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BREAKING THE BOOM AND BUST: EXPLORING THIRTY YEARS OF DIVERSIFICATION IN WESTERN CANADA AgEcon
Chambers, Edward J.; Ryan, Chris.
The topic of diversification has been studied extensively by academics and policy makers. The theory of diversification, dating back to the 1930s and the Great Depression, suggests that increasing the variety of industries in a region spreads the risk and reduces the likelihood that all industries will suffer a downturn at the same time. This serves to mitigate the boom and bust pattern often experienced by a heavy reliance on a limited number of industries, which in three of the four western provinces, means natural resource-based industries. This study examines diversification progress in the four western provinces over the last 30 years. The time span covers the greatest progress in trade liberalization policy in the nation’s history, and the evidence...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Alberta; Western Canada; Diversification; "boom and bust"; Shift-share; Portfolio choice; Employment; Sector shift; Development; Policy; Policies; Economic history; History; Retrospective; Location quotients; Industrial Organization; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; Public Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60429
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Bringing Growth Theory "Down to Earth" AgEcon
Lopez, Ramon E.; Stocking, Andrew.
Explicitly accounting for certain basic physical laws governing the “earth” sector dramatically enriches our ability to explain a high degree of diversity in observed patterns of economic growth. We provide a theoretical explanation of why some countries have been able to sustain a more or less constant and positive rate of economic growth for many decades while so many others have failed to do so. The analysis predicts that countries that have an over abundance of physical capital (a concept that is precisely defined in the text) may be unable to sustain a positive rate of economic growth over the long run. Too much physical capital may affect the dynamics of the economy ultimately leading to stagnation. The plausibility of the growth model introduced...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Endogenous growth theory; Unbalanced growth; Structural change; Stagnation; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; E22; Q01; O41.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48944
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Bringing "Honest Capital" to Poor Borrowers: The Passage of the Uniform Small Loan Law, 1907-1930 AgEcon
Carruthers, Bruce G.; Guinnane, Timothy W.; Lee, Yoonseok.
The Uniform Small Loan Law (USLL) was the Russell Sage Foundation’s primary device for fighting what it viewed as the scourge of high-rate lending to poor people in the first half of the twentieth century. The USLL created a new class of lenders who could make small loans at interest rates exceeding those allowed for banks under the normal usury laws. About two-thirds of the states had passed the USLL by the 1930. This paper describes the USLL and then uses econometric models to investigate the state characteristics that influenced the law’s passage. We find that urbanization and state-level economic characteristics played significant roles. So did measures of the state’s banking system. We find no evidence that party-political affiliations had any effect,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Uniform law; Small loans; Consumer credit; Usury laws; Consumer/Household Economics; Financial Economics; Political Economy; N21; N22; I38; G21; G28; K23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50949
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Campaign Contributions and Agricultural Subsidies AgEcon
Lopez, Rigoberto A..
This article examines the influence of campaign contributions on agricultural subsidies. Empirical results revealed that rent seeking works, i.e., campaign contributions of agricultural-related industries influence agricultural subsidies in the manner they best serve contributors' economic interests. Eliminating campaign contributions would significantly decrease agricultural subsidies, hurt farm groups, benefit consumers and taxpayers, and increase social welfare by approximately $5.5 billion. Although contributions are not the only determinants of agricultural subsidies, investment returns to farm PAC contributors are quite high ($1 in contributions brings about $2,000 in policy transfers). In fact, the results are in sharp contrast to the "truthful...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Political Economy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25223
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Can politicians calm public fears of food-borne risks or do they adopt excessively stringent preventive measures?: A political economy approach AgEcon
Arahata, Katsumi.
The purpose of this paper is to examine politically sensitive food safety problems from the viewpoint of political economy. The model was built in order to clarify the behaviors of consumers and politicians, employing the prospect theory and the median voter theorem. Major findings and policy implications in this study are as follows: Firstly, as an outcome of the theoretical analysis, it is suggested that politicians may magnify consumers’ excessive response to food scares. Secondly, several countervailing factors that can mitigate such consumers’ excessive responses may exist. Nevertheless, in Japan, they may be weak or may have become weak and do not mitigate such excessive responses. Finally, it is recommended that politicians’ staff or...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food safety; Political economy; The prospect theory; The median voter theorem; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Political Economy; Public Economics; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51621
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Can Process Conditionality Enhance Aid Effectiveness? The Role of Bureaucratic Interest and Public Pressure AgEcon
Hefeker, Carsten; Michaelowa, Katharina.
Can process conditionality really enhance poverty reduction in developing countries? This question is addressed in the framework of a politico-economic model considering political distortions both on the recipient and on the donor side. It turns out that process conditionality is a very useful tool to raise the welfare of the poor as long as the international aid organizations hold all necessary information to assess the political situation in recipient countries and to select the true representatives of the poor into a participatory process. If they do not hold this information or if other bureaucratic interests reduce their incentive to acquire this information, process conditionality loses its effectiveness in achieving the desired objective.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty reduction; Process conditionality; Political economy of international organizations.; Food Security and Poverty; Political Economy; D72; D73; F35; O19.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26389
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Cap-and-Trade: The Evolution of an Economic Idea AgEcon
Tietenberg, Tom.
