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Changes in Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Oxidative Damage in Four Argania spinosa Ecotypes Under Water Stress Conditions Nature Precedings
Abdelghani Chakhchar; Abderrahim Ferradous; Mouna Lamaoui; Said Wahbi; Cherkaoui El Modafar.
_Argania spinosa_ L. Skell, a tree endemic of Morocco, grows in semiarid and arid areas. Biochemical response to drought in four ecotypes of the _A. spinosa_ was compared. Choice of ecotypes was based on evident differences in geographical features in south-west Morocco: two coastal ecotypes (Essaouira and Agadir) and two paralittorale ecotypes (Aoulouz and Lakhssas). Lipid peroxidation (malonyldialdehyde (MDA)), content of endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidant enzyme system (Catalase (CAT), Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), Total peroxidase (POD) and Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were measured in control (100% relative humidity (RH) at field capacity (FC)) and water-stressed plants (50 and 25% RH at FC). For all ecotypes, drought stress significantly...
Tipo: Poster Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Plant Biology.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/6189/version/1
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Allergological and toxicological risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants - Development of a model system Nature Precedings
Alain Steinmann; Kristin Entzian; Birgit Grümmer; Udo Meyer.
Technical advances in biotechnology lead to a rising number of genetically modified plants and derived food and feed. Therefore, the international interest in adequate and standardized analytical methods increases to assess health risks in a rapid and low cost manner.
To address this issue a decision support system (DSS), which will be based on baseline data and thresholds of key parameters, is going to be established in the framework of a joint project (BioOK). Determination of the potential allergenicity or toxicity of novel proteins caused by the genetic modification compared to near isogenic variants (NIV) is a key issue in this context. For the development of DSS the model plant “potato” was used to compare...
Tipo: Poster Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Plant Biology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4441/version/1
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Post Market Monitoring of GM Herbicide-Tolerant Crops Nature Precedings
Alan M. Dewar.
As soon as humans adopted agriculture as the principle means of feeding themselves, they have had an effect on the environment, and by implication, also on biodiversity. It is not possible to grow crops in an intensive manner without doing so, but it is necessary to do so to feed the population. In this respect, the use of herbicides or other weed control practices (e.g. hand-hoeing) inevitably will have an effect on biodiversity, whether those methods are used in conventional, organic or genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops. 

Recent literature from the UK following the Farm Scale Evaluations (FSE) of the environmental impact of GMHT oilseed rape, maize and sugar beet suggests that the recommended weed...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Earth & Environment; Plant Biology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4462/version/1
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Overcoming high temperature inhibition of flower formation and fruit production without bees Nature Precedings
Albert Liptay; Ron A. Salzman; Jerry H. Stoller; Michael D. Orzolek.
Flower formation in the Cucurbitaceae family is compromised at high temperatures; both male and female flowers and therefore fruit productivity are greatly reduced as the growing temperatures for these vegetable crops are increased above 26C. This intractable phenomenon has been documented both with outdoor field experiments at various latitudes on the eastern seaboard in the USA and in a laboratory, temperature-regulated setting. We now report that an agricultural product, FP, which has been, and is used globally on many commercial crops to increase flower number and strength during blossom formation and development, overcomes the apparent refractory floral initiation and development at high temperatures. This is a new and unexpected finding....
Tipo: Manuscript Palavras-chave: Plant Biology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/3707/version/1
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Comparative Litter Quality and Recalcitrance Among Native Grasses and the Invasive, Non-indigenous KR Bluestem (_Bothriochloa ischaemum_) Nature Precedings
Amanda Benbow; Kelly G. Lyons.
KR Bluestem (_Bothriochloa ischaemum_) is a non-indigenous, invasive, C4 grass that was introduced throughout the Midwestern and Southwestern U.S. short- to midgrass prairies with the aim of improving degraded rangelands. The aggressive nature of KR bluestem has led to dramatic alterations of natural and managed ecosystems. Comparative studies of decomposition often show that non-indigenous, invasive plant species have higher rates of nutrient cycling than indigenous species; however, KR bluestem appears to deviate from this trend. Large amounts of litter are observed in KR-dominated grasslands as compared to intact native grasslands, suggesting that the species has a relatively lower decomposition rate and may slow nutrient cycling in these systems....
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Ecology; Plant Biology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/3614/version/1
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BBSRC Data Sharing Policy Nature Precedings
Amanda Collis; David McAllister; Michael Ball.
