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Coalition Governments in a Model of Parliamentary Democracy AgEcon
Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha; Oak, Mandar.
We analyze the relative importance of party ideology and rents from office in the formation of coalitions in a parliamentary democracy. In equilibrium, the types of coalitions that are formed may be minimal winning, minority or surplus and they may be ideologically `disconnected'. The coalitions that form depend upon the relative importance of rents of office and seat shares of the parties. If rents are high, governments cannot be surplus. With low rents or the formateur close to the median, minority governments occur for a wider ideological dispersion. Further, there is a non-monotonic relationship between connectedness of coalitions and rents.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12173
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Commodity Exchange and Institutional Changes: Case of Iranian Agricultural Commodity Exchange AgEcon
Soltanpour, Yazdan.
In this study, an attempt is to figure out the institutional changes that initiate the agricultural commodity exchange (ACE). To assess the affecting factors, new institutional economics approach has been chosen. The framework consisting of four levels of social analysis introduced by Oliver E. Williamson is used to analyze the social environment, institutional rules, institutional arrangements and finally the agency level economics (Neo-classical economics). Regarding this framework, the institutional changes that have initiated the Iranian ACE is analyzed and its constraints to further improvement are discussed.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural Commodity Exchange; Institutional economics; Iran; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; G1; O3; L1.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90825
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COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION – DEVELOPMENT AND PRINCIPLES OF FUNCTIONING AgEcon
Lissitsa, Alexej; Laka, Oksana; Gagalyuk, Taras; Mykolayovych, Kwasha Sergiy.
The following Discussion Paper depicts main principles and mechanisms of agricultural policy of European Union. The study is aimed to show the wide Russian speaking research community only a short historical background and few elements of current Agricultural Policy rules and should be seen as a starting point for further analysis and discussions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: European Union; Agrarian policy; Reform; Europäische Union; Agrarpolitik; Reform; Европейский Союз; Аграрная политика; Реформа.; Agribusiness; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; O13; O 17; P26; P32; P48; Q15; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92019
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COMMUNISM - ITS GOALS AND TECHNIQUES AgEcon
Little, Alan M.G..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 1962 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/17980
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COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES IN AGRO-FOOD TRADE OF HUNGARY, CROATIA AND SLOVENIA WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION AgEcon
Bojnec, Stefan; Ferto, Imre.
This paper investigates comparative trade advantages in agro-food trade. We analyze comparative advantages of Hungarian, Croatian and Slovenian agro-food trade in the European Union (EU) markets. Both the levels and pattern of the revealed comparative advantage measure are investigated. The empirical research seeks to explain how revealed comparative advantages have developed across countries, main product groups and over time and what are likely their implications for multifunctional rural development in the enlarged EU. We employ a disaggregated trade dataset to identify the revealed comparative advantages to provide broader policy implications. The empirical results confirmed bulk of agro-food and forestry products with revealed comparative advantages...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Comparative advantage; Croatia; Hungary; Slovenia.; Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; Political Economy; Production Economics; F14; Q17.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90870
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Comparing the Marginal Excess Burden of Labor, Petrol, Cigarette, and Alcohol Taxes: An Application to the United Kingdom AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H..
This paper develops an analytical framework for comparing the marginal excess burden (MEB) of labor taxes and various commodity taxes, allowing for externalities and interactions between the taxes, and applies the analysis to the United Kingdom. Due to parameter uncertainty and model simplifications the results should be viewed with caution, nonetheless there are some useful insights. For example, even though taxes on petrol and cigarettes confer externality benefits, and these goods are relatively weak leisure substitutes, the MEB of these taxes may substantially exceed that of the labor income tax, except under "high" scenarios for externality benefits. In contrast the MEB for alcohol taxes may be smaller than that of the labor tax, though it is still...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Welfare cost; Labor tax; Cigarette tax; Alcohol tax; Petrol tax; Externalities; Political Economy; H21; H23; Q28.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10860
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Competition Among Rent Seeking Groups in General Equilibrium AgEcon
Roe, Terry L.; Graham-Tomasi, Theodore.
A two sector general equilibrium model is developed in which households can influence the government's choice of the relative price of traded goods and the level of public goods supplied to each sector. The model is used to illustrate key problems addressed by the political economy literature, modeling issues that arise, and the nature of insights that can be obtained that traditional approaches cannot discern.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: General equilibrium; Political economy; Rent seeking; Lobbying; Political Economy.
