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Attacking Poverty: What is the Value Added of a Human Rights Approach? AgEcon
Kanbur, Ravi.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Political Economy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51113
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ATTITUDES TOWARD GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN AGRICULTURE: RESULTS OF A NATIONAL SURVEY AgEcon
Duffy, Patricia A.; Molnar, Joseph J..
This study reports results from a nationwide survey of public attitudes toward agriculture. The study focuses on attitudes toward government involvement in agriculture across regions of the county and residential categories.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 1989 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30186
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AUCTIONING OUTCOME-BASED CONSERVATION CONTRACTS AgEcon
Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe; Schilizzi, Steven; Breustedt, Gunnar.
This paper explores two ideas to enhance the performance of agri-environmental contracting schemes: linking contract payments to environmental outcomes and putting the contracts up for tender. This paper investigates whether there are any gains to be had by combining the benefits of both approaches. Controlled lab experiments were run in two countries, systematically varying the rate at which payments are linked to environmental outcomes. This paper clarifies the conditions under which the benefits from combining tenders with incentive payments outweigh the costs.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Conservation tenders; Auctions; Incentive contracts; Agricultural policy; Environmental policy; Market-based instruments; Experimental economics; Auktionen; Ausschreibungsverfahren; Agrar-Umweltverträge; Agrar-Umweltpolitik; Anreizverträge; Experimentelle Ökonomie; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Demand and Price Analysis; Political Economy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114523
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Außerlandwirtschaftliche Diversifikation im Transformationsprozess. Diversifikationsentscheidungen und -strategien ländlicher Haushalte in Slowenien und Mazedonien AgEcon
Mollers, Judith.
Problem and objectives. Non-farm rural diversification is gaining prominence in the debate on rural development since the end of the 1990s. The expansion of non-farm employment and the diversification of incomes are important policy objectives because they offer a solution to the employment and structural problems of a shrinking agricultural sector. Development policies focusing on the rural non-farm sector aim at offering employment options and reducing urban migration. They can contribute to poverty reduction, economic growth and a more equal income distribution. This research is based on a household survey including 240 randomly selected rural households in the regions of Gorenjska and Pomurska in Slovenia as well as Gevgelija and Kumanovo in Macedonia....
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation Palavras-chave: Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Political Economy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92495
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Australian economic development and the environment: conflict or synergy? AgEcon
Bennett, Jeffrey W.; Gillespie, Robert; Dumsday, Robert G..
The populist view of economic development and the environment is that advances in one will necessarily result in a decline in the other. Evidence in the Australian context is that the dual goals can be achieved simultaneously. As economic development progresses, the increasing levels of income stimulate greater demand for environmental improvements. The population engages in more environmentally focused consumption and calls for its governments to introduce more policies designed to rehabilitate and protect environmental assets. Concurrently, the increasing levels of wealth allow for increasing expenditure on research and development into production processes that generate greater productivity and less environmental damage. The Australian agricultural...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Economic development; Environmental protection; Agriculture; Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Financial Economics; Political Economy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6040
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Australia's Economic Policies in an Era of Globalisation AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
Outlines changes in Australian economic policies that have occurred in recent decades in response to growing economic globalisation. It considers microeconomic reforms in Australia and changes to its industry policy (including important changes in national competition policy) its financial reforms (exchange rate and banking reforms), its liberalisation of international trade and of foreign investment, both inward and outward. Furthermore, particular consideration is given to Australia’s policies and its lobbying in relation to The World Trade Organisation (WTO), economic regionalism, and bilateralism. These policies provide further insights into the way that Australia has responded to growing economic globalisation.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Globalisation; Industry policy; Financial reforms; International trade; Foreign investment; Financial Economics; International Development; Political Economy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90534
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Az Agrárgazdasági Tanács állásfoglalása az agrárgazdaság 2010 évi helyzetéről AgEcon
Popp, Jozsef; Szekely, Csaba.
