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Registros recuperados: 165
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How Important is Economic Geography for Rural Non-Agricultural Employment? Lessons from Brazil AgEcon
Jonasson, Erik; Helfand, Steven M..
By paying particular attention to the local economic context, this paper analyzes rural non-agricultural employment and earnings in non-agricultural jobs. The empirical analysis is based on the Brazilian Demographic Census, allowing for disaggregated controls for the local economy. Education stands out as one of the key factor for shaping employment outcome and earnings potential. Failure to control for locational effects can lead to biased estimation of the importance of individual and household-specific characteristics. The empirical results show that local market size and distance to population centers have a significant impact on both non-agricultural employment prospects and earnings. The impact, however, is quantitatively larger for employment.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural non-agricultural employment; Economic geography; Brazil; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; O18; Q1; R1.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51150
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How strong is the “natural hedge”? The effects of crop acreage and aggregation levels AgEcon
Finger, Robert.
The level of natural hedge, i.e. the (negative) correlation between price and yield levels, is an important determinant for farmers’ income risks and their demand for risk management instruments. The natural hedge is often approximated with correlations observed at more aggregated levels, e.g. the county level. This induces biases because the natural hedge at the farm-level is smaller than on more aggregated levels. In this paper, we put this idea one step forward and investigate the empirical relationship between price-yield correlations and the underlying crop acreage, using farm-level data for 5 crops in Switzerland. We find that, for instance, a 1% increase in area under maize and intensive barley leads to a change in the correlation by -0.02 and...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Price-yield correlation; Aggregation bias; Crop insurance; Risk and Uncertainty; Q1; G2.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122538
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Impact of rural poverty reduction strategies: The case of smallholders in Sierra Leone AgEcon
Sammeth, Frank; Lakoh, Alpha; Michel, Baudouin; Hites, Gisele; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio.
The present analysis, which exploits one of the first empirical data collected from smallholders in Sierra Leone since the end of the civil war, compares the impact of two poverty reduction strategies targeting smallholders in Sierra Leone: support to rice production is compared with support to coffee and cocoa production in terms of sustainable income generation and contributing to macroeconomic stability and growth. Supporting rice production is intended to help the country regain self-sufficiency in its traditional principle staple. This will help towards improving food security and reducing dependency on volatile world market prices which, for example, with respect to the recent global spike has had dramatic effects on the lowest incomes. Support to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Poverty; Official Development Assistance; Sierra Leone; Food Security and Poverty; O1; Q1.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113211
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IMPLEMENTATION OF SINGLE AREA PAYMENT SCHEME IN THE EU NEW MEMBER STATES AgEcon
Davidova, Sophia.
The 2003 reform represents a significant shift in the EU policy, particularly in its movement to decoupled support. The potential impact of the reform depends on a range of factors including the modalities of its implementation and the structure of farming sectors in different countries. The then acceding countries had the flexibility to choose to implement the Single Payment Scheme (SPS) or to opt for the simplified Single Area Payment Scheme (SAPS). This paper attempts to provide a comparative overview of the level and distributional aspects of direct payments across seven New Member States (NMS) covering different sub-regions, the Baltics, Central and Eastern Europe, and the two most recent Member States from the Balkans – Bulgaria and Romania. Although...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Single Area Payment Scheme; New member states.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Political Economy; Q1; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44866
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Implications of Trade Liberalization and Domestic Reforms on EU Agricultural Markets AgEcon
Huan-Niemi, Ellen; Kerkela, Leena; Lehtonen, Heikki; Niemi, Jyrki S..
The objective of this paper is to explore the overall effects of further trade liberalization and the implemented CAP reforms on EU agricultural production, imports and exports within different EU regions by using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model. The GTAP model is used to compare a lower tariff reduction formula (EU Proposal) with a higher reduction formula (US Proposal) in order to show how sensitive the examined agricultural commodity/sector is to the different tariff reduction formulae. This analysis reveals that EU imports would escalate and EU exports would plummet with declining EU production because of trade liberalization and domestic policy reforms in the EU agricultural markets and sectors.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: EU; WTO; CAP reforms; Tariff reductions; Export subsidies; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Financial Economics; International Relations/Trade; Q1.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92554
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IMPORTANCE OF THE PROCESSED FOOD SECTOR FOR THE U.S. AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY AgEcon
Devadoss, Stephen.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Processed food trade; Processed food; U.S. agricultural industry; Agribusiness; Q1; F1.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/29246
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INCORPORATING RISK IN EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS AgEcon
Shaik, Saleem; Helmers, Glenn A..