Ano: 1990 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7483
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Complex assessment of poverty using composite indicator AgEcon
Pacakova, Zuzana; Hlavsa, Tomas.
The article deals with measuring poverty whereas poverty is considered to be a multidimensional phenomenon and is represented by various dimensions. It aims to propose a methodical instrument for complex evaluation of poverty and the differences in poverty among the EU Member States. This instrument is also appropriate for regional comparison among the regions of Czech Republic. Methodical instrument on the basis of composite indicator has been suggested and it has been verified on selected poverty indicators. Using the composite indicator the development of the EU countries in the period 2004 – 2009 is described. While Denmark, Netherlands and Luxembourg made a huge improvement between the two years, the smallest progress was accomplished in Latvia,...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Poverty; Material deprivation; Multivariate methods; Composite indicator; Political Economy; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; GA; IN.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109741
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Complex Policy Choices about Agricultural Externalities: Efficiency, Equity and Acceptability AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
A feature of the research contribution of Konrad Hagedorn is his proposals for the integration of economic, social and political dimensions of agricultural policy. His wholistic approach involves, in part, an extension of new institutionalism to public policy. This article identifies a number of difficulties that arise in choosing public policies for regulating externalities generated by agricultural activity. First, it is noted that finding an economically efficient agricultural policy can be difficult because the functions involved can be irregular – they may involve features associated with the mathematics of catastrophe. This adds to the complexity of public decision-making and adds to the bounds in rational choice. Secondly, in the light of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Public policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Political Economy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55107
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CONCENTRATION OF POWER--ISSUES AND ALTERNATIVES AgEcon
Padberg, Daniel I..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 1975 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/17722
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Conceptualizing Informality: Regulation and Enforcement AgEcon
Kanbur, Ravi.
The informality discourse is large, vibrant and expanding fast. But there is a certain conceptual incoherence to the literature. New definitions of informality compete with old definitions leading to a plethora of alternative conceptualisations. While some individual studies may apply a tight definition consistently, the literature as a whole is in a mess. This paper proposes that informality and formality should be seen in direct relation to economic activity in the presence of specified regulation(s). Relative to the regulation(s), four conceptual categories that can help frame the analysis are: (A) regulation applicable and compliant, (B) regulation applicable and non-compliant, (C) regulation non-applicable after adjustment of activity and (D)...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48926
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Concession Bidding Rules and Investment Time Flexibility AgEcon
Moretto, Michele; Dosi, Cesare.
We study the competition to operate an infrastructure service by developing a model where firms report a two-dimensional sealed bid: the price to consumers and the concession fee paid to the government. Two alternative bidding rules are considered in this paper. One rule consists of awarding the exclusive right of exercise to the firm that reports the lowest price. The other consists of granting the franchise to the bidder offering the highest fee. We compare the outcome of these rules with reference to two alternative concession arrangements. The former imposes the obligation to immediately undertake the investment required to roll-out the service. The latter allows the winning bidder to optimally decide the investment time. The focus is on the effect of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12196
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Conflict - Threat or Opportunity? War, Livelihoods, and Vulnerability in Sri Lanka AgEcon
Korf, Benedikt.
In the light of a growing number of unstabilized regions of warfare or post-war conditions, this paper investigates how civilians survive in the context of a civil war. It analyzes livelihood strategies of farmers in the war-torn areas of Sri Lanka. The analytical framework is based on a revised form of DFID's sustainable rural livelihoods approach placing particular attention on the institutional reproduction of household capital assets in the war economy. The paper delineates a three pillar model of household livelihood strategies focusing on how households (i) cope with the increased level of risk and uncertainty, (ii) adjust their economic and social household assets for economic survival, and how they (iii) use their social and political assets as...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18837
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CONGRESSIONAL VOTING ON FARM PAYMENT LIMITATIONS: POLITICAL PRESSURE OF IDEOLOGICAL CONVICTION? AgEcon
Brooks, Jonathan.
The determinants of House and Senate votes on congressional amendments to limit payments to farmers are investigated. One concern is that campaign contributions may influence politicians’' votes. Lobbying activity, as attempts to distinguish ideological motivations from passive constituency pressures suffer from theoretical and empirical shortcomings. So-called ideologically based decisions may reflect the ideology of the congressman's constituents rather than independent action on the basis of exogenous beliefs, while this ideology may itself be determined by politicoeconomic factors. A simultaneous relationship between money and votes is found in the House, but not in the Senate.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30854
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Consumer's behaviour with respect to meat demand in the presence of animal disease concerns: the special case of consumers who eat bison, elk, and venison AgEcon
Myae, Aye C.; Goddard, Ellen W..