Összefoglalóan megállapítható, hogy 2010-ben kedvező fejlemény a gazdálkodók jövedelemhelyzetének javulása, valamint a növekvő mezőgazdasági és élelmiszer-ipari külkereskedelmi mérleg. Ugyanakkor továbbra is aggodalomra ad okot a kivitel és behozatal termékszerkezetének alakulása (feldolgozott termékek importhányada magas, exporthányada alacsony), a foglalkoztatás csökkenése, a növénytermelés és az állattenyésztés aránya, valamint a csökkenő támogatások hatására negatív jelenség volt a beruházások visszaesése. A jelentés pontos képet ad az élelmiszer-gazdaságról, azaz a termékpályáról, a dezintegráció és a nemzetközi versenyképesség problémáiról. A termékpálya szereplői mindaddig ki lesznek téve a hektikus ármozgásoknak, amíg nem jön létre közöttük bizalmi...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Agrárágazat; Agrárpolitika; Agrárszabályozás; Vidékfejlesztés; Környezetvédelem; Agricultural sector; Agricultural policy; Agricultural regime; Rural development; Protection of the environment; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Political Economy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119938
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Az egykulcsos személyi jövedelemadó várható hatásai az agrárfoglalkoztatásra AgEcon
Horvath, Gabor; Paragi, Marton.
A személyi jövedelemadó rendszert érintő 2011. évi változásokkal kapcsolatban elhangzott vélemények és értékelések rendkívül egysíkúak. A változások és az eredmények bemutatásakor az adózó magánszemélyt állították a középpontba, a magánszemélyeket érő pozitív és negatív hatásokat összevetve, s így mérleget vonva. Az intézkedések gazdaságpolitikai dimenzióit ugyanakkor figyelmen kívül hagyták: az ágazati szinten megnyilvánuló hatások számszerűsítése, illetve a makrogazdasági következmények összegzése és bemutatása nem történt meg. Az szja-változásokból fakadó nettóbér-csökkenést a munkáltatóknak kompenzálniuk kell. Az intézkedéssel jól járó munkavállalók ugyanakkor kizárólagosan élvezik nettó bérük növekményének hasznát. Ez ágazati szinten azt jelenti, hogy...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Egykulcsos személyi jövedelemadó; Munkavállalók; Munkáltatók; Foglalkoztatás; Single rate income tax; Employee; Employer; Employment; Financial Economics; Political Economy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/119893
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Bargaining over governments in a stochastic environment AgEcon
Merlo, Antonio.
In this paper we structurally estimate a game-theoretic model of government formation in a multiparty parliamentary democracy. We focus on the timing and the terms of government agreements in the context of a multilateral stochastic model of sequential bargaining with complete information (Merlo and Wilson (1194, 1995)) where efficient delays may occur in the unique equilibrium. Besides showing that our model yields a good fit to the data on the duration of negotiations over government formation as well as government durations in postwar Italy, we use our estimates to quantify the advantage to proposing and to conduct policy experiments to evaluate the effects of changes in the bargaining procedure. We show that the gains from proposing tend to be quite...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Noncooperative bargaining; Delay; Government formation; Structural estimation; Duration models.; Political Economy; C41; C51; C73; C78; D72.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7476
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BEHAVIOURS OF CONSERVATION ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS. Analysis based on New (and not so new) Institutional Economics AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
This article draws mostly (but not entirely) on new institutional economics to consider the likely behaviours of non-government conservation organizations and the implications of these behaviours for biodiversity conservation. It considers how institutional factors may result in behaviour of conservation NGOs diverging from their objectives, including their support for biodiversity conservation; examines aspects of rent capture and conservation alliances; specifies social factors that may restrict the diversity of species supported by NGOs for conservation; considers bounded rationality in relation to the operation of conservation NGOs; and using game theory, shows how competition between NGOs for funding can result in economic inefficiencies and narrow...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Australia; Biodiversity conservation; Bounded rationality; Civil society; Common Agricultural Policy; European Union; Landcare; Mixed goods; New institutional economics; New Zealand; NGOs; Principal-and-agent problem; Political acceptability; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; Q00; Q2; Q5; Q57; Z13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6185
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Below Cost Legislation – Did it matter and would it really matter today? AgEcon
Collins, Alan Michael.
