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Registros recuperados: 48
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Jatropha cultivation in Malawi and Mozambique: impact on ecosystem services, local human well-being, and poverty alleviation Ecology and Society
von Maltitz, Graham P.; CSIR, South Africa; Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa; gvmalt@csir.co.za; Gasparatos, Alexandros; Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science (IR3S), University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; gasparatos@ir3s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Fabricius, Christo; Sustainability Research Unit, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa; christo.fabricius@nmmu.ac.za; Morris, Abbie; Independent development practitioner, Malawi; Chittock.abbie@gmail.com; Willis, Kathy J.; Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK; Royal Botanical Gardens Kew, UK; kathy.willis@zoo.ox.ac.uk.
Jatropha-based biofuels have undergone a rapid boom-and-bust cycle in southern Africa. Despite strong initial support by governments, donors, and the private sector, there is a lack of empirical studies that compare the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of Jatropha’s two dominant modes of production: large plantations and smallholder-based projects. We apply a rapid ecosystem services assessment approach to understand the impact of two Jatropha projects that are still operational despite widespread project collapse across southern Africa: a smallholder-based project (BERL, Malawi) and a large plantation (Niqel, Mozambique). Our study focuses on changes in provisioning ecosystem services such as biofuel feedstock, food, and woodland products...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Ecosystem services; Jatropha; Malawi; Mozambique; Smallholders.
Ano: 2016
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Governance of Aquatic Agricultural Systems: Analyzing Representation, Power, and Accountability Ecology and Society
Ratner, Blake D.; WorldFish; b.ratner@cgiar.org; Cohen, Philippa; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University; WorldFish; p.cohen@cgiar.org; Barman, Benoy; WorldFish; b.barman@cgiar.org; Mam, Kosal; WorldFish; k.mam@cgiar.org; Nagoli, Joseph; WorldFish; j.nagoli@cgiar.org; Allison, Edward H.; School of International Development, University of East Anglia; WorldFish; e.allison@cgiar.org.
Aquatic agricultural systems in developing countries face increasing competition from multiple stakeholders over rights to access and use natural resources, land, water, wetlands, and fisheries, essential to rural livelihoods. A key implication is the need to strengthen governance to enable equitable decision making amidst competition that spans sectors and scales, building capacities for resilience, and for transformations in institutions that perpetuate poverty. In this paper we provide a simple framework to analyze the governance context for aquatic agricultural system development focused on three dimensions: stakeholder representation, distribution of power, and mechanisms of accountability. Case studies from Cambodia, Bangladesh, Malawi/Mozambique,...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Accountability; Bangladesh; Cambodia; Civil society; Coastal zone management; Environmental governance; Livelihoods; Malawi; Mozambique; Power; Social-ecological resilience; Solomon Islands; Stakeholder representation; Wetlands.
Ano: 2013
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Studies on the Streptaxidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata) of Malawi9. Description of Gulella streptostelopsis, a new Streptostele-like species of Gulella. Naturalis
Bruggen, A.C. van.
Gulella streptostelopsis spec. nov. is described from a series of localities of mainly between 1000 and 1500 m a.s.l. in Malawi south of about 11°S. The minute, almost smooth, shell (length 2.0-2.4 mm) resembles that of the genus Streptostele (hence the name), but is characterized by three-fold apertural dentition and just under six whorls. This taxon may represent a new genus; pending studies on the anatomy no new generic name is proposed.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Gastropoda; Pulmonata; Streptaxidae; Gulella; Streptostele; Taxonomy; Malawi; East Africa; 42.73.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/226596
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Studies on the Streptaxidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata) of Malawi 12 Four new species of Gulella s.l. Naturalis
Bruggen, A.C. van.