Using a non-parametric linear programming approach, our contribution is (1) to examine the impact of incorporating risk in efficiency analysis and (2) to compare the efficiency measures with and without risk for continuous and rotation cropping systems. The model uses Nebraska cropping system data for the period, 1986-2000. Results indicate lower efficiency gains are realized with the incorporation of risk. The t-test at the 5% level of significance examining if efficiency measures are significantly different from one is also reported.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risk; Efficiency; Non-parametric; Cropping Systems; Risk and Uncertainty; O3; C6; Q1.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/35063
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INCREASING VERTICAL LINKAGES IN AGRIFOOD SUPPLY CHAINS: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL AND SOME PRELIMINARY EVIDENCE AgEcon
Hobbs, Jill E.; Young, Linda M..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural industrialization; Vertical linkages; Vertical coordination; Supply chain management; Agribusiness; Q1.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/29166
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Indian Farmers' Valuation of Crop Yield Distributions: Will poor farmers value 'pro-poor' seeds? AgEcon
Lybbert, Travis J..
Potential poverty traps among the rural poor suggest a need to reduce poor farmers' vulnerability by stabilizing crop yields and limiting yield losses. Advances in agricultural biotechnology enable breeders to address this need more directly than ever before with crops that reduce production risk by tolerating climate fluctuation or resisting biotic stresses. Will poor farmers who could benefit most from less vulnerability choose to purchase such risk-reducing seeds? I use data from a household survey and experiment involving farmers in India to infer their valuation of changes in the mean, variance, and skewness of yield distributions. I conclude that these farmers value increases in expected yield in the yield distribution but seem indifferent about...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Poverty; Risk; Biotechnology; Experimental Economics; Farm Management; C9–; D8; O1; Q1.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19160
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Input Price Risk and the Adoption of Conservation Technology AgEcon
Schoengold, Karina; Sunding, David L..
Replaced with revised version of poster 07/12/11.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Price risk; Technology adoption; Matching; Propensity score; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty; Q1; Q5.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103857
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Insecticide Use and Crop Selection: A South Dakota Case Study AgEcon
McDonald, Tia Michelle; Keating, Ariel Ruth; Fausti, Scott W.; Li, Jing; Lundgren, Jonathan G.; Catangui, Mike.
South Dakota has recently experienced a significant increase in the proportion of acres treated with insecticide. Unfortunately, data on insecticide usage by crop at the county level is not available. The following case study seeks to uncover the reasons for this increase by analyzing county-level data in South Dakota with a fixed effects panel regression. The study links the proportion of acres planted for a specific crop to the proportion of total acres treated with insecticide. This approach provides insight on how changing cropping patterns in South Dakota have influenced insecticide use.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Insecticides; Genetically Modified Organism; Target pests; Environmental Economics and Policy; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q1; Q2; Q5.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91991
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International Competition and Environmental Expenditures: Empirical Evidence from Indonesian Manufacturing Plants AgEcon
Kaiser, Kai; Schulze, Gunther G..
This paper analyzes environmental expenditures in Indonesia - a significant newly industrializing economy - reported at the plant level comprising all 23 thousand manufacturing establishments with more than 20 employees. Since compliance is barely enforced, pollution abatement expenditures are effectively voluntary in nature. This allows us to test whether foreign owned firms expend more due to a technology that adheres to stricter Western standards or whether the predominant effect is that both foreign and domestic exporting companies are more environmentally conscious due to better technology transfer or green consumerism in the Western countries. If so, this would contradict conventional wisdom that environmental expenditures reduce competitiveness and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental regulation; Competitiveness; Multinational enterprises; Green consumerism; Export performance; Indonesia; Environmental Economics and Policy; F1; Q1.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26255
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International Consumption Patterns for Proteins and Fats: Intra-distributional Mobility and the Role of Income Elasticity AgEcon
Fousekis, Panos.
Stochastic kernels are used in this paper to investigate intra-distribution dynamics in the world per capita intakes of proteins and fats. The analysis of actual transitions over the last 40 years indicates that lagging countries improved their position relative to the leading. Long-run (steady-state) distributions have been obtained using estimated intake change models. These distributions have been compared to “virtual” ones revealing that the income elasticity of demand or equivalently the rate of growth in per capita income does have a strong influence on the dispersion of intakes at the steady-state.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Nutrient Intakes; Stochastic Kernels; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q1; D12; C14.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58279
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Irreversibility, Uncertainty and the Adoption of Transgenic Crops: the Case of BT-Maize in France AgEcon
Scatasta, Sara; Wesseler, Justus; Demont, Matty.
This study applies a real option approach to quantify, ex-ante, the maximum incremental social tolerable irreversible costs that would justify immediate adoption of Bt maize in France. Based on field trials, we find that incremental private reversible benefits in the agricultural sector are -18 million euro yearly for maize for animal feed and 1 million euro yearly for maize for human consumption. Incremental social irreversible benefits from reduced insecticide use are negligible. The maximum incremental social tolerable irreversible costs are -28 million euro yearly for maize for animal feed and 0.4 million Euro yearly for maize for human consumption.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bt maize; Real option; France; Field trials; Irreversible social costs; Crop Production/Industries; D6; D8; Q1.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24758
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Is Monsanto Leaving Money on the Table? Monopoly Pricing and Bt Cotton Value with Heterogeneous Adopters AgEcon
Oehmke, James F.; Wolf, Christopher A..
