ÉS PIACI RÉSZESEDÉS VÁLTOZÁSÁNAK VIZSGÁLATA AZ EU PIACÁN AgEcon
Bozsik, Norbert.
A külkereskedelmi versenyképesség mérésének gyakran használt módszere a mutatókkal történő értékelés. A külkereskedelmi versenyképesség értékelése meg-lehetősen vegyes képet fest boraink helyzetéről. A megnyilvánuló komparatív előny a palackos borok között csak a fehér asztali, táj kategóriában tapasz-talható, a minőségi boroknál egyetlen esetben sem. A hordós kategóriában is hasonló a helyzet. A kivitel zömét jelentő fehér asztali, táj hordós kategória megnyilvánuló komparatív előnye egyáltalán nem szerencsés az ágazat szempontjából, mivel az alacsony hozzáadott értéket adó hordós bor magas export részarányát sejteti, holott éppen a magas hozzáadott értéket generáló palackos borok esetében lenne ez kedvező az ágazat számára. A fehér minőségi palackozott...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Indikátorok; Horóds és palackozott borexport; Piaci részesedés elemzés; Indices; Barreled and bottled wine export; CSM model; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54854
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A magyar élelmiszer-gazdaság aggregált szintű külkereskedelmi teljesítménye az EU-csatlakozást követően AgEcon
Nagy, Zsuzsanna.
A szerző a magyar élelmiszer-gazdaság külkereskedelmi teljesítményét vizsgálja az EU-15 piacain a csatlakozást követően. A versenyképesség mérésére különböző modellek és mutatószámok ismertek. A hazai élelmiszer-gazdaság külkereskedelmi teljesítményét cserearány-index, koncentrációs mutató, klasszikus Grubel-Lloyd index, egyszerű RCA mutató indikátorokkal vizsgálva megállapítható, hogy a cserearány-index a 2006-2008 közötti években kedvezőbben alakult az előző három évinél. Az élelmiszer-gazdaság export- és import-koncentrációja (H-index) csökkent 2004-től, de az agrárimport továbbra is koncentráltabb; az ágazaton belüli kereskedelem szerepe (GL-index) többnyire nőtt az EU-15 piacain, azonban az értékek jelentősen szóródnak tagállamonként és...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Élelmiszergazdaság-külkereskedelem; Versenyképességi mutatószámok; Megnyilvánuló komparatív előnyök; Agricultural foreign trade; Competitiveness indicators; Relative comparative advantages; Agribusiness; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92526
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A magyar zöldség- és gyümölcságazatok külkereskedelmi versenyképességének alakulása AgEcon
Medina, Viktor.
A vizsgálatok eredményei alapján megállapítható, hogy a zöldség- és gyümölcságazatok versenyképesek, de a versenyképesség évről évre csökken. A versenyképesség romlása az uniós csatlakozással nem szűnt meg, sőt erősödött, ami részben az ágazat felkészületlenségének, részben a 2004. évi bő termésnek és a 2005. év kedvezőtlen időjárásának köszönhető. Kedvezőtlen eredmény az is, hogy a pozícióromlás legnagyobb mértékben a célpiacokon észlelhető. A termékköröket külön elemezve látható, hogy a versenyképességi mutatók a legkedvezőbbek a feldolgozott termékeknél. Ezt követik a friss zöldségek. A friss gyümölcsnél már nem is beszélhetünk versenyelőnyről. Ennek a magyarázatát elsősorban a jelentős mértékben megnőtt déligyümölcsimport adja. A kedvezőtlen...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Zöldség; Gyümölcs; Versenyképesség; Külkereskedelem; EU-csatlakozás; Vegetable; Fruit; Competitiveness; Foreign trade; EU accession; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade; Marketing.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58593
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A magyar zöldség-gyümölcs kisárutermelők nagy láncoknak történő értékesítési lehetőségei AgEcon
Seres, Antal; Szabo, Marton.
A multinacionális láncoknál a közvetlen kisárutermelői beszállítóknak a speciális „réspiaci” termékeknél, illetve a nagy termelők között szabadon hagyott piaci réseken van mozgáslehetőségük. E termékek kivételével a közvetlen kisárutermelői beszállításoknak nincs jövője, mert elaprózott kínálattal nagy számban nem léphetnek be a beszállítói körbe. Hatékonysági követelmények miatt előbb-utóbb a hazai láncoknál is erősödik a beszerzés koncentrációja, és ez itt is csökkenti a közvetlenül beszállító kisárutermelők ma még lényegesen nagyobb lehetőségeit. A nagy üzletláncok üzletpolitikája olyan követelményeket támaszt, amelyeket a kisárutermelők a réspiaci termékek kivételével külön-külön nem tudnak teljesíteni. Ezért közös termeltető és értékesítő...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Koncentráció; Nagy kereskedelmi láncok; Beszállítás; Kisárutermelők; Zöldség-gyümölcs; Concentration; Large retail chains; Supply; Small farmers; Fruit and vegetables; Farm Management; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92484
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A Market Share Analysis of Virgin Olive Oil Producer Countries with special respect to Competitiveness AgEcon
Turkekul, Berna; Gunden, Cihat; Abay, Canan; Miran, Bulent.
