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Registros recuperados: 720
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Welfare distribution and poverty in Uganda, 1992 to 2000 AgEcon
Okidi, John A.; Okwi, Paul O.; Ddumba-Ssentamu, John.
This study covers a period of far-reaching economic reform policies and programs in Uganda. Measures of inequality and stochastic dominance analysis are applied to a series of regionally representatives national household surveys data to shed light on the patterns of inter-temporal changes in levels and distribution of welfare in Uganda. Stochastic dominance analysis of welfare distribution reveals that Ugandan households were better off in 2000 and 1997 than in 1992 irrespective of the choice of a poverty line. Using a sub-regional panel data set that was constructed on the basis of rural/urban categorization we estimate elasticities of poverty with respect to growth to illustrate that deliberate policies focusing on welfare distribution would...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Uganda; Inequality; Stochastic dominance; Poverty reduction; Poverty elasticities; Okidi; EPRC; Consumer/Household Economics; Financial Economics; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital; Livestock Production/Industries; Political Economy; Public Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93853
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Welfare Impacts of the Mexico Potato Quarantine AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Molina, Ignacio; Hussein, Osman.
Under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) tariffs on U.S. potato imports to Mexico were phased out by 1993. Citing phytosanitary issues, in 1996, the Mexican government placed quantitative restrictions on U.S. potato imports and restricted their import only to designated border areas. This article estimates the welfare cost of restricting U.S. potato imports into Mexico. We find that removing trade restrictions may lead to over 1.8 million tons of new imports into Mexico, a gain of consumer surplus of 4.0 billion pesos per year, and a loss of 2.9 billion pesos of producer surplus.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International trade; Non-tariff barriers; Potatoes; Quarantine; Sanitary and phytosanitary barriers; Welfare loss; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; F13; L13; Q13; Q17; C35.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56661
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WESTERN CANADA’S EXPORTS: CAUSES AND IMPLICATIONS OF CHANGING COMPETITIVENESS IN KEY MARKETS AgEcon
Mirus, Rolf; Ryan, Chris.
This report surveys the export performance of Western Canadian goods producers for the period 1995 to 2007. During that period Canada’s GDP growth outpaced export growth, but Western Canada’s exports grew at a faster rate than Canada’s exports overall, resulting in increased weight of Western exports in Canada’s total. As well, Western Canada’s exports have shifted significantly towards the NAFTA markets of US and Mexico. The composition of products exported from the West and the individual provinces is shown in detail. Each province is found to have unique export strengths. During the observation period, B.C.’s exports were the most volatile and Manitoba’s the least, but overall the provincial economies of Alberta and Saskatchewan were the most volatile....
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Western Canada; International trade; Trade; Competitiveness; Key markets; NAFTA; FTA; Free trade agreements; Imports; Exports; United States; Alberta; Western provinces; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60430
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WESTERN ECONOMIC EXPECTATIONS SURVEY: MARCH, 2010 AgEcon
Brisbois, Jason; Emter, Nicholas A.; Frost, Jean; Gibbins, Dan; Marcil, Jacques.
The online Western Economic Expectations survey solicits views on the future economic performance of the western provinces and the country from over 2,000 economists and financial analysts who are closest to the working details of the Western Canadian economy. The survey covers people who use economics in their work, in universities and colleges, industry associations, economic development agencies, the private sector and the public service across Western Canada. The survey is conducted through a partnership between Alberta’s two premier economic and policy research centres, the Canada West Foundation in Calgary and the Western Centre for Economic Research at the University of Alberta’s School of Business in Edmonton, It is the only survey that solicits...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Western Economy; Economic expectations; Economists; Survey; Expectations; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60405
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Wettbewerbspolitische Instrumente der Welthandelsorganisation AgEcon
Koopmann, Georg.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26178
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What are the Enduring Effects of Fertilizer Subsidy Programs on Recipient Farm Households? Evidence from Malawi AgEcon
Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob; Jayne, Thomas S..
Replaced with revised version of paper 08/23/11.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Fertilizer subsidies; Malawi; Sub-Saharan Africa; Endogeneity; Panel data; International Development; Political Economy; C23; C26; Q12; Q13; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109593
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What Connects Regulatory Governance to Poverty? AgEcon
Minogue, Martin.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30642
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WHAT DIFFERENCE DO POLARIZATION MEASURES MAKE? AN APPLICATION TO CHINA AgEcon
Zhang, Siao-Bo; Kanbur, Ravi.
