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A Strategic Approach to Agricultural Research Program Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa AgEcon
Boughton, Duncan; Crawford, Eric W.; Howard, Julie A.; Oehmke, James F.; Shaffer, James D.; Staatz, John M..
Recent studies have shown that agricultural research can have high payoffs in Africa, but impact depends on how well technology fits with evolving needs and capacity in the agricultural sector and the rest of the economy. Structural adjustment policies (e.g., market liberalization, currency devaluation) and political change are transforming user demands for new technology and the economic environment in which technology must perform. The challenge is how to design agricultural research as a strategic input to promote broad-based economic growth, structural transformation, and food security in the increasingly market-driven, but fragile, economies of Africa.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Security; Food Policy; Agricultural Research; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Downloads May 2008-July 2009: 44; Q18.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54702
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A Strategic Approach to Agricultural Research Program Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa AgEcon
Boughton, Duncan; Crawford, Eric W.; Howard, Julie A.; Oehmke, James F.; Shaffer, James D.; Staatz, John M..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Downloads May 2008-July 2009: 13.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11450
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A Strategic Approach to the Implementation of Precision Agriculture Principles in Cash Crop Farming AgEcon
Maine, Ntsikane; Nell, Wilhelm T..
Precision agriculture is one of the important agricultural technologies that can assist farmers and managers in promoting long-term success. Precision agriculture can help farm managers increase their management capacity, which is of utmost importance in the highly competitive modern agriculture. Increased yields and/or efficient input use can also be achieved with precision agriculture. Precision agriculture also involve a large capital outlay and requires skills in interpreting the masses of generated data. Modern farmers have to engage in pro-active thinking with regard to suitable agricultural systems that can enhance sustainable success of their farming businesses. Farm managers who are contemplating on getting involved in precision agriculture need...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Precision agriculture; Strategic approach; Farming; Farming success; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24259
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A Structural Analysis of Contractual Innovations within the CIS Milk Industry AgEcon
Jackson, Elizabeth; Gorton, Matthew; White, John.
Utilising primary survey data, this paper evaluates the relationships between a set of supplier development strategies and performance within the milk industry in Armenia and Ukraine. Improving supplier performance is a critical task for the dairy industry in the Former Soviet Union as, during the 1990s both the quantity and quality of agricultural output deteriorated sharply. Fragmented supply chains led to high transaction costs and, in some cases, market failure. Drawing on the work of Krause et al. (2000) and Doney and Cannon (1997), a theoretical framework is presented that proposes that, either directly or indirectly, supplier assessment strategies, supplier incentives, competitive pressure, direct involvement, and trust between buyers and sellers,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59181
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A Supply-Chain Analysis of Food Safety Standards Related to the Use of Wastewater for Irrigation of Crops AgEcon
Lagerkvist, Carl Johan; Johansson, Helena; Birol, Ekin; Roy, Devesh; Narrod, Clare A..
Irrigation with raw or diluted wastewater is a widespread phenomenon, occurring on 20 million hectares across the developing world, especially in Asian countries, but also in peri-urban areas around almost every city of sub-Saharan Africa and in many Latin American cities. Growing urban populations and consequent increases in demand for food and water has spurred the use of sewage to water crops as this is, in many cases, the only form of irrigation for farmers who either lack clean water or for whom clean water is too expensive. Wastewater has high nutrient value and constitutes a reliable source (Scott et al., 2004). It is mostly used to produce cash crops (e.g. vegetables and cereals). For example, it has been estimated that in most parts of Sub-...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59115
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A Survey of Literature on Genetically Modified Crops: Economics, Ethics and Society AgEcon
White, R. McKay; Veeman, Michele M..
This paper reports on a review of literature in the form of academic papers and published research on ethical and consumer issues for GM crops in North America, with particular emphasis on GM wheat. The issues raised in these papers and the findings and arguments posed by the authors are outlined. A general conclusion that can be drawn from this overview is that public attitudes toward GM foods are diverse and sometimes quite strongly held. The strong negative views of GM food held by some appear to be mainly grounded in individuals’ ethical or moral values. Ethical and risk assessment issues have not been fully explored in the existing literature. There is a general consensus in the applied economics literature that GM crops result in economic benefits,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; I00; Q16; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7380
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A SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT: THE TOPMARD CORE MODEL AgEcon
Johnson, Thomas G.; Bryden, John Marshall; Refsgaard, Karen; Alva Lizarraga, Sara.
