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THE VALUE OF WATER AS AN URBAN CLUB GOOD: A MATCHING APPROACH TO HOA-PROVIDED LAKES AgEcon
Abbott, Joshua K.; Klaiber, H. Allen.
Urban lakes located in arid environments require large quantities of water to maintain their water levels, with much of this water associated with high opportunity costs. Many of these lakes are manmade and provide various amenities to surrounding residents. In this paper we use matching techniques to recover the average capitalized value of lakes to surrounding communities and differentiate between community members and adjacent households to recover heterogeneous treatment effects. Importantly, we consider the role of both unobservable and observable features of matching to recover heterogeneous capitalization across lake communities. Our results suggest that the capitalized value of lakes to community residents is highly heterogeneous and ranges from an...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Matching; Treatment effects; Urban lakes; Capitalization; Environmental Economics and Policy; Political Economy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103781
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POLITICS AND MARKETS IN THE ARTICULATION OF PREFERENCES FOR ATTRIBUTES OF THE RAPIDLY CHANGING FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SECTORS: FRAMING THE ISSUES AgEcon
Abdalla, Charles W.; Shaffer, James D..
Industrialization of the food and agricultural sectors changes the pattern of external effects. Participants helped or harmed in the process attempt to influence outcomes through markets and politics. Decisions about property rights and boundaries determine benefits and burdens and the relative cost of animal agriculture in different jurisdictions. Prescriptions to redefine property rights are influenced by selective perception of rights to share in the benefits and be protected from costs. Political choices about the appropriate jurisdiction (state versus local) for addressing environmental and nuisance effects of animal agriculture affect whose preferences count and will influence the development of these sectors.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Animal agriculture; Externalities; Industrialization; Institutions; Jurisdictional boundaries; Regulation; State versus local policy; Environment; Political Economy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15530
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Implications of a Doha Agreement on Agricultural Markets in Sudan AgEcon
Abdel Karim, Imad Eldin Elfadil; Abler, David G..
The latest round of multilateral trade negotiations was launched at the ministerial meeting of the World Trade Organization in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001. Agriculture is a major item on the agenda for the Doha Round. The primary focus is on the three “pillars” of the Uruguay Round agreement—domestic support, market access, and export competition. The framework for a final agreement was finalized at a Ministerial meeting in Geneva in July 2004, but contains few details on modalities (e.g., the formula to be used for reductions in tariffs/increases in tariff-rate quotas, quantitative limitations on domestic support, and the schedule for the elimination of export subsidies). Detailed proposals on a number of these issues were put forward in October 2005...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Doha Agreement; Sudan; Agricultural markets; Trade policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37918
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The Unbearable Lightness of Regulatory Costs AgEcon
Ackerman, Frank.
Will unbearable regulatory costs ruin the US economy? This specter haunts official Washington, just as fears of communism once did. Once again, the prevailing rhetoric suggests, an implacable enemy of free enterprise puts our prosperity at risk. Like anti-communism in its heyday, anti-command-and-control-ism serves to narrow debate, promoting the unregulated laissez-faire economy as the sole acceptable goal and standard for public policy. Fears of the purported costs of regulation have been used to justify a sweeping reorganization of regulatory practice, in which the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is empowered to, and often enough does, reject regulations from other agencies on the basis of intricate, conjectural, economic calculations. This...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; Health Economics and Policy; Industrial Organization; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; Production Economics; Public Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37159
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The Economics of Inaction on Climate Change: A Sensitivity Analysis AgEcon
Ackerman, Frank; Finlayson, Ian J..
Economic models of climate change often take the problem seriously, but paradoxically conclude that the optimal policy is to do almost nothing about it. We explore this paradox as seen in the widely used DICE model. Three aspects of that model, involving the discount rate, the assumed benefits of moderate warming, and the treatment of the latest climate science, are sufficient to explain the timidity of the model's optimal policy recommendation. With modifications to those three points, DICE shows that the optimal policy is a much higher and rapidly rising marginal carbon price; that higher carbon price has a greater effect on physical measures of climate impacts. Our modifications exhibit nonlinear interactions; at least at low discount rates, there is...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Financial Economics; Political Economy; Public Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37277
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European Chemical Policy and the United States: The Impacts of REACH AgEcon
Ackerman, Frank; Stanton, Elizabeth A.; Massey, Rachel.
