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Registros recuperados: 27
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Healthcare Choices, Information and Health Outcomes AgEcon
Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Nyshadham, Anant.
Self-selection into healthcare options on the basis of severity likely biases estimates of the effects of healthcare choice on health outcomes. Using an instrumental variables strategy which exploits exogenous variation in the cost of formal-sector care, we show that using such care to treat acute sickness decreases the incidence of fever and malaria in young children in Tanzania. Compared to the instrumental variables estimates, ordinary least squares estimates significantly understate the effects of formal-sector healthcare use on health outcomes. Improved information and more timely treatment, rather than greater access to medicines, seem to be the primary mechanisms for this effect.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Healthcare; Information; Child health; Tanzania; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; I10; I18; O10; O12.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107257
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Autocracies and Development in a Global Economy: A Tale of Two Elites AgEcon
Akerman, Anders; Larsson, Anna; Naghavi, Alireza.
Current version uploaded April 2013.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Development; Economic Institutions; Political Institutions; Trade; Capital Mobility; Capital Accumulation; Comparative Advantage; Capital Mobility; F10; F20; P14; P16; O10; O24.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115848
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Rural Development and Poverty Reduction: Is Agriculture Still Key? AgEcon
Anriquez, Gustavo; Stamoulis, Kostas G..
This paper examines the relationship between rurality and poverty, and the role the agricultural sector can play in rural development, poverty reduction, and overall development. The historical views regarding the role of the primary sector in development are presented, and then using original data, the paper argues that there was an historical misjudgment against the primary sector that served as a foundation for anti-agricultural bias in public policy until the late 80’s. Finally, this paper explains how under certain conditions territorial/regional development strategies may prosper, but in other conditions, particularly in the least-developed countries rural space, agriculture is still necessarily the starting point for rural development.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Rural development; Agricultural growth; Poverty reduction; Production linkages; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Q10; O10; O13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/112591
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Trade, Tastes and Nutrition in India AgEcon
Atkin, David.
This paper introduces habit formation into an otherwise standard model of international trade. Household tastes evolve over time to favor foods consumed as a child. The opening of trade causes preferred goods to rise in price, as these were relatively inexpensive in autarky. Neglecting the correlation between tastes and agro-climatic endowments overstates the short-run nutritional gains from agricultural trade liberalization and masks potential caloric losses for laborers. I examine the predictions of this model of trade with habit formation using household survey data from India, both by looking across Indian regions and by examining the consumption patterns of inter-state migrants.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Trade; Habit Formation; India; Tastes; Nutrition; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Development; International Relations/Trade; O10; O12; Q17; F10.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60710
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Energy-Based Economic Development: Mapping the Developing Country Context AgEcon
Carley, Sanya; Desai, Sameeksha; Bazilian, Morgan.
Energy-based economic development (EBED) can provide economic, social and environmental benefits related to national economic development and sustainable growth activities. As both policy and research interests in responsible mechanisms for economic development grow, EBED benefits are becoming increasingly attractive to planners in both developed and developing countries. The incentives, trade-offs, and payoffs for developing countries, however, are not well documented. To help address that gap, this paper identifies the general scope and role of EBED in a developing economy context, and outlines opportunities and challenges for decision-makers.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Economic Development; Energy; Developing Countries; Sustainable Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O10; O13; O21; Q48.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123278
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A REGIONAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS OF THE WELFARE IMPACT OF CASH TRANSFERS: AN ANALYSIS OF PROGRESA IN MEXICO AgEcon
Coady, David P.; Harris, Rebecca Lee.
Using a regionally disaggregated computable general equilibrium model, we analyze the differential welfare impacts of a cash transfer program targeted at rural areas. The direct effect of the transfers decreases regional income differentials, but the indirect effects depend on how the program is financed. Financing the program with a more efficient tax system is also less regressive and has favorable urban impacts. The less efficient instruments result in relatively higher incomes in all rural regions, but are more regressive. The increasing share of urban poverty highlights the shortcomings of rural targeting and raises the issue of horizontal equity.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: General equilibrium; Targeted transfers; Regional impacts; Tax incidence; Food Security and Poverty; D3; D58; D60; H2; O10; O54; R13.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16303
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Social Responsibility as a Driver for Local Sustainable Development AgEcon
Costantino, Elena; Marchello, Maria Paola; Mezzano, Cecilia.