Over the past three decades or so, emissions trading has evolved from an idea that was little more than an academic curiosity to its current role as the centerpiece of the U.S. program to control acid rain and international programs to control greenhouse gases. This essay identifies some of the key milestones of this evolution, describes how that evolution was shaped by economic analysis, elicits some of the lessons about the design and effectiveness of emissions trading that have emerged from analysis of that evolution, and points out a few of the barriers that lie in the path of achieving a truly global carbon market.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Cap-and-trade; Climate policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Political Economy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95836
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Casting the naturalization of asylum seekers as an economic problem AgEcon
Stark, Oded.
The naturalization of asylum seekers is modeled as an economic problem. In choosing their level of investment in host-country-specific human capital, asylum seekers take into consideration the probability of their being naturalized. The government of the host country chooses the probability of naturalization that most encourages the acquisition of such human capital. That human capital, in turn, increases the asylum seekers’ productivity and earnings and, consequently, maximizes the government’s tax receipts if the asylum seekers are allowed to stay permanently. Conditions are presented under which the optimal level of investment in the host-country-specific human capital is positive, and rises in the probability of naturalization. The asylum seeker’s...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: The probability of naturalization; Investment in host-country-specific human capital; Economic behavior of asylum seekers; Economic behavior of the government of the host country; Stackelberg game; Financial Economics; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; A13; F20; J24; J41; J61.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/62160
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Centralized Clearing for Over-the-Counter Derivatives AgEcon
Rausser, Gordon C.; Balson, William; Stevens, Reid.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120533
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Centralized versus Individual: Governance of Farmer Professional Cooperatives in China AgEcon
Jia, Xiangping; Hu, Yamei; Hendrikse, George W.J.; Huang, Jikun.
Based on a national representative survey conducted in 2009, this study shows that the decision-making within Farmer Professional Cooperatives (FPCs) in China is decentralized to individual farmers. However, there is a trend that the decision rights of farming are decomposed to marketing, production and input procuring. While the rights for production and input procuring stay with family farmers, marketing rights tend to be collectivized. Compared to FPCs having external initiating sources, FPCs initiated by farmers are more inclined to introduce centralized decision-making. The governance structure of FPCs in transition China presents hybrid forms of both hierarchy and family farming.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farmer; Cooperatives; Governance; China; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; L14; Q13; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90803
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Chal­len­ges of edu­ca­ti­on and in­no­va­ti­on. Pro­cee­dings of the Fourth Green Week Sci­en­ti­fic Con­fe­rence. AgEcon
Kashtanova, Elena G.; Leeds, Elke M.; Rivera, William M.; Mandler, Andreas; Imami, Drini; Leonetti, Luciano; Stefanllari, Andi; Zhllima, Edvin; Dajnoki, Krisztina; Peto, Karoly; Grasselli, Norbert; Drejerska, Nina; Ziolkowska, Jadwiga; Simon, Leo K.; Appel, Franziska; Ostermeyer, Arlette; Milic, Branislav B.; Leshem, Asaf; Aenis, Thomas; Grotz, Patrick Artur; Tang, Lixia; Nagel, Uwe Jens; Hoffmann, Volker; Ahrorov, Farhod; Djanibekov, Nodir; Lamers, John P.A.; Bobojonov, Ihtiyor.
This volume of proceedings, available as both a hard copy and a pdf file, is an edited compilation of selected contributions to the Conference on Modern Agriculture in Central and Eastern Europe (MACE) 2010, held in Berlin, Germany, at the ICC on the 13th and 14th of January 2010. We would like to thank all those persons and organizations who contributed to the realisation of the MACE Conference 2010 as well as to this edited volume. First of all, we thank all presenters, whose commitment made the conference possible. The conference would not have been successful without the active engagement of such a large number of colleagues from IAMO, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and the Council for Tropical and Sub-Tropical Agricultural Research (ATSAF). Thanks to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96199
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CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE WASHINGTON STATE ECONOMY, 1963-72: AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS AgEcon
Lee, Gene K..
This analysis examines structural change in the State of Washington economy through an input-output analysis. The results indicate that significant changes in interindustry demand occurred between 1963 and 1972. For the Agricultural sector, the interindustry demand in 1972 was more than in 1963. In contrast, the Energy sector used more interindustry demand in 1963 than in 1972. For the Trade and Finance, Insurance, and real estate sector, there was also more interindustry demand in 1963 than in 1972. The empirical analysis leads to similar conclusions when interindustry demand is calculated using alternative methods.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 1980 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/32532
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Changing governance in the EU milk supply chain AgEcon
Krol, Noortje; Polman, Nico B.P.; Peerlings, Jack H.M.; Nikolov, Dimitre.