This paper traces the emergence, evolution, and demise of below cost legislation in the grocery industry in Ireland. The paper explores retail buyers’ views of the Grocery Order (1987) and the effect, if any, it had on grocery buyer behaviour, competition among retailers, and vertical competition along the food chain until it was repealed in 2006. It addresses the matter of buyers’ likely response to the Order, had it remained in effect, in the current depressed market environment. Views of independent retailers are also provided on the Order. The paper finds that grocery buyer behaviour was determined by the buoyant consumer market and that the Groceries Order acted to depress competitive forces and direct supplier-buyer negotiations to off-invoice...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Below cost legislation; Grocery Buyer Behaviour; Political Economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57999
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Beneficios privados y beneficios sociales en la cadena de la manzana para la exportación en el Uruguay. AgEcon
Rava, Catalina; Lanfranco, Bruno A.; Ferraro, Bruno.
Este trabajo analizó el desempeño de la cadena exportadora de manzana para consumo en fresco, en Uruguay, mediante el método de la matriz de análisis de políticas (MAP). Se trabajó con la variedad Royal Gala, una de las más exportadas localmente por su temprana maduración y su buena aceptación en mercados de valor, como el europeo. Se cuantificaron los efectos de las políticas públicas (impuestos, subsidios, cargas sociales) y las eventuales fallas de mercado que afectan los distintos eslabones, estimándose las potenciales transferencias de recursos, desde o hacia la cadena. Primero se computaron los ingresos y costos en los distintos eslabones considerados: producción, transporte, procesamiento y empaque. Se calcularon los beneficios privados y sociales...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Policy analysis matrix; Production systems; Economic efficiency; Public policies; Export markets; Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Political Economy; Public Economics; D40; D61; E62; H20.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121682
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Beyond Economic Instruments - Social Capital, Governance and Rural Institutional Innovation AgEcon
Murray, Catherine.
Economic instruments, or market based instruments try to bring market advantages to social dilemma situations, where private actions do not lead to socially optimal outcomes. Economic instruments try to redress such market failure. They try to create incentives for firms and individuals to act in the public interest. Such situations can be regarded as ‘social dilemma’. An alternative mechanism to solve social dilemma is to use cooperation amongst individuals, by facilitating and utilising social capital. The use of social capital is remains largely underexplored as a policy option, although this trend is changing, most notably in European rural development. Using evidence from research conducted on agricultural and rural institutions in central and Eastern...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Social capital; Institutions; Governance; Central and eastern Europe; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Political Economy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96662
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Bilateral Trade and Economic Growth: The Empirical Evidence Between U.S. and South Korea AgEcon
Kang, Hyunsoo; Kennedy, P. Lynn.
This paper analyzes the relationships between bilateral trade and economic growth in the U.S. and Korean economies. Using quarterly data from 1990 to 2008, the theoretical procedures utilize Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) models under the static model assumption, an Impulse Response Function (IRF) and Forecast Error Variation Decomposition (FEVD) under the Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model, and Granger causality tests. Empirical results indicate a causal relationship between bilateral export growth and economic growth for the U.S. and Korean economies. The export-led growth (ELG) hypothesis is strongly supported by the results of Granger causality tests on Korean exports.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Export-led growth; Bilateral trade; Granger causality; South Korea; United States; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; Production Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90684
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Bioenergy production in Finland and its effects on regional growth and employment AgEcon
Simola, Antti; Kinnunen, Jouko; Torma, Hannu; Kola, Jukka.