The increased interconnection among local and global players induced by globalization, as well as the need for a complete application of the “subsidiarity principle”, calls for a re-thinking of the “corporate social responsibility” concept. This new concept broadens the perspective of the single company interacting with its own stakeholders in relation to specific social and environmental impacts, to a network of organizations, with different aims and natures, collaborating on relevant sustainability issues. In this paper, the authors will provide a definition of “Territorial Social Responsibility”, sustaining the multi-stakeholder approach as a driver toward local sustainable development. Firstly, theoretical approaches to sustainable development at the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Local Sustainable Development; Territorial Social Responsibility; Participation; Local Governance; Accountability; Sustainability Reporting; Multi-Stakeholder Approach; Networks; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; M14; O10.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94791
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Toward a Territorial Approach to Rural Development AgEcon
de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
This paper explores a territorial approach to rural development in Latin America. It first reviews evidence that progress in rural social development has not been accompanied by reductions in income poverty and inequality. It then assesses qualitative changes that have occurred in rural incomes and the emergence of new opportunities for rural poverty reduction and draws implications for the potential of a territorial approach to rural development. Recent experiences with territorial approaches are briefly reviewed and lessons extracted for the implementation of such an approach. It concludes with a series of recommendations for implementation of a territorial approach to rural development.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Rural development; Rural poverty; Territorial approach; Inequality; Latin America; Community/Rural/Urban Development; O10; O13; O15; O18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/112593
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Energy, Environment and the Sustainability of Economic Development in China AgEcon
Fang, Xingming; Hu, Xiaoping; Wang, H. Holly.
Whether the high economic growth of China is sustainable is the matter of interest to the public, government and academic circle of China and meanwhile it catches the attention of the world because the development of China has been exerting increasing impact on the world economy. Since the high economic growth of China has been promoted by heavy and chemical industry (HCI) to a great extent, which resulted in high consumption of energy resource, high consumption of mineral resources and high emission of pollutants (the “triple highness”), the sustainability of high economic growth of China depends on a sustainable growth road for China’s HCI and effective control on the “triple highness”. We find that the contributing factors of the “triple highness” are...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Energy; Resource; Pollution; International Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O10; O11.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6274
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Does Land Abundance Explain African Institutions? AgEcon
Fenske, James.
I show how abundant land and scarce labor shaped African institutions before colonial rule. I present a model in which exogenous suitability of the land for agriculture and endogenously evolving population determine the existence of land rights, slavery, and polygyny. I then use cross-sectional data on pre-colonial African societies to demonstrate that, consistent with the model, the existence of land rights, slavery, and polygyny occurred in those parts of Africa that were the most suitable for agriculture, and in which population density was greatest. Next, I use the model to explain institutions among the Egba of southwestern Nigeria from 1830 to 1914. While many Egba institutions were typical of a land-abundant environment, they sold land and had...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Africa; Institutions; Land rights; Slavery; Polygyny; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Land Economics/Use; Political Economy; N57; O10.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55707
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Microeconomics of Technology Adoption AgEcon
Foster, Andrew D.; Rosenzweig, Mark R..
There is an emerging consensus among macro-economists that differences in technology across countries accounts for the major differences in per-capita GDP and the wages of workers with similar skills across countries. Accounting for differences in technology levels across countries thus can go a long way towards understanding global inequality. One mechanism by which poorer countries can catch up with richer countries is through technological diffusion, the adoption by low-income countries of the advanced technologies produced in high-income countries. In this survey, we examine recent micro studies that focus on understanding the adoption process. If technological diffusion is a major channel by which poor countries can develop, it must be the case that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Technology adoption review; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O10; O13; O33.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56760
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THE MYSTERY OF MONOGAMY AgEcon
Gould, Eric D.; Moav, Omer; Simhon, Avi.
This paper examines why developed countries are monogamous while rich men throughout history have tended to practice polygyny (multiple wives). Wealth inequality naturally produces multiple wives for rich men in a standard model of the marriage market. This paper argues that the sources of inequality, not just the level of inequality, determine the equilibrium degree of monogamy or polygamy. In particular, when inequality is determined more by disparities in human capital versus non-labor income (such as land, capital, corruption), the outcome is more monogamous. This explains why developed countries, where human capital is the main source of income and inequality, are monogamous while less-developed economies tend to be polygynous. The results are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Marriage; Monogamy; Polygyny; Human Capital; Inequality; J12; J24; O10; O40; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14992
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Development Accounting with Intermediate Goods AgEcon
Grobovsek, Jan.
Do intermediate goods help explain relative and aggregate productivity differences across countries? Three observations suggest they do: (i) intermediates are relatively expensive in poor countries; (ii) goods industries demand intermediates more intensively than service industries; (iii) goods industries are more prominent intermediate suppliers in poor countries. I build a standard multisector growth model accommodating these features to show that inefficient intermediate production strongly depresses aggregate productivity and increases the price ratio of final goods to services. Applying the model to data for middle and high income countries, I find that poorer countries are only modestly less efficient at producing goods than services, but...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Development Accounting; Productivity; Intermediate Goods; Production Economics; O10; O41; O47.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119112
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Transformations in Agriculture and their Implications for Rural Development AgEcon
Hazell, Peter B.R..
The paper reviews the implications for rural development of current transformations in agriculture. It first identifies some of the driving forces - in addition to the impact of rising incomes in some but not all developing countries - behind the transformation process: changing market chains, shifts in public policy, OECD agricultural policies and HIV/AIDS. It then discusses some strategic issues for assisting the rural sector and small farms in developing countries: increasing the productivity of food staples, diversification into higher value products, organizing small farmer for marketing, agricultural services, non-farm opportunities and migration and targeting the vulnerable. It emphasizes the need for integrated interventions if small farm...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Rural development; Poverty reduction; Agricultural transformation; Small farm development; Community/Rural/Urban Development; O10; O13; O18; Q10; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/112592
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Agricultural Policy Indicators AgEcon
Josling, Timothy E.; Valdes, Alberto.