The European Union is moving toward adoption of its new Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) policy, an innovative system of chemicals regulation that will provide crucial information on the safety profile of chemicals used in industry. Chemicals produced elsewhere, such as in the United States, and exported to Europe will have to meet the same standards as chemicals produced within the European Union. What is at stake for the U.S. is substantial: we estimate that chemical exports to Europe that are subject to REACH amount to about $14 billion per year, and are directly and indirectly responsible for 54,000 jobs. Revenues and employment of this magnitude dwarf the costs of compliance with REACH, which will amount to no more than...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis; Health Economics and Policy; Industrial Organization; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; Production Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37242
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Contratos de opção: análise do potencial de sustentação de preços para o mercado de arroz AgEcon
Adami, Andreia Cristina de Oliveira; Barros, Geraldo Sant'Ana de Camargo; Bacchi, Mirian Rumenos Piedade.
An economic model was developed to analyze the put option contract role to stabilize prices in the paddy market. The possibility of using Federal Government Acquisitions (AGF) to complement the option instrument was considered. The role of the options was to reduce the risks of storing the product for later sale. The model is applied to analyze the option instrument implementation in the 2004/05 season. A two week demand for rice was estimated for the Brazilian market. The results show that the market prices go up when the government acts through the AGF. The options serve the purpose of making prices follow a compatible path. It was estimated that the probability for the option owners exercise their options is greater when the AGF are not used. One can...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Put option; Federal Government Acquisition; Paddy; Political Economy; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61283
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Poverty Dynamics: Measurement and Understanding from an Interdisciplinary Perspective AgEcon
Addison, Tony; Hulme, David; Kanbur, Ravi.
This paper introduces a significant new multi-disciplinary collection of studies of poverty dynamics, presenting the reader with the latest thinking by a group of researchers who are leaders in their respective disciplines. It argues that there are three main fronts on which progress must be made if we are to dramatically deepen the understanding of why poverty occurs, and significantly improve the effectiveness of poverty reduction policies. First, poverty research needs to focus on poverty dynamics — over the life-course, across generations and between different social groups. Second, there is a need to move efforts to measure poverty dynamics beyond mere income and consumption to more multidimensional concepts and measures of poverty. This is...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty dynamics; Multidimensional concepts and measures; Interdisciplinary approaches; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Political Economy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51107
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POLITICAL ECONOMY OF RIGHT-TO-FARM AgEcon
Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Friedman, Keith.
This paper investigates the motivations for local right-to-farm protection ordinances by estimating a logit model relating the adoption of these ordinances to various political, economic and demographic factors previously found to affect the likelihood of passage of farmland preservation policies. Results suggest that the probability of adopting right-to-farm policies increases with the size and political clout of the farm public and with incentives to promote right-to-farm. Adoption is not enhanced by environmental concerns, nor by factors known to encourage adoption of farmland preservation policies. These findings raise serious concerns about the long-run viability of protections afforded agriculture in urbanizing areas.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Nuisance litigation; Open space; Political economy; Restrictive ordinances; Right-to-farm; Political Economy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15161
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The Political Economy of Downzoning AgEcon
Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Gottlieb, Paul D..
“Substantial downzoning” is defined as the exercise of police power to significantly reduce the legally permitted density on undeveloped land in a community. This contentious practice is typically challenged by those who perceive the action to limit their market opportunities (e.g., farmers and developers), their sympathizers, and others who prefer the status quo. Supporters tend to be those who perceive positive benefits (e.g., environmentalists, conservationists, and homeowners) and those who see it as a supplement to other preservation techniques, based on concerns over such things as growing public costs of land acquisition, limited effectiveness of existing alternatives, or the perceived urgency to act to manage growth. Given the complexity of the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Substantial downzoning; Takings; Land use; Growth management; Open space; Political economy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55865
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The Evolution of Grain Policy Beyond Europe: Ottoman Grain Administration in the Late Eighteenth Century AgEcon
Agir, Seven.