Prion diseases have raised concerns in consumer’s minds about food safety associated with meat world-wide. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) both exist in Canada and consumer markets for beef, bison, elk and deer may have been affected by the diseases. While numerous studies have examined Canadian consumer beef purchasing behavior in the presence of BSE (Lomeli (2005), John(2007)), no examination of the impact of the animal diseases on consumer behavior for households who consume bison, elk and venison as part of their protein intake has been undertaken. In this study, meat consumption behavior for these specific households is examined, in particular, examining meat substitution possibilities between the exotic meats...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer's behaviour with respect to meat demand; Consumers who eat bison; Elk; And venison; BSE; CWD; Media coverage; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing; Political Economy; Production Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61468
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Contest with Attack and Defence: Does Negative Campaigning Increase or Decrease Voters’ Turnout? AgEcon
Soubeyran, Raphael.
We present a general model of two players contest with two types of efforts. Contrary to the classical models of contest, where each player chooses a unique effort, and where the outcome depends on the efforts of all the players, contestants are allowed to reduce the effort of the opponent. Defence increases one’s chance of winning while attack annihilates the defence of the opponent. This model has many applications like political campaigning, wars, competition among lobbies, job promotion competitions, or sport contests. We study the general model of contest with attacks and defence and propose an application to negative political campaigns, where two candidates arbitrate between disparaging their opponent or enhancing their own image. We propose...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12199
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CONTEXT AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR ADAM SMITH'S THEOLOGICAL AND TELEOLOGICAL VIEWS, THE FOUNDATION OF HIS SYSTEM OF THOUGHT AgEcon
Alvey, James E..
The paper will discuss some aspects of the context in which Smith wrote and its relevance for understanding Smith's fundamental assumptions. By fundamental assumptions, I mean Smith's views on teleology, final causes and divine design. These have been described as the "secret" foundations to Smith's writings. Teleology, final causes and divine design were initially seen as central to understanding Smith's writings. Over time, this view fell out of fashion. In the period after World War II, with the rise of positivism, commentators tended to overlook or downplay the significance of these fundamental assumptions. In the last decade, or so, teleology has started to be restored to its former position as an essential element in understanding Smith. The change...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23715
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Contractual Relationships in the Hungarian Milk Sector AgEcon
Bakucs, Lajos Zoltan; Ferto, Imre; Szabo, Gabor G..
In this paper we present an empirical analysis of farmers’ contracting choice in the Hungarian milk sector using 2005 milk producer survey data, employing transaction cost economics. We focus on analysing some key determinants of farmers’ contracting choices: type of contracts, duration, number of contractors, incentives provided in the contract and business history of farmers and buyers. Some of the main results include the importance and effect of farm size, quantity of milk delivered, planned short and long run or contract related investment on farm, the possibility of farmer to influence prices on the contracting choices.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Transaction costs; Contracts; Milk products; Hungary; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90794
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Contratos de opção: análise do potencial de sustentação de preços para o mercado de arroz AgEcon
Adami, Andreia Cristina de Oliveira; Barros, Geraldo Sant'Ana de Camargo; Bacchi, Mirian Rumenos Piedade.
An economic model was developed to analyze the put option contract role to stabilize prices in the paddy market. The possibility of using Federal Government Acquisitions (AGF) to complement the option instrument was considered. The role of the options was to reduce the risks of storing the product for later sale. The model is applied to analyze the option instrument implementation in the 2004/05 season. A two week demand for rice was estimated for the Brazilian market. The results show that the market prices go up when the government acts through the AGF. The options serve the purpose of making prices follow a compatible path. It was estimated that the probability for the option owners exercise their options is greater when the AGF are not used. One can...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Put option; Federal Government Acquisition; Paddy; Political Economy; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61283
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Contribution of integrated water resources management towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) AgEcon
Donoso, Guillermo; Cancino, Jose P..
Published by Asociación de Economistas Agrarios de Chile
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Water and the millennium development goals; Millennium Development Goals; Integrated water resources management; Water resources and development.; Environmental Economics and Policy; Political Economy; Public Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/104413
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