This paper outlines a methodological approach for use by FAO to collect, analyze and monitor agricultural policy indicators (API) for developing countries. The aim is to establish a consistent and comparable set of policy indicators, allowing analysts to examine whether agriculture in particular countries is being stimulated or retarded by the set of policies employed. The API should also be useful in the context of quantitative models of policy impacts and market projections. Ideally, the indicators should function as building blocks for the more comprehensive policy measurement. This paper is presented in four parts. Part I gives an overview of the rationale for monitoring, the relationship between policy monitoring, quantitative modeling and evaluation,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Trade and development; Policy indicators; Domestic support; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q11; Q17; Q18; O10; O19.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23789
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Unprotected Resources and Voracious World Markets AgEcon
Margolis, Michael; Shogren, Jason F..
The Theory of the Second Best implies that any country with less-than-ideal resources can lose from international trade. Recently it has been suggested this means the South (poor countries) are better off suppressing trade with the North, especially trade in natural resource products, since the North has better developed rights to protect its natural resources. Here we show that the suppression of such trade may also impede the development of property rights in the South, but that even taking this into account, trade liberalization need not improve Southern welfare. We find that within a cone of world prices on the boundary of which lies the South's autarky price vector, welfare losses still occur even when local governments in the South make optimal...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International trade; Property rights; Natural resources; Environment; Second best; Institutional change; Development; International Relations/Trade; F02; F10; F18; K11; O10; O19.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10635
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Trade and Geography in the Economic Origins of Islam: Theory and Evidence AgEcon
Michalopoulos, Stelios; Naghavi, Alireza; Prarolo, Giovanni.
This research examines the economic origins of Islam and uncovers two empirical regularities. First, Muslim countries, virtual countries and ethnic groups, exhibit highly unequal regional agricultural endowments. Second, Muslim adherence is systematically larger along the pre-Islamic trade routes in the Old World. The theory argues that this particular type of geography (i) determined the economic aspects of the religious doctrine upon which Islam was formed, and (ii) shaped its subsequent economic performance. It suggests that the unequal distribution of land endowments conferred differential gains from trade across regions, fostering predatory behavior from the poorly endowed ones. In such an environment it was mutually beneficial to institute a system...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Religion; Islam; Geography; Physical Capital; Human Capital; Land Inequality; Wealth Inequality; Trade; Labor and Human Capital; O10; O13; O16; O17; O18; F10; Z12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91008
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Does Corporate Social Responsibility Affect the Performance of Firms? AgEcon
Poddi, Laura; Vergalli, Sergio.
Over the last two decades in OECD countries increasingly more firms are certifying as Socially Responsible (CSR is the acronym for Corporate Social Responsibility). This kind of certification is assigned by private companies that guarantee that a certain firm’s behaviour is environmentally and sociologically correct. Some papers (including Preston and O’Bannon, 1997; Waddock and Graves, 1997; McWilliams and Sieger, 2001; Ullman, 1985) tried to establish if there exists a link between Social Responsibility certification and the performance of firms. Their results were ambiguous and did not show any common connection. This ambiguity depends mainly on the static nature of their analyses and on the problem of whether performance is affected more by...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corporate Social Responsibility; Growth; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; M14; C23; O10.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52531
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Reflections AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
This paper examines the causes of Taiwan's exceptional economic performance, focusing on the influence of organizational and policy choices and how Taiwan's example differs from those of more typical less-developed countries. After briefly citing cultural factors as proposed by his late colleague John Fei, Ranis proceeds to explore the issues of organic nationalism, natural resource endowment, access to foreign capital and other political factors that have produced such economic success. The author demonstrates how Taiwan's unique combination of strong organic nationalism, meager natural resources and limited access to foreign capital helped curb the Extended Dutch Disease phenomenon endemic in LDCs. In addition, the government's nonoscillatory, relatively...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic development; LDC; Political economy; Taiwan; Extended Dutch disease; Democracy; International Development; Political Economy; O10; O11; O50; P16.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28422
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Labor Surplus Economies AgEcon
Ranis, Gustav.
The labor surplus economy model has as its basic premise the inability of unskilled agricultural labor markets to clear in countries with high man/land ratios. In such situations, the marginal product of labor is likely to fall below a bargaining wage, related to the average rather than the marginal product. The reallocation of such disguisedly unemployed workers by means of “balanced” intersectoral growth ultimately permits the entire economy to operate on neo-classical principles. Finally, the paper introduces open economy dimensions, indicates the existence of other labor surplus sub-sectors and briefly responds to neo-classical critiques on both theoretical and empirical grounds.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Development theory; Labor markets; Labor and Human Capital; O10; O12; O17.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28480
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