During the second half of the eighteenth century, the Ottoman policy-makers adopted a more liberal attitude towards price formation in the Ottoman grain markets. This was accompanied by the fiscal and administrative centralization of the grain trade. These seemingly contradictory policy changes could, in part, be explained in the context of conjectural changes in grain demand and supply, which rendered pre-emptive privileges and price controls less effective. The policy change, however, was not only a practical response to the strains on the pre-existing supply network but also reflected a new concern with the state of agricultural production along with the emergence of emulation as a development strategy.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: B15; N33; N35; N43; N45; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; Ottoman economic institutions; Grain markets; Liberalization.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/107271
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Economic Analysis of U.S. Immigration Reforms AgEcon
Aguiar, Angel; Walmsley, Terrie L..
In January 2004, President George Bush proposed the creation of a temporary worker program to allow more migrant workers to enter the US legally. This new temporary worker program would be open to undocumented workers in the US, as well as to prospective migrants currently residing abroad. The program would temporarily allow immigrants to fill jobs that, according to employers, would otherwise go unfilled at the current wage. The US Congress vetoed the presidential proposal, however, and requested a stricter enforcement of immigration law and the consequent deportation of undocumented immigrants. This study analyzes the economic effects of these immigration reforms on the US economy using an applied global general equilibrium model of migration. In...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: US Undocumented Workers; Applied General Equilibrium; Political Economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49302
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The political-economy of tax reforms in Pakistan: the ongoing saga of the GST AgEcon
Ahmad, Ehtisham.
Should tax reforms be guided by rules of thumb suggested by the IMF, or directions or reform based on analytical approaches, such as optimal tax theory? In many cases, the applications of the directions of reform—which suggest a differentiation of the structure given distributional, incentive and revenue concerns, can be brought close to the IMF prescriptions by a judicious balancing of tax instruments—such as a single or dual rate VAT together with systems of excises. But in some cases, such as Pakistan, neither prescription has yielded either the revenues anticipated, nor the necessary salutary effect on incentives for production—despite repeated attempts during successive IMF programs over 20 years. The proposition in this paper is that the collusion...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Financial Economics; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95948
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Analysing agricultural productivity growth in a framework of institutional quality AgEcon
Ahmed, Mirza Nomman; Maas, Sarah; Schmitz, P. Michael.
This paper addresses the question whether the institutional environment of transition countries in Eastern Europe affects productivity growth in the agricultural sector. Situated in a neoclassical growth framework, a dynamic panel model for the period 1996-2005 provides evidence that poor institutional quality leads to a slowdown in agricultural productivity growth. Productivity growth is limited by a high degree of corruption, which is of particular importance given that corruption has been proven to be most prevalent in Eastern European countries. Moreover, agricultural productivity in countries where privatisation and transferability of land is restricted is found to grow at a slower rate than countries supporting market-oriented land reforms....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Eastern Europe; Transition; Productivity growth; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90793
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Agrarpolitische Interessen Frankreichs und Deutschlands – Gemeinsamkeiten und Divergenzen unter sich ändernden Rahmenbedingungen AgEcon
Ahrens, Heinz; Lippert, Christian.