Gulella annibiodiversitatis spec. nov. is described from a few scattered localities in montane forest above c. 1300 m in southern-central Malaŵi. It is mainly characterized by a smallish (4.9-6.3 mm high), smooth and generally featureless shell without apertural dentition. Gulella menkhorsti spec. nov., has a small (2.3-2.9 mm high) and smooth shell with a six-fold dentition and is probably a restricted range endemic; so far it has only been recorded from the Mpita Forest in southern Malaŵi. A single smooth and small shell (2.7 mm) with a seven-fold apertural dentition from the Misuku Hills in northern Malaŵi also does represent a new species, Gulella crux spec. nov. Another sample from the same area, introduced as Gulella nuchalis spec. nov., has a...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Gastropoda; Pulmonata; Streptaxidae; Gulella; Malawi; East Africa; Taxonomy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/638094
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Studies on the Streptaxidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata) of Malaw^ i 5. Description of Gulella meredithae spec. nov. Naturalis
Bruggen, A.C. van.
Gulella meredithae spec. nov. is described from the uplands of central and northern Malawi. It belongs to what has been termed the G. browni-group (better called the G. radius-group), an assemblage of Central and East African taxa with small shells with a noticeably acute apex, with more or less smooth nepionic whorls and with marked costulation on the remaining whorls. Attention is drawn to the striking juvenile apertural dentition.
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Gastropoda; Pulmonata; Streptaxidae; Gulella; Africa; Malawi; Juvenile dentition; Taxonomy; 42.73.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/216030
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FOOD INFLATION IN MALAWI: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ECONOMY AgEcon
Ularo, Khonje Makaiko Gonapanyanja.
Despite consecutive years of good harvest, Malawi has experienced continuous price escalation of staple food commodities unsolved over the time. The real price of maize in Malawi has increased by 141 percent between 1998 and 2008, and has been rising along with the food prices of many other commodities over this period. This study therefore investigates the determinants of food inflation rate in Malawi and its effect on the economy. Monthly and annual data were collected from National Statistical Office and Reserve Bank of Malawi from 1978 to 2008. Data were analyzed by estimating an error correction model (ECM). The results show that fertilizer prices, crop diversification index, maize prices, diesel prices, real exchange rates and real interest rates...
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation Palavras-chave: Food inflation; ECM; Crop diversification; GDP; Economy; Malawi; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117802
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Monitoring of Public Spending in Agriculture in Southern Africa AgEcon
Chilonda, Pius; Olubode-Awosola, Femi; Minde, Isaac J.; Njiwa, Daniel; Govereh, Jones.
Public resources are limited and have competing demands, hence prioritization will be critical. Policymakers want to know what public spending on agriculture sector will have the largest impact on the poor and how the resources should be allocated among the different sub-sectors. This brief examines the SADC region’s progress toward meeting the commitments made by African Heads of State and Government in the 2003 Maputo Declaration on Agriculture and Food Security to allocate at least 10 percent of national budgetary resources to agricultural sectors. Further, to build understanding of the challenges and opportunities facing governments as they strive to meet this target, the results of case studies of public expenditures on agriculture in Malawi and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Public spending; Agriculture; Southern africa; Malawi; Zambia; Agricultural Finance; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51663
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Disrupting Demand for Commercial Seed: Input Subsidies in Malawi and Zambia AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob.
Input subsidy programs that provide inorganic fertilizer and improved maize seed to small farmers below market rates are currently receiving a great deal of support as a sustainable strategy to foster an African Green Revolution. In recent years numerous countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania, and Zambia have implemented such programs at substantial cost to government and donor budgets. For example, in 2008 Malawi spent roughly 70% of the Ministry of Agriculture’s budget or just over 16% of the government’s total budget subsidizing fertilizer and seed. In Zambia between 2004 and 2011, an average of 40% of the government’s agricultural sector budget was devoted to fertilizer and maize seed subsidies...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Malawi; Zambia; Seed; Input subsidies; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123554
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Alternative Soil Fertility Management Options in Malawi - An Economic Analysis AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Tchale, Hardwick.
In this paper, we analyze the factors that influence the productivity of maize among smallholder farmers, given that unfavourable output and input market conditions throughout the 1990s have compelled smallholder farmers into unsustainable agricultural intensification. We use farm-household survey data in order to compare the productivity of smallholder maize production under integrated (ISFM) and chemical-based soil fertility management using a normalized translog yield response model. The results indicate higher maize yield responses for integrated soil fertility management options after controlling for the intensity of fertilizer application, labour intensity, seed rate, land husbandry practices as well as selected policy factors. The estimated model is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Malawi; Smallholder agriculture; Soil fertility management; Yield response model; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21423
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What are the Enduring Effects of Fertilizer Subsidy Programs on Recipient Farm Households? Evidence from Malawi AgEcon
Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob; Jayne, Thomas S..