The goal of the TOPMARD project is to develop a model of agriculture and rural development to better understand the agronomic, ecological, economic and social dimensions of rural regions. The resulting model, (Policy Model of Multifunctional Agriculture and Rural Development) was built collaboratively and hierarchically by the research teams from the 11 countries. The model features eight subsectors (Land, Agriculture, Tourism, Region, Human Resources, Non-commodities, Capital, and Quality of Life). Imbedded in the model are a complete dynamic input-output model, and an agecohort education demographic model. The model has both supply-side and demand-side drivers. Land use is the key supply-side driver. Land use, coupled with production system choices,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Multifunctionality; System dynamics; Policy; Model; Rural development; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6497
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A Tale of Two Businesses: Intellectual Property Rights and the Marketing of Agricultural Biotechnology AgEcon
Goldsmith, Peter D.; Ramos, Gabriel; Steiger, Carlos.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93715
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A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATING SOCIAL WELFARE EFFECTS OF NEW AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY AgEcon
Young, Douglas L..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1977 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/32187
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A Trait Specific Model of GM Crop Adoption among U.S. Corn Farmers in the Upper Midwest AgEcon
Useche, Pilar; Barham, Bradford L.; Foltz, Jeremy D..
This work offers a new approach to the adoption of GM crop varieties by adopting the econometric methodology of the characteristics-based demand literature. A random utility framework was implemented through different specifications of a conditional (CL) and a mixed multinomial logit (MMNL) model of crop-variety choice. Willingness-to-pay and price elasticity estimates for traits were calculated. The MMNL approach demonstrates that individuals' tastes for some traits significantly vary across the population. Results further suggest that labor saving technologies have a much wider potential to be adopted. Overall, the use of a trait-based model to examine the adoption patterns of GM crop varieties among corn farmers in Minnesota and Wisconsin reveals a new...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19202
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A Trajetória das Pesquisas com Práticas Agrícolas mais Ecológicas na Embrapa, no período de 1978 a 2002 AgEcon
Borges Filho, Epaminondas Luiz.
Este trabalho analisa a trajetória das pesquisas com práticas mais ecológicas na Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa), no período de 1978 a 2002. Para realizarmos tal tarefa, analisamos as pesquisas (projetos e subprojetos) coordenadas pela Embrapa na área de agricultura, procurando identificar a trajetória percorrida pela pesquisa em relação às questões ambientais. O Pronapa (Programa Nacional de Pesquisa Agropecuária) foi a fonte de dados para o estudo. As pesquisas analisadas em cada uma das sistemáticas de planejamento da Embrapa foram agrupadas, de acordo com o enfoque ambiental, em quatro diferentes eixos de pesquisa: i) pesquisas convencionais; ii) pesquisas de tecnologias intermediárias ou amenas; iii) pesquisas revolucionárias; e...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Meio ambiente; Embrapa; Pesquisa agrícola; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103117
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A TUDÁSCONTROLLING RENDSZER AgEcon
Very, Zoltan.
Az európai munkavállalók kétharmada dolgozik a szolgáltatás-szektorban, melynek legdinamikusabban növekvő harmadát a tudásalapú cégek alkotják. Az információalapú versenyben a személyes-, illetve a szervezeti-tudás módszeres és tudatos alkalmazása a siker kulcstényezője. Egyre több szellemi dolgozó kerül a szervezetekbe, kiknek a munkaköre speciális problémához, feladatkörhöz kap-csolódik. Az információ-technológia fejlődésének egyik hatásaként a szellemi dolgozók egyre hangsúlyosabb szerepkörbe kerülnek a cégeknél. Ők azok, akik adatokkal, illetve információkkal dolgoznak és teremtenek, osztanak meg tudást a szervezet számára. A tanulmány a vállalati tudásteremtő, tudásgondozó, tu-dásmegosztó folyamat irányításának egy módját mutatja be. Mintát ad a...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Tudás alapú vállalatok; Információs technológia fejlődése; Tudásteremtő működés - knowledge based enterprises; Development of information technology; Knowledge based operation; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54316
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A TWO-STEP ESTIMATOR FOR A SPATIAL LAG MODEL OF COUNTS: THEORY, SMALL SAMPLE PERFORMANCE AND AN APPLICATION AgEcon
Lambert, Dayton M.; Brown, Jason P.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M..