The aim of this contribution is to examine how the French and the German positions on agricultural policy have developed since the foundation of the EEC and what the driving forces were behind. The “general consensus” underlying the EEC treaty, and according to which the common market would be “conquered” by France in the case of the classical agricultural products, could not be translated into practice; for what emerged for these products was not a customs union but a “price support union”. As a consequence French intra-community agricultural exports had to be redirected to the world market. Thus initial positive French income transfers via intracommunity trade were transformed into transfers from the EC budget, an evolution that can be interpreted as a...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: CAP; Agricultural policy; European Union; France; Germany; EEC Treaty; Price cuts; Quantitative restrictions; Agenda 2000; Agricultural and Food Policy; Political Economy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98761
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Decentralization, Local Government Elections and Voter Turnout in Pakistan AgEcon
Akramov, Kamiljon T.; Qureshi, Sarfraz; Birner, Regina; Khan, Bilal Hasan.
Decentralization has the potential to improve the accountability of government and lead to a more efficient provision of public services. However, accountability requires broad groups of people to participate in local government. Thus, voter turnout at local government elections is an important component of government accountability. This study used survey data on the 2005 local government elections in Pakistan to analyze the impact of electoral mechanisms, the credibility of elections, and voters’ socioeconomic characteristics on voter turnout. The rational-choice perspective is applied to develop the specifications of the empirical model. The empirical analysis is based on a series of standard and multilevel random-intercept logistic models. Our...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Decentralization; Local government elections; Political participation; Voter turnout; Public service provision; Political Economy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42345
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Past Performance Evaluation in Repeated Procurement: A Simple Model of Handicapping AgEcon
Albano, Gian Luigi; Cesi, Berardino.
When procurement contracts are awarded through competitive tendering participating firms commit ex ante to fulfil a set of contractual duties. However, selected contractors may find profitable to renege ex post on their promises by opportunistically delivering lower quality standards. In order to deter ex post moral hazard, buyers may use different strategies depending on the extent to which quality dimensions are contractible, that is, verifiable by contracting parties and by courts. We consider a stylized repeated procurement framework in which a buyer awards a contract over time to two firms with different efficiency levels. If the contractor does not deliver the agreed level of performance the buyer may handicap the same firm in future competitive...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Repeated Procurement; Handicapping; Relational Contracts; Stick and Carrot Strategy; Political Economy; C73; D82; D44; H57; K12; L14.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6370
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THE EFFECT AND PERSISTENCE OF MAJOR CHANGES IN ECONOMIC POLICIES ON THE LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE (TREND) OF ETHIOPIAN AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Alemu, Zerihun Gudeta; Oosthuizen, L.K.; van Schalkwyk, Herman D..
Agriculture in the Ethiopian economy has survived three major structural breaks, namely the 1974 change of policy in favour of a command-based economic system, the 1984 famine and the 1992 change of policy that introduced a market economy. A regression procedure was applied to analyze the effect of these breaks on the slope and intercept of agricultural GDP. In addition, statistical properties were studied to measure the degree of persistence of shocks in agricultural GDP. In the regression equation, only the 1984 famine was found to be significant. The non-significance of policy parameters in the regression equation could be associated with a lack of infrastructural facilities and the subsistence nature of Ethiopian agriculture. The study of the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Political Economy; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19089
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A PRINCIPAL-AGENT APPROACH TO THE DELEGATION OF REGULATORY AUTHORITY AgEcon
Alevy, Jonathan E..
This paper applies a multi-tasking model of moral hazard to study the delegation of regulatory authority for health and environmental risks. The model characterizes the conditions under which single and multiple bureaucratic agencies are optimal, and relates these findings to discussions of appropriate regulation of agricultural biotechnology
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20764
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THE IMPACT OF CAP REFORM ON ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Alexandri, Cecilia; Luca, Lucian.
The paper attempts to evaluate, on the basis of two scenarios (moderate and radical), the effects of CAP reforming compared to the situation of current CAP scenario and its effects upon welfare. Direct payments for the large farms, some of them operating on thousands of hectares, cannot contribute to the objective of supporting farmers’ incomes. The solution for the modernization of rural areas seems to be their “urbanization”, through investments in infrastructure, development of community services and a move away from farming to other economic sectors.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: CAP reform; Welfare effects; Direct payments; Rural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; Political Economy; Q10; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44858
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