BBSRC recognizes the importance of contributing to the growing international efforts in data sharing. BBSRC is committed to getting the best value for the funds we invest and believes that making research data more readily available will reinforce open scientific inquiry and stimulate new investigations and analyses. BBSRC supports the view that data sharing should be led by the scientific community and driven by scientific need. It should also be cost effective and the data shared should be of the highest quality. Members of the community are expected and encouraged to practice and promote data sharing, determine standards and best practice, and create a scientific culture in which data sharing is embedded.
Tipo: Manuscript Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Developmental Biology; Genetics & Genomics; Immunology; Microbiology; Molecular Cell Biology; Neuroscience; Pharmacology; Bioinformatics; Plant Biology; Evolutionary Biology; Data Standards.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/6015/version/1
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Evidence of salt secretion at the stem of _Melaleuca cuticularis_ Labill. Nature Precedings
Amanda J. Twomey; Bodapati P. Naidu; Shu Fukai.
It has been observed that _Melaleuca cuticularis_ Labill. has the ability to secrete salt solution to the surface of its stem. No literature has been found to illustrate other species' capacity to secrete salts at the stem and with what little literature there is on _M. cuticularis_ under saline conditions ^1, 2^, there was no evidence documented by those authors to have witnessed salt secreting at the stem. Most recorded observations of salt secretion by plants has usually been on leaf salt secretion through specialized glands or bladders often in mangroves, salt bushes and grass species, among others ^3-8^. This observation is the first known record of a plant species capable of secreting salts mostly at the stem.
Tipo: Manuscript Palavras-chave: Developmental Biology; Earth & Environment; Plant Biology.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2450/version/1
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Recovery kinetics of winter stressed conifers: The effects of growth light environment, extent of the season, and species. Nature Precedings
Amy Verhoeven.
Evergreens undergo a dramatic reduction in their maximal photochemical efficiency (measured as Fv/Fm) during winter, which is largely due to increases in a sustained form of thermal energy dissipation. Upon removing winter-stressed leaves to room temperature and low light, Fv/Fm recovers over several days and can include both a rapid phase (reversing in minutes) and a slow phase (reversing over days). Both phases are associated with reversal of sustained energy dissipation. Preliminary examination of recovery of evergreens monitored in January in Minnesota showed an absence of the rapid component to recovery. Our goal was to monitor recovery kinetics of sun and shade evergreens in Minnesota throughout winter in order to assess whether the rapid phase of...
Tipo: Poster Palavras-chave: Earth & Environment; Plant Biology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/5323/version/1
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Incident light orientation lets C4 monocotyledonous leaves make light work differently Nature Precedings
Ana S. Soares; Simon P. Driscoll; Till K. Pellny; Enrique Olmos; Maria Arrabaça; Christine Foyer.
Photosynthesis is an important driver of ecosystem sustainability in the face of climate change. Monocotyledonous crop species with C4 photosynthesis such as maize (Zea mays L; corn) and sugar cane are crucial for future food security and biofuel crop requirements, while C4 pasture grasses such as Paspalum are central to natural ecosystems. The global demand for corn will exceed that for wheat and rice by 2020, making it the world's most important crop. Light-driven photosynthesis supports plant biomass production, but plants have also evolved safety valve mechanisms that attenuate the absorption of potentially lethal levels of excess light. The array of survival responses that enables leaves to evade photoinhibition is complex and involves...
Tipo: Manuscript Palavras-chave: Genetics & Genomics; Earth & Environment; Plant Biology.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/1672/version/1
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Transgene effects on rhizodeposition: Evidence from molecular-chemical screening by Pyrolysis-Field Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (Py-FIMS) Nature Precedings
Andre Schlichting; Christel Baum; Dana Zimmer; Peter Leinweber.
Rhizodeposition plays an important role in the C and N cycle of ecosystems, since it essentially reflects the interaction between plant, soil and soil microorganisms. The molecular-chemical characterisation of rhizodeposition is often limited to selected compound classes (e.g., carbohydrates and amino acids). A more comprehensive analytical approach is based on the molecular-chemical “fingerprint” revealed by Pyrolysis-Field Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (Py-FIMS).

The presented results give evidence of specific effects in conjunction with soil type, crop, variety, transgenes and mycorrhizal colonisation on the molecular-chemical composition of rhizodeposition. The experiments included various crops...