Finnish national climate and energy strategy sets the share of renewables in energy use to 38%, and a significant amount of this should be covered by biomass based energy. In 2020 forestry is set to contribute 24 TWh and agriculture 4-5 TWh to energy production. In particular, bioenergy resources are considerable in the rural areas. However, the regional aspects have gone without investigation before this study. This study is a general equilibrium analysis. We considered only the by-products and waste material from agriculture and forestry as the resources for bioenergy, and only heat and power production were considered as the potential end uses. A regional CGE-model (RegFinDynBio) was used to analyse the impact of increased use of bioenergy potential....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bioenergy; Agriculture and forestry; Regional economy; Growth; Employment; CGE-modelling; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90820
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Biofuels: Potential Production Capacity, Effects on Grain and Livestock Sectors, and Implications for Food Prices and Consumers AgEcon
Hayes, Dermot J.; Babcock, Bruce A.; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Tokgoz, Simla; Elobeid, Amani E.; Yu, Tun-Hsiang (Edward); Dong, Fengxia; Hart, Chad E.; Chavez, Eddie C.; Pan, Suwen; Carriquiry, Miguel A.; Dumortier, Jerome.
We examined four evolution paths of the biofuel sector using a partial equilibrium world agricultural sector model in CARD that includes the new RFS in the 2007 EISA, a two-way relationship between fossil energy and biofuel markets, and a new trend toward corn oil extraction in ethanol plants. At one extreme, one scenario eliminates all support to the biofuel sector when the energy price is low, while the other extreme assumes no distribution bottleneck in ethanol demand growth when the energy price is high. The third scenario considers a pure market force driving ethanol demand growth because of the high energy price, while the last is a policy-induced shock with removal of the biofuel tax credit when the energy price is high. Standard results hold where...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biofuel; EISA; Ethanol; Tax credit; World agricultural sector model; Agribusiness; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries; Political Economy; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q13; Q18; Q38.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53093
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Biofuels: review of policies and impacts AgEcon
Janda, Karel; Kristoufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, David.
This paper provides an overview of the environmental, economical, and policy considerations related to biofuels. While the biofuel production and consumption exhibited significant increase over the first decade of the new millennium, this and further increases in biofuel production are driven primarily by government policies. Currently available first generation biofuels are with a few exceptions not economically viable in the absence of fiscal incentives or high oil prices. Also the environmental impacts of biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels are quite ambiguous. The review of the most recent economic models dealing with biofuels and their economic impacts provides a distinction between structural and reduced form models. The review of...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Ethanol; Biodiesel; Political Economy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120415
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Black Farmers in America, 1865-2000: The Pursuit of Independent Farming and the Role of Cooperatives AgEcon
Reynolds, Bruce J..
A history of U.S. black farmers pursuit of independent farming and the role of cooperatives from 1865-2000.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Cooperatives; Independent farming; Black farmers; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Political Economy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117049
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Blood for Social Status: Preliminary Evidence from Rural China AgEcon
Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Xi Chen acknowledges generous Doctoral Research Grant from the Institute for the Social Sciences at Cornell University and precious data set provided by the Development Strategy and Governance Division at IFPRI. Conference Travel Grant provided by the Department of Applied Economics and Management at Cornell is also acknowledged. We are grateful to Ravi Kanbur for invaluable comments, guidance and encouragement. This paper also benefited from helpful discussion and invaluable comments from Robert Frank, David Sahn, Marc Rockmore, and seminar participants in the Department of Economics at Cornell. Due to time limit, I have not incorporated all helpful comments and suggestions in this early draft paper. The views expressed herein and any remaining errors...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Blood Donation; Social Status; Poverty; Inequality; Relative Deprivation; Rural China; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Health Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; Production Economics; Public Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Risk and Uncertainty; I32; J22; D13; D63.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49411
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Book Review AgEcon
Gray, Thomas W..
Review of: American Agriculture and the Problem of Monopoly: The Political Economy of Grain Belt Farming, by Jon Lauck
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries; Political Economy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46432
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