We examine the allocation of technology rents between a price-setting, innovating monopolist and heterogeneous technology adopters. A model of monopoly pricing in the presence of heterogeneous adopters is used to examine conditions under which greater producer (farmer) heterogeneity leads to greater producer benefit from innovation in non-competitive markets. An application to Bt cotton determines the profit-maximizing price of Bt cotton seed and reveals that Monsanto and Delta and Pine Land are indeed leaving money on the table in the form of unexploited profit opportunities. However, we estimate that the presence of heterogeneous adopters explains over 80% of the rents that accrue to the farmers.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Bt cotton; Heterogeneous adopters; Innovation; Monopoly pricing; Technology; Valuation distribution; L1; O3; Q1.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43469
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JOINT ADOPTION OF MULTIPLE TECHNOLOGIES: A DUAL, LATENT DEMAND APPROACH AgEcon
Lichtenberg, Erik; Strand, Ivar E., Jr..
Latent demand models can be used to overcome computational difficulties that frequently hamper empirical evaluation of relatedness in the adoption of multiple technologies. This paper develops and applies such an approach to a case involving agricultural soil and water conservation. The results indicate both complementarity and substitution. Own-price elasticities of demand for all technologies and cross-price elasticities of demand for related technologies are substantial. The results are used to derive implications for the design and implementation of cost sharing programs, which have been one of the primary policies used to address nonpoint source agricultural water pollution problems.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O3; Q1; Q2.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28566
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Lessons Learned in the Southern Region after the First Year of Implementation of the New Commodity Programs AgEcon
Campiche, Jody L.; Harris, Wesley L..
The development of the commodity programs in the 2008 Farm Bill involved the origination of two complex revenue support initiatives. The two new programs, Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) and Supplemental Revenue Assurance (SURE), expanded the risk management tool kit of agricultural producers. The SURE program is a permanent disaster assistance program, whereas the ACRE program is a revenue-based commodity program offered as an alternative to the price-based Direct and Counter-Cyclical Program (DCP) created in the 2002 Farm Bill. For the 2009 signup, only 7.7% of eligible U.S. farms enrolled in the ACRE program. In the southern region, three states had no farms electing ACRE and four others had less than 50. Excluding Oklahoma, less than 1% of all...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Farm policy; Food Conservation and Energy Act of 2008; Average Crop Revenue Election Program (ACRE); Supplemental Revenue Assistance (SURE); Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Political Economy; Q1.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92587
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Local Geography of Row-Crop Quality Land and Cropland Cash Rental Rates AgEcon
Du, Xiaodong; Hennessy, David A..
While farmland rental markets are likely to be spatially differentiated, the fine spatial structure of row-crop quality land should have a significant effect on cash rent determination. This study provides a rigorous empirical understanding of the effect of land spatial heterogeneity on cash rental rates. The lacunarity index is employed to measure spatial heterogeneity of land quality, which is built directly upon a soil quality measure, the land parcel’s corn suitability rating index (CSR). A panel data random effect model is applied on annual survey data of farmland cash rental rates of Iowa for 1987-2009. As expected, land spatial heterogeneity has a statistically significant and negative effect on local cash rent rates. The effect’s origin warrants...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land spatial heterogeneity; Rental market; Agricultural Finance; C5; G1; Q1.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103450
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Markets Adapt to China's Changing Diet AgEcon
Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.; Henneberry, Shida Rastegari.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: China; Meat; Consumption; Prices; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade; Q1; F1; P2.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94711
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Measuring the Efficiency Effect of Banning Anti-Microbial Growth Promoters: The Case of Danish Pig Production AgEcon
Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Sauer, Johannes; Jensen, Peter V.; Jensen, Helen H..
This study examines the effect of banning antimicrobial growth promoters on efficiency in the production of weaned and slaughter (finishing) pigs. We focus on the reaction of producers and production efficiency. We evaluate the estimated output and input shadow prices relative to market prices to analyse producer reactions and capture the impact on production efficiency by evaluating the effects of the ban changes on total factor productivity. To this end we model a multi product shadow profit function and incorporate output and input related shadow prices by using a second order flexible functional form. The development in total factor productivity is subsequently measured by calculating the Malmquist index on the farm level. To make infer-ences on the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Animal health economics; Food economics; Shadow prices; Efficiency; Antimicrobial growth promoters; Pig production; Livestock Production/Industries; Q1; Q11; Q12; Q24.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9995
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