Tipo: Poster Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Chemistry; Plant Biology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4440/version/1
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Intra-specific variation in plant hydraulic sectoriality along a latitudinal gradient Nature Precedings
Angela Zeng; Roberto Salguero-Gomez; Agustin Santos-Alvarez; Amy Zanne; Brenda Casper.
High temperatures and nutrient limitations in deserts challenge plant survival. Large temperature oscillations and droughts typical of cold deserts can result in cavitation, the precipitation of dissolved air within a xylem vessel. If xylem vessels are closely packed, then a cavitation event may expand to neighboring vessels, resulting in runaway embolism, and potentially paralyze the vital functions of the plant.
 Hydraulic sectoriality, where the plant is functionally composed of independent hydraulic units, has been suggested as a strategy to decrease the risk associated with cavitation. This can occur by increasing xylem vessel isolation and/or increasing the physical modularity of the plant. Furthermore, hydraulic sectoriality...
Tipo: Poster Palavras-chave: Ecology; Plant Biology; Evolutionary Biology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/5277/version/1
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Design and development of a Europe-wide case specific monitoring method Nature Precedings
Angelika Ziegler; Wenke Mönkemeyer; Ralf Wilhelm; Kerstin Schmidt.
Directive 2001/18 EC demands the cultivation of genetically modified organisms (GMO) to be accompanied by post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM). It is composed of a general surveillance for unanticipated adverse effects and case specific monitoring (CSM), which is set up to reduce substantial uncertainties in relevant risk scenarios identified in the environmental risk assessment. PMEM should also allow early identification of potential long-term effects of cultivating GMOs. It should facilitate decisions in risk management.
In this project, a method for a Europe-wide CSM was to be developed. Starting with critical questions from ERA, exposure scenarios (first for non target organisms, later for all other partitions of the ERA) were...
Tipo: Poster Palavras-chave: Plant Biology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4472/version/1
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Development and validation of an analysis method for the detection of altered resistance in transgenic plants to herbivore-pathogen-complexes Nature Precedings
Anja Hühnlein; Jörg Schubert; Thomas Thieme.
Genetically modified plants (GMPs) have to pass several safety evaluations before they can be approved but identification of undesired changes in metabolism is hard to achieve due to its complexity. Such unexpected changes could be reflected by changes in virus resistance and feeding behaviour of herbivores such as aphids. Altered behaviour can be determined by so- called life table statistics where e. g. the lifetime and the reproduction rate are analysed. Such experiments are time consuming and costly. The behaviour alterations should also be detectable by changes in virus uptake und transmission. Thus, quantitative detection methods are needed in order to measure the absolute virus content in plants and in aphids. _Potato leafroll virus_ (PLRV) and...
Tipo: Poster Palavras-chave: Plant Biology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4473/version/1
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Quantitative detection of _Potato virus Y_ in potato plants and aphids - Discussion of diverse applications in potato research Nature Precedings
Anja Hühnlein; Jörg Schubert; Thomas Thieme; Edgar Schliephake.
Every year potato growers worldwide complain about severe yield losses caused by _Potato virus Y_ (PVY). Therefore, PVY along with _Potato leafroll virus_ belongs to the most important potato viruses. There are three main strains of PVY: PVY^O^, PVY^N^ and PVY^C^. However, also recombinant forms exist such as PVY^N^Wilga and PVY^NTN^, both of which increase in importance due to their potential to displace the non-recombinant strains at a high percentage. They appear also in mixed infections. In recent years PCR and qPCR assays were developed to differentiate PVY isolates. In order to identify PVY isolates by PCR often large amplicons have to be generated which requires the input of expensive enzymes. On the other hand, qPCR assays until now do not allow...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Plant Biology.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/5734/version/1
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Copper and other heavy metals in specialized crops and their effects on soil coenosis Nature Precedings
Anna Steindl; Thomas Strumpf; Frank Riepert.
The background of the project are claims of the EU regulation to generate reliable data considering the extent of copper contamination in soils of specialized crops in order to decide about copper restrictions in organic farming.

2522 single soil samples were collected on 85 vineyard and 13 hop areas with different management histories. Samples were taken from sites presently under cultivation, formerly cultivated, and sites without anthropogenic copper contamination as control, indicating natural background values. In addition to Aqua Regia extraction for determining total copper contents, available plant copper content was analyzed in NH~4~NO~3~ extraction. Soil parameters such as pH-value, C/N ratio, soil type etc....