In recent years there has been much discussion of the difference between Inequality and Polarization. The vast literature on inequality is held to miss out key features of distribution change, which are better described as changes in the polarization. Axioms have been proposed which capture some of these differences, and measures of polarization, as distinct from inequality, have been suggested. The theoretical distinctions proposed in this literature are indeed interesting. But the question remains what difference does it all make in actual application? Do the newly proposed measures of polarization give dramatically different results in comparing societies over time, or with each other? We address these questions for China, where dramatic increase in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7224
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What Happened to Political Development? AgEcon
Ruttan, Vernon W..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 1989 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7462
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When are Private Standards more Stringent than Public Standards? AgEcon
Vandemoortele, Thijs.
Retailers’ private standards are increasingly important in addressing consumer concerns about safety, quality and social and environmental issues. Empirical evidence shows that these private standards are frequently more stringent than their public counterparts. I develop a political economy model that may contribute to explaining this stylized fact. I show that if producers exercise their political power to persuade the government to impose a lower public standard, retailers may apply their market power to install a private standard at a higher level than the public one.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Private Standards; Public Standards; Political Economy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115544
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When Government Spending Serves the Elites: Consequences for Economic Growth in a Context of Market Imperfections AgEcon
Lopez, Ramon E.; Islam, Asif M..
Government spending should be regarded as a social and political phenomenon, not merely as a technical choice. We argue that there is an implicit contract between the organized elites and politicians which often leads to a pro-elite allocation of public resources. A natural and simple taxonomy of government spending follows from this view: spending in public goods broadly defined which mitigate market failures versus spending in non-social subsidies, mainly a vehicle to serve the elites. We theoretically and empirically show that pro-elite spending biases are costly in terms of economic growth. The empirical findings are exceptionally robust.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Government spending; Economic growth; Market imperfections; Investment; Subsidies; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45875
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When Inertia Generates Political Cycles AgEcon
Soubeyran, Raphael.
We propose a simple infinite horizon of repeated elections with two candidates. Furthermore we suppose that the government policy presents some degree of inertia, i.e. a new government cannot completely change the policy implemented by the incumbent. When the policy inertia is strong enough, no party can win the election a consecutive infinite number of times.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12192
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Who are Controlling Community Forestry User Groups in Nepal? Scrutiny of Elite Theory AgEcon
Yadav, Bhagwan Dutta; Bigsby, Hugh R.; MacDonald, Ian.
Nepal has established community forestry institutions to manage natural resources at the local community level under the assumption that there will be better management than under Government agencies. However, community forestry has not been entirely successful as it has not addressed the needs of poor and marginalised groups. The main goal of this study is to examine how Nepalese social structure guides the structure of the Executive Committee (EC) of Community Forestry User Groups and in particular, whether the EC is dominated by elite groups that could in turn hinder the needs of poor and marginalised groups. This paper uses data from the middle hill district of Baglung, Nepal. Statistical analysis indicates that decision-making is dominated by the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Social structure; Leadership; Caste; Community forestry; Decision making; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Political Economy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96666
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Who Benefits from Quality Labelling? Segregation Costs, International Trade and Producer Outcomes AgEcon
Jackson, Lee Ann.
This paper analyses the impact of quality based labelling on product prices, factor allocation and the resulting effects on producers within the context of an international trading system. A general equilibrium model, calibrated to 1998 data, describes United States and European Union labelling regimes for genetically modified agricultural products. The results indicate that the labelling choice of trade partners have large distributive impacts within national economies, as well as across countries and highlight the importance of using general equilibrium framework to understand the system wide impacts of labelling policies that differentiate products based upon quality characteristics. These results are essential for policy makers seeking to understand...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Labelling; International trade; Political economy; General equilibrium; Biotechnology.; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; Political Economy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57897
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Why African governments under-invest in agriculture: results from an expert survey AgEcon
Headey, Derek D.; Benson, Todd; Kolavalli, Shashidhara; Fan, Shenggen.