In this study, Constant Market Share Analysis is used in order to determine the competitiveness of Turkey and its competitors, which are the main olive oil producers, in the USA, Australia, Canada, Brazil and Japan's markets between 1990/94 and 200/04 periods. The analysis shows that during the period covered Italy is the most competitive in the destination markets. Greece and Turkey follow Italy. In the same period although Spain's export towards destination markets is increased, its competitiveness is affected adversely due to decrease in its market share. Turkey's success in sustainable and permanent international competitiveness in olive oil depends on production, organization and trade policy.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9410
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A MARKETING ANALYSIS OF U.S. CHICKEN EXPORTS TO CHINA AgEcon
Zhang, Li; Gunter, Lewell F..
China is the second largest market for U.S. poultry exports. The growth potential for chicken exports to China is great, given their large population, low per capita consumption, rising incomes, and recent inclusion in the WTO. In this study, we estimated excess supply and demand equations for US exports of frozen chicken parts to China.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34618
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A METHOD FOR MEASURING RETURNS TO NONPRICE EXPORT PROMOTION WITH APPLICATION TO ALMONDS AgEcon
Kinnucan, Henry W.; Christian, Jason E..
A formula is derived to indicate the marginal returns to nonprice promotion for a competitive industry that promotes in both the domestic and the export market and receives a subsidy for export promotion. Private returns to export promotion are an increasing function of the export promotion elasticity, the export share, and the promotion subsidy and a decreasing function of the domestic supply elasticity, the absolute values of the domestic and export demand elasticities, and opportunity cost. Applying the formula to almond promotion and using previously estimated elasticities, no firm conclusions can be made regarding the effectiveness of export promotion, chiefly because the estimated promotion elasticities are unstable. Assuming that the domestic...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31016
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A MICRO-ANALYSIS OF U.S. VEGETABLE MARKET PENETRATION IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS AgEcon
Ashley, Gregory A.; Epperson, James E..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1987 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26848
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A MINŐSÉG A MAGYAR HÚSIPAR VERSENYKÉPESSÉGÉBEN AgEcon
Nagy-Percsi, Kinga.
A tanulmány elkészítésének alapját az engedélyezett, illetve a jóváhagyott és derogációs húsüzemek körében 2005. év végén és 2006. év elején elkészített kér-dőíves felmérés adta. A márkázott húsprogramok fő problémáját leginkább a márkázott termékek iránti hazai fizetőképes kereslet hiányában látják. Ettől kis mértékben marad el a programokhoz kapcsolódó elégtelen promóció, ami kiemeli az összefogás, a közösen végzett promóció szükségességét a versenyképesség növelése érdekében. A multinacionális láncok árleszorító törekvései és a növekvő költségek hatá-sára kialakult kisebb jövedelemtermelő képességet a húsipari cégek részben a beruházások visszafogásával ellensúlyozzák, mégpedig azokon a területeken, me-lyek nem kifejezetten az előírásoknak...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Versenyképesség; Specializáció; Promóció; Beruházás; Vágósertés minősítés; Competitiveness; Specialisation; Promotion; Investment; S/EUROP classification; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57649
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A mudança do regime cambial e o seu impacto na balança comercial brasileira AgEcon
Ferreira, Leo da Rocha; Silva, Carlos Alberto Goncalves da; Araújo, Paulo Fernando Cidade de.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the change on the Brazilian exchange rate policy implemented in January 1999, and to analyze agricultural sector transformations. Specifically, the paper is an attempt to identify the economic relations of the aggregate performance of the Brazilian commercial trade balance and total GDP or agricultural GDP, world income, and real exchange rate as of in the 1980-2006 (up to first quarter) period. The main conclusion of the study is that the exchange rate policy bands of Plano Real exerted a negative effect on exports and favored imports. With the liberation of the Brazilian exchange rate, from 1999 on, the estimated relations appear to have a positive net effect on the commercial trade balance of the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Exchange Rate Policy; Commercial Trade Balance; Brazilian Agriculture; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55188
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A Need for Caution in Applying the Volume-Based Special Safeguard Mechanism AgEcon
Ivanic, Maros; Martin, William J..
The proximate cause of the collapse of the Doha Agenda negotiations in 2008 was disagreement over the volume-based Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM). This measure would provide a right, but not an obligation, for developing countries to impose a duty when imports increase. While many simulations of its impact on domestic prices are available, there appear to be no analyses of its potential impacts on the welfare of poor households. Whether such a safeguard will increase or reduce poverty can only be determined empirically—if there are enough small, poor farmers who are net sellers of the commodity when the duty is imposed, then imposition of a safeguard duty may reduce poverty. If, by contrast, most small, poor farmers are net buyers of the products...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103969
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A Neoclassical View of Trade Liberalization AgEcon
Karp, Larry S..