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Chemistry; Plant Biology.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/5737/version/1
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The power of “Green” Energy: plant trait influences on microbial competition and greenhouse gas production Nature Precedings
Ariana Sutton-Grier; J. Patrick Megonigal.
Background/Questions/Methods
Species vary in the eco-physiological traits they possess which means species may differentially influence ecosystem functions such as microbial activity. In wetland ecosystems it is important to understand how different plant species influence microbial competition for resources because competition affects microbial respiration and one of the products of anaerobic microbial respiration is methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Plants influence the availability of substrates for microbial respiration, both available carbon and terminal electron acceptors (such as Fe(III)). Because methanogenic microbes must compete with other microbes for respiration substrates and can be out-competed if conditions are more...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Ecology; Earth & Environment; Plant Biology.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/5492/version/1
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Is there a Weed Shift in Roundup Ready Maize? Nature Precedings
Arnd Verschwele.
The cultivation of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crop varieties can simplify weed control in crops such as maize and others. On the other hand, the repeated use of broadly effective herbicides like glyphosate, especially in the same crop, can have a negative effect on biodiversity. Additionally there is a risk for a spread of more tolerant or even resistant weed species.

It was the aim of a 6-years field study (2003-2008) to investigate weed effects of use of glyphosate in a continuous transgenic herbicide-resistant maize rotation at three sites in Germany. These sites differed significantly in terms of soil, climate and initial weed spectrum. The studies focussed on the comparison between local herbicide standards and...
Tipo: Poster Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Plant Biology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4527/version/1
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Dicroidium: no more a Triassic Gondwana index fossil Nature Precedings
Ashwini Srivastava; Rashmi Srivastava; Deepa Agnihotri.
A large number of _Dicroidium_-frond, considered as the marker of Early Triassic Gondwana flora, are discovered for the first time with well preserved cuticle from Early Permian (Lower Gondwana) sequence of Barakar Formation, Satpura Gondwana Basin, India. The presence of _Dicroidium_ in Late Permian mixed floral zone of Jordan has been viewed as its possible origin in paleotropics but the evidence in hand exhibits its Gondwanic derivation and threatens the recognition of _Dicroidium_ flora for Middle Gondwana in association with Lower Gondwana Glossopteris and Upper Gondwana Ptilophyllun flora.
Tipo: Manuscript Palavras-chave: Plant Biology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4777/version/1
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The response of two legume crops (hyacinth bean and Kidney bean) to the parasitism of field dodder (_Cuscuta campestris_) Nature Precedings
Awad F. Farah.
Abstract: Microscopic examinations and chemical studies were performed to study the response of two legume crops, hyacinth bean (_Lablab purpureus L._) Sweet and kidney bean (_phaseolus vulgaris L._) to the filed dodder (FD) (_Cuscuta campestris Yuncker_) parasitism. Hyacinth bean, showing no effective resistance mechanisms,was found to be a highly susceptible host to FD. However, kidney bean, displaying resistant reactions towards the parasitism of FD,was found to be an incompatible host.The possible reasons for the resistance of kidney bean to FD were anatomical (hypersensitivity) and chemical (high contents of phenolic acids and lignin) stimulated defence mechanisms, which developed during the actual intrusion of FD haustorial cells inside its tissues.
Tipo: Manuscript Palavras-chave: Plant Biology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4207/version/1
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Population development of beet cyst nematodes and their damage potential to sugar beets under different temperature regimes Nature Precedings
Bart Vandenbossche; Björn Niere; Stefan Vidal.
_Heterodera schachtii_, the white beet cyst nematode, is considered as one of the most important nematode pests on sugar beet and is present in most sugar-beet growing areas. The yellow beet cyst nematode, _Heterodera betae_, is less prevalent but has also been found damaging beet crops. However, knowledge about the damage potential and population dynamics of the yellow beet cyst nematode is limited. The amount of damage inflicted by nematodes is dependent on different factors. An important factor influencing the sugar beet yield decline by beet cyst nematodes is the soil temperature. Relationships between soil temperature, _H. schachtii_ population densities and sugar beet yields have been reported previously. Until present, most studies have been...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Plant Biology.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/5744/version/1
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