Replaced with revised version of paper 08/23/11.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertilizer subsidies; Malawi; Sub-Saharan Africa; Endogeneity; Panel data; International Development; Political Economy; C23; C26; Q12; Q13; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109593
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Aquaculture for African smallholders AgEcon
Brummett, Randall E.; Noble, R..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Small scale aquaculture; Integrated farming; Aquaculture systems; Appropriate technology; Malawi; Agribusiness.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44729
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Soil Fertility Management And Maize Productivity In Malawi: Curvature Correct Efficiency Modeling And Simulation AgEcon
Tchale, Hardwick; Sauer, Johannes.
We assess the level and determinants of relative technical efficiency of maize-based smallholder farmers using a translog stochastic frontier (TL) model and a symmetric generalized Barnett production function (SGB), both of which are tested for economic regularity conditions. In addition, we conduct a bootstrapping procedure in order to infer about the probability distributions and significance of the relative efficiency values for farmers using different soil fertility management options. The results indicate that higher levels of relative technical efficiency obtain when farmers use integrated soil fertility options compared to the use of chemical fertilizer only. The consistency of the results across the two models increase the robustness of the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Smallholder agriculture; Relative technical efficiency; Soil fertility management; Malawi; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52077
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Income and Price Elasticities of Food Demand and Nutrient Consumption in Malawi AgEcon
Ecker, Olivier; Qaim, Matin.
Widespread malnutrition in developing countries calls for appropriate interventions, presupposing good knowledge about the nutritional impacts of policies. Little previous work has been carried out in this direction. We present a comprehensive analytical framework, which we apply for Malawi. Using household data and a demand systems approach, we estimate income and price elasticities of food, calorie, and micronutrient consumption. These estimates are used for policy simulations. Given multiple nutrient deficiencies, income-related policies are better suited than price policies to improve nutrition. While consumer subsidies for maize increase calorie and mineral consumption, they contribute to a higher prevalence of vitamin deficiencies.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Quadratic almost ideal demand system; Food security; Micronutrient malnutrition; Calorie elasticities; Nutrient elasticities; Malawi; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6349
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SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN MALAWI AgEcon
Tchale, Hardwick; Sauer, Johannes.
In this paper we analyze the factors that influence the productivity of maize among smallholder farmers. We use farm-household survey data in order to compare the productivity of smallholder maize production under integrated (ISFM) and chemical-based soil fertility management using a normalized translog yield response model. The results indicate higher maize yield responses for integrated soil fertility management options after controlling for the intensity of fertilizer application, labour intensity, seed rate, land husbandry practices as well as selected policy factors. The estimated model is highly consistent with theoretical conditions. Thus we conclude that the use of ISFM improves maize productivity, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer only....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Malawi; Smallholder agriculture; Soil fertility management; Yield response model; Farm Management.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14954
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Subsistence farmer preferences for alternative incentive policies to encourage the adoption of conservation agriculture in Malawi: A choice elicitation approach AgEcon
Marenya, Paswel Phiri; Smith, Vincent H.; Nkonya, Ephraim M..
Land degradation in most sub Saharan Africa is a widely recognized problem and is due in large part to poor land management practices. To address this problem, several policy-based incentives to increase the adoption of better land management practices have been proposed, including fertilizer subsidies, cash payments and, more recently, subsidized or commercially offered weather index-based insurance contracts. However, little is known about farmers’ preferences among these policy alternatives, their relative effectiveness, and their likely fiscal implications. Using survey and choice elicitation data from 271 farmers in Central Malawi, this study examines smallholder farmers’ preferences among four major policy options that provide incentives for adopting...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Choice elicitation; Cash transfer; Fertilizer subisdy; Incenitves; Indemnity insurance; Malawi; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; Q12; Q24.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124010
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Soil Fertility Management Choice in the Maize-Based Smallholder Farming System in Malawi AgEcon
Wobst, Peter; Tchale, Hardwick; Frohberg, Klaus.