This paper attempts to provide a balanced view of the neoclassical economists' perspective on trade liberalization, with an emphasis on the agricultural sector. I review the basic arguments in favor of competitive markets in general and free trade in particular. These arguments are based on restrictive assumptions which often fail to hold. Under more realistic assumptions, the arguments in favor of free trade are invalid. Economists remain skeptical of the benefits of trade restrictions, but this is a nuanced judgment, rather than a theoretical certainty. I describe a number of situations where market failures imply that trade restrictions can improve efficiency.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6242
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A NEW LOOK AT THE TRADE VOLUME EFFECTS OF REAL EXCHANGE RATE RISK AgEcon
Wang, Kai-Li; Barrett, Christopher B..
This paper takes a new empirical look at the longstanding question of the effect of exchange rate volatility on international trade flows by studying the case of Taiwan's exports to the United States from 1989-1998. In particular, we employ sectoral level, monthly data and a multivariate GARCH-M estimator with corrections for leptokurtic errors that is consistent with the core hypothesis that traders' forward contracting behavior might be affected by exchange rate risk. We find that real exchange rate risk has insignificant effects in most sectors, although agricultural trade volumes appear highly responsive to real exchange rate volatility. These results differ significantly from those obtained using more conventional and restrictive modeling...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade; F1; F3.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14751
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A NEW REGIONAL HOUSEHOLD DEMAND SYSTEM FOR GTAP AgEcon
McDougall, Robert.
The GTAP model, versions 4.1 and lower, suffers from some defects in the implementation of the regional household demand system. Most seriously, the upper level of the demand system assumes that each regional household faces a fixed price for utility from private consumption. But with a private consumption demand system of the CDE form, the price of utility from private consumption depends on the level of private consumption expenditure. With no fixed price for utility from private consumption, the familiar Cobb-Douglas demand system does not apply. Accordingly, the upper-level demand equations are in error. Furthermore, utility and equivalent variation are wrongly computed in simulations with non-standard settings for the CDE expansion parameters. Even...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28713
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A New World Chaos? International Institutions in the Information Age AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
The technological revolutions that underlie the new information age will tax considerably the abilities of existing international institutions to bring order to international relations. Rapid rates of change may lead to chaos if international institutions cannot evolve to accommodate those changes. In some cases, new organisations will be required. The role given international organisations in establishing order in the latter half of the 20th century is reviewed. The new challenges presented by the information age are outlined. Whether the existing international organisations will be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the changes brought by the information age is assessed.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Change; Globalisation; International institutions; Law; Trade policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23831
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A NOTE ON BIAS IN THE ESTIMATED EFFECTS OF BEEF IMPORTS ON U.S. MEAT PRICES AgEcon
Ryan, Timothy J..
The impact of beef imports on United States meat prices is a highly emotional and controversial issue. Congressmen representing urban districts, and to a lesser extent the Administration, look towards beef imports as a way of containing rapid increases in meat prices. Congressmen and Senators from beef-producing States regard beef imports as a direct attack on the U.S. beef-producing industry. These differing views are being reconciled through Congress considering amendments to the Meat Import Law (Public Law 88-482). The impacts and the amendments are of vital interest to Australia because about 25 per cent of Australia's beef production is sold on the lucrative U.S. market. In this note it is argued that, in general, the reported impacts on U.S. meat...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade; Marketing.
Ano: 1980 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23065
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A NOTE ON DOMESTIC LEVY POLICY FOR BEEF AgEcon
Parton, Kevin A..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1977 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9179
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A Note on Dumping, Interest Groups and the Public Policy Process AgEcon
Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Jensen, Paul H..
As a signatory of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), Australia is permitted to impose duties on goods that have been imported below 'normal value' and have caused or threatened to cause 'material injury' to the domestic industry producing 'like goods'. There has been a recent push from various industries to increase protection for producers who have been injured by such practices. The Government is concerned, however, that harsher anti-dumping regulations will damage its position in the Uruguay Round of the GATT negotiations. As a result, a Senate Inquiry was established in 1990 to review Australia's anti-dumping legislation. The objective of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of the public policy process in addressing this issue....
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9628
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A Note on the FAO Guiding Principles for Price Support Measures AgEcon
Lewis, Jack Neville; Muir, D.A..
Several international agencies have in recent years sought to establish a generally accepted code of behaviour to be observed by countries in formulating their agricultural policies. The objectives and vision of problems stimulating these endeavours have varied. OEEC aimed primarily at coordination of the agricultural policies of participating countries in order to increase efficiency and incomes in agriculture for the region as a whole. GATT and FAO have been primarily concerned with the repercussions of domestic agricultural problems upon the levels and stability of international trade, with the consequences for the terms of trade of primary-exporting countries, especially of those in a less advanced stage of economic development, and with the need to...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1962 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8739
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A NOTE ON THE LINK BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURAL IMPORTS AgEcon
Houck, James P..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/13917
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