With the 2008 EU’s CAP reform the governance of the EU’s dairy sector changes. This paper focuses on governance structures between dairy farms and milk processors. To get insight in regional differences within the EU, a literature research and interviews are conducted in three case study areas, namely: the Netherlands, Bulgaria and France. Results show that in these countries both farmers and processors have incentives to form hybrid governance structures with a higher level of control compared to the current structures. Most dairy cooperatives have no additional advantage in managing milk quality and milk supply compared to investor owned firms. Chain integration could go a step further in Bulgaria compared to the Netherlands and France given the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural Markets; Marketing; Governance and Cooperatives; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90810
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China’s Agricultural Modernisation Program: an assessment of its sustainability and impacts in the case of the high-value beef chain AgEcon
Waldron, Scott A.; Brown, Colin G.; Longworth, John W..
China has embarked on a major program to modernise agricultural and agribusiness structures with far reaching implications for rural development, international competitiveness / trade and food safety. There are, however, few studies that examine in detail how the modernisation program has proceeded, its’ sustainability and impacts. This paper aims to provide such as assessment through a series of integrated budget analyses of participants in the modern, high value beef chain. The paper concludes that rather than attempting to skip development phases by fast-tracking the development of modern structures in high-value agrifood chains, China should pursue a more incremental and facilitative approach based around developing structures in mid-value agrifood...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: China; Agriculture; Modernisation; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing; Political Economy; Production Economics; O12; Q13; Q18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50784
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China's Growth Strategies AgEcon
Headey, Derek D.; Kanbur, Ravi; Zhang, Xiaobo.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Political Economy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51156
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Clean or “Dirty” Energy: Evidence on a Renewable Energy Resource Curse AgEcon
Gennaioli, Caterina; Tavoni, Massimo.
The aim of this paper is to provide an assessment of the potential for resource curse in the renewable energy sector. Taking a political economy approach, we analyze the link between public support schemes for renewable energy and the potential scope for rent seeking and corruption. The insights of a model of political influence by interest groups are tested empirically using a panel data of Italian provinces for the period 1990-2007. We find evidence that a curse exists in the case of wind energy, and specifically that: i) criminal association activity increased more in high-wind provinces and especially after the introduction of a more favourable public policy regime and, ii) the expansion of the wind energy sector has been driven by both the wind level...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corruption; Natural Resources Curse; Wind Energy; Political Economy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D73; O13; P16.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115846
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Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies In Italy. An Economic Assessment AgEcon
Carraro, Carlo; Sgobbi, Alessandra.
In this paper, the economic value of the impacts of climate change is assessed for different Italian economic sectors and regions. Sectoral and regional impacts are then aggregated to provide a macroeconomic estimate of variations in GDP induced by climate change in the next decades. Autonomous adaptation induced by changes in relative prices and in stocks of natural and economic resources is fully taken into account. The model also considers international trade effects. Results show that in Italy aggregate GDP losses induced by climate change are likely to be small. However, some economic sectors (e.g. tourism) and the alpine regions will suffer significant economic damages.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Impacts; Climate Change; Adaptation; GDP Losses; Tourism; Environmental Economics and Policy; Political Economy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O13; Q43; Q5; R13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6373
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Climate Policy and Border Tax Adjustments: Some New Wine Mixed with Old Wine in New Green Bottles? AgEcon
Sheldon, Ian M..
Current policy discussions are making a very clear connection between domestic climate policies and international trade. In this article, the economic, legal and implementation issues relating to border tax adjustments for climate policies are discussed. The overall conclusion drawn is that the connection between trade and the environment is not new, having been discussed in considerable detail since the early 1990s, and reflected in an extensive economics literature. In addition, the legal aspects of border tax adjustments are not particularly new, although only a WTO ruling on their use in the presence of domestic climate policies will resolve any legal uncertainty about their use. However, there are some new issues concerning the determination and...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Climate policy; Competitiveness; Border tax adjustment; Environmental Economics and Policy; Financial Economics; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90594
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Climate's Long-term Impact on New Zealand Infrastructure (CLINZI) - A Case Study of Hamilton City, New Zealand AgEcon
Jollands, Nigel; Ruth, Matthias; Bernier, C.; Golubiewski, N..
Infrastructure systems and services (ISS) are vulnerable to changes in climate. This paper reports on a study of the impact of gradual climate changes on ISS in Hamilton City, New Zealand. This study is unique in that it is the first of its kind to be applied to New Zealand ISS. This study also considers a broader range of ISS than most other climate change studies recently conducted. Using historical climate data and four climate change scenarios, we modelled the impact of climate change on water supply and quality, transport, energy demand, public health and air quality. Our analysis reveals that many of Hamilton City's infrastructure sectors demonstrated greater responsiveness to population changes than changes in gradual climate change. Any...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Climate change; Infrastructure; Integrated assessment; Adaptation; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use; Livestock Production/Industries; Political Economy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98499
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Coalition Formation in Simple Games: The Semistrict Core AgEcon
Dimitrov, Dinko; Haake, Claus-Jochen.
We consider the class of proper monotonic simple games and study coalition formation when an exogenous share vector and a solution concept are combined to guide the distribution of coalitional worth. Using a multiplicative composite solution, we induce players' preferences over coalitions in a hedonic game, and present conditions under which the semistrict core of the game is nonempty.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12175
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