The paper analyses the factors that affect smallholder farmers’ choice of soil fertility management options in Malawi using a two-stage maximum likelihood estimation procedure. Using results from the Double-Hurdle model, the paper estimates the probabilities and intensities of fertilizer application conditional on choice of inorganic fertilizer. The findings indicate that relative wealthy indicators, human capital, credit and market access, food security index and land pressure are the main factors that greatly influence farmers’ choice and intensity of input investment. Although there is a high and positive correlation between probability of adoption and intensity of application, factors that influence adoption are not necessarily the same as those that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Soil fertility management; Smallholder farmers; Double-Hurdle model; Malawi; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9524
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The Impact of Access to Credit on the Adoption of hybrid maize in Malawi: An Empirical test of an Agricultural Household Model under credit market failure AgEcon
Simtowe, Franklin; Zeller, Manfred.
Guided by the frame work of a household model under credit market failure, this paper aims at investigating the impact of access to credit on the adoption of hybrid maize among households that vary in their credit constraints. The data used in the study is from Malawi collected by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).Using the direct elicitation approach; households are classified into constrained and unconstrained regimes. The impact of access to credit is estimated using a switching regression in a Double-Hurdle model. Results reveal that while access to credit increases adoption among credit constrained households, it has no effect among unconstrained households. Results also show that factors that affect adoption among credit...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Credit constraints; Double-hurdle; Hybrid maize; Adoption; Malawi; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; Marketing; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52076
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Insights from Poverty Maps for Development and Food Relief Program Targeting: An Application to Malawi AgEcon
Benson, Todd.
Poverty mapping applies models of household welfare developed from detailed household consumption and expenditure surveys to the extensive but less detailed data from national censuses. A poverty map for Malawi, developed by drawing upon information from the 1997–98 Malawi Integrated Household Survey with the 1998 Malawi Population and Housing Census, provides aggregate estimates of household welfare and poverty at a highly disaggregated level—down to the level of local government wards. Given the close association between welfare and food security in most Malawi households, such a detailed poverty map can be of considerable value to development and relief organizations, as they plan and target activities to improve the ability of poor households to cope...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Poverty mapping; Food security; Malawi; Food relief; Targeting; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55897
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Agricultural Subsidies and Forest Pressure in Malawi's Miombo Woodlands AgEcon
Fisher, Monica G.; Shively, Gerald E..
This paper examines impacts of an agricultural subsidy program on forest pressure in Malawi. Using household survey data, we measure the effect on forest product marketing and on forest clearing of Malawi's Starter Pack Scheme (SPS). Regression results show households receiving a free packet of hybrid maize seed and chemical fertilizer (a "starter pack") had lower levels of commercial forest extraction than nonrecipient households. In addition, no measurable effect of starter pack receipt is found on forest clearing decisions, suggesting the program raised agricultural output without encouraging agricultural expansion. Findings thus indicate potential modest improvement in forest condition due to the SPS.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Africa; Agricultural intensification; Conservation and development; Malawi; Tropical deforestation; Agricultural and Food Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8646
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Trade and Development When Exports Lack Diversification: A Case Study From Malawi AgEcon
Persaud, Suresh Chand; Meade, Birgit Gisela Saager.
Developing countries, particularly those that depend heavily on a small number of agricultural exports, are vulnerable to domestic and international shocks. These countries often have difficulty achieving sustained economic growth. This analysis uses Malawi, a country that earns most of its foreign exchange from tobacco, as a case study of export concentration and heavy exposure to volatility. The econometric results suggest that the decline in Malawi’s gross domestic product (GDP) when tobacco exports are falling is almost three times greater than the increase in GDP when exports are rising. Model-based simulations indicate that variability in tobacco exports leads to slower economic growth because GDP falls by a relatively large amount in response to a...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Malawi; Tobacco; Export-led growth; Asymmetry; Volatility; Productivity; Trade; Development; Marketing efficiency; Price transmission; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Environmental Economics and Policy; Financial Economics; International Relations/Trade; Production Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55943
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