Several spatial econometric approaches are available to model spatially correlated disturbances in count models, but there are at present no structurally consistent count models incorporating spatial lag autocorrelation. A two-step, limited information maximum likelihood estimator is proposed to fill this gap. The estimator is developed assuming a Poisson distribution, but can be extended to other count distributions. The small sample properties of the estimator are evaluated with Monte Carlo experiments. Simulation results suggest that the spatial lag count estimator achieves gains in terms of bias over the aspatial version as spatial lag autocorrelation and sample size increase. An empirical example deals with the location choice of single-unit start-up...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Count model; Location choice; Manufacturing; Poisson; Spatial econometrics; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Land Economics/Use; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C21; C25; D21; R12; R30.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59780
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A VIEWPOINT OF REGIONAL RESEARCH AgEcon
Lee, Alvin T.M..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1969 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/29861
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Abatement Technology and the Environment-Growth Nexus with Education AgEcon
Pautrel, Xavier.
This article challenges the conventional result that a tighter environmental tax has no long-run effect on human capital accumulation in the presence of pollution arising from final output production. It demonstrates that the technology used in the abatement sector determines the existence and the direction of the growth-effect. A tighter environmental tax rises (respectively reduces) human capital accumulation in the presence of pollution arising from final production, if the abatement sector is relatively more intensive in human (resp. physical) capital than final sector. That result always holds for finite lifetime but for infinite lifetime it only holds when labor supply is endogenous. The transitional impact of a tighter environmental policy is also...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Growth; Environment; Overlapping Generations; Human Capital; Abatement; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Q5; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101379
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Abstracts of Selected Papers, NAREA Annual Meetings, Burlington, Vermont, June 7-10, 2009 AgEcon
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Financial Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing; Political Economy; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Public Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55550
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Abstracts: Proceeding of National Seminar on "Integrated Rural Development and Management: Issues, Strategies and Policy Options" AgEcon
This document is a collection of 157 abstracts received during the National Seminar on "Integrated Rural Development and Management: Issues, Strategies and Policy Options" held at the IRDM Faculty Centre of Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University during 17-18 December, 2010
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Sustainable Agriculture; Rural Health; Rural Education; Women and Child Education; Human Resource Development; Rural Development Administration; Corporate Social Responsibility; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics; Public Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98255
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Acceptance of Research Results by Farmers AgEcon
Presser, H.A.; Russell, H.M..
In 1962 a rabbit eradication campaign was carried out in the Mallee Region of Victoria. After the campaign was completed, a sociological survey was done to assess the farmers' reaction to it. The survey showed that new techniques were rapidly adopted by the farmers concerned. This was due to the intensity of personal contact during the campaign, and to the use of research results as the basis for the recommendations. While research results convinced some farmers to adopt the recommendations, legal, social and situational pressures were important for others. Different sources of information were used by different types of farmers. The more active and progressive farmers used the more expert sources while others used local sources of information. The...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Farm Management; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1965 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9019
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ACCESSING OTHER PEOPLE'S TECHNOLOGY AgEcon
Nottenburg, Carol; Pardey, Philip G.; Wright, Brian D..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16477
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ACCESSING OTHER PEOPLE'S TECHNOLOGY: DO NON-PROFIT AGENCIES NEED IT? HOW TO OBTAIN IT AgEcon
Nottenburg, Carol; Pardey, Philip G.; Wright, Brian D..
As patents and other forms of intellectual property become more pervasive in the next generation of biotechnologies, designing policies and practices to ensure sufficient freedom to operate (i.e., the ability to practice or use an innovation) will be crucial for non-profit agencies in the developed and developing world, especially those intent on developing improved seed varieties and other technologies destined for commercial release. Are non-profits exempt from intellectual property claims? What constitutes infringement of a patent? How does a non-profit establish its freedom to operate? We address these issues in this paper and evaluate various options for accessing other people’s technologies. Options include cross- licensing agreements, research-only...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research; Agricultural biotechnologies; Patents; Intellectual property; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16099
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