Agricultural productivity growth is widely seen as an essential instrument of poverty reduction, food security and broader economic growth. Paradoxically, however, the agricultural sector is often neglected by African governments in what is often termed ‘urban bias’. This paper explores what appears to be a very contemporary form of urban bias: that despite open acknowledgement of the importance of agriculture, public expenditure allocations to the agricultural sector remain very low in Africa. An innovation of the paper is to go beyond the broad cross-country picture about why this might be the case to instead examine more complex country stories through the use of expert surveys. Specifically, we interview senior policymakers in ministries of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural development; Urban bias; Public expenditure; Expert surveys.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Political Economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51818
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Why Do Countries Form Regions? The Political Economy of Regional Integration AgEcon
Shams, Rasul.
To understand the reasons for the formation of regional economic groupings two basic concepts are introduced: association and dissociation. Moreover, the importance of interest groups and strategic groups is discussed, and security and bargaining power as basic political motivations are evaluated. The paper also analyses some political economy arguments regarding the determinants of the size of economic groupings and the dynamics of their development through different stages. Finally it considers regional groupings as strategical coalitions with a deep impact on the future of the world economy. Um die Ursachen für die Entstehung regionaler ökonomischer Gruppierungen zu verstehen werden zwei grundlegende Konzepte eingeführt: Absonderung und bedingte...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: New Regionalism; Regional Groupings; Interest Groups; Security and Bargaining Power; Strategic Coalitions; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; F; F15; P16.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26214
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Why Might History Matter for Development Policy? AgEcon
Kanbur, Ravi.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development; Political Economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48917
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Why would some migrants choose to engage in degrading work? AgEcon
Stark, Oded; Fan, C. Simon.
This paper develops a model of voluntary migration into degrading work. The essence of the model is a tension between two “bads:” that which arises from being relatively deprived at home, and that which arises from engaging in humiliating work away from home. Balancing between these two “bads” can give rise to an explicit, voluntary choice to engage in humiliating work. The paper identifies conditions under which a migrant will choose to engage in degrading work rather than being forced into it, to work abroad as a prostitute, say, rather than on a farm. The paper delineates the possible equilibria and finds that greater relative deprivation will make it more likely that the equilibrium outcome will be “engagement in prostitution.” It is shown that under...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Migrants; Relative deprivation; Degrading work; Humiliation; Multiple equilibria; Welfare assessment; Policy implications; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; F22; J24; J81.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101648
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Zur Effizienz der deutschen Agrarverwaltung AgEcon
Mann, Stefan.
The efficiency of agricultural administration is analysed in this article by costs that arise in a region for administring one hectare farmland or one farm. Variances of these costs between regions can be explained by intra-organisational efficiency on the one hand and by inter-organisational efficiency on the other. Costs for the administration of 131 German regions are empirically estimated. Costs per hectare vary between DM 44 and DM 183. By regression, cost variances can be explained by the area a regional office administers and by the participation of a district office in the system, two important inter-organisational factors. A comparison of services between “cheap” and “expensive” regions does not reveal clear differences.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural administration; Administrative costs; Interorganizational efficiency; Agricultural and Food Policy; Political Economy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98893
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ZUR INSTITUTIONELLEN STEUERBARKEIT VON PRODUKTIVEM UNTERNEHMERTUM IM TRANSFORMATIONSPROZESS RUSSLANDS AgEcon
Petrick, Martin.
Der Transformationsprozess Russlands von einer zentralstaatlich geplanten Volkswirtschaft hin zu einer Marktwirtschaft nach westlichem Vorbild liefert eine aufschlussreiche Fallstudie über die von William Baumol (1990) vertretene These der institutionellen Steuerbarkeit von produktivem Unternehmertum durch einen unabhängigen und wohlmeinenden Staat (Journal of Political Economy 98, S. 893-921). Entgegen Baumols Annahme von der Konstanz des Unternehmertums in Raum und Zeit gibt es empirische und historische Hinweise, dass die Verbreitung von unternehmerischen Eigenschaften und Verhalten in Russland deutlich geringer ist als in anderen Ländern. Im Transformationsprozess nahmen politische Unternehmer nicht nur aktiv an der Ausgestaltung der institutionellen...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Unternehmertum; Russland; Transformationsprozess; Institutionelle Steuerung; Entrepreneurship; Russia; Transition process; Institutional reform.; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; Public Economics; L26; P21..
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94721
Registros recuperados: 720
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