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Registros recuperados: 93
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The rural non-farm economy, livelihood strategies and household welfare AgEcon
Stifel, David.
This paper examines the relationship between rural non-farm employment and household welfare using nationally representative data from Madagascar. It focuses on labor outcomes in the context of household livelihood strategies that include farm and non-farm income earning opportunities. It identifies distinct household livelihood strategies that can be ordered in welfare terms, and estimates multinomial logit models to assess the extent of the barriers to choosing dominant strategies. It finds that high-return non-farm activities provide an important pathway out of poverty, but that barriers such as lack of (a) education, (b) formal credit and (c) access to telecommunications restrict participation in such activities. Individual employment choice models and...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Non-farm; Livelihood strategy; Diversification; Labor; Welfare; Madagascar; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93887
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The Socially Optimal Import Tariff and Tax Credit for Ethanol with Farm Subsidies AgEcon
de Gorter, Harry; Just, David R.; Tan, Qinwen.
We determine how the U.S. ethanol tax credit and import tariff affect the corn-ethanol-gasoline markets and how farm subsidies interact with these policies. We show how the ethanol tax credit and import tariff each uniquely affect the ethanol and gasoline prices. The ethanol import tariff alone increases the terms of trade in ethanol imports and corn exports, but decreases the terms of trade in gasoline imports and the tax costs of farm price supports. With price-contingent farm subsidies in place, the optimal tariff and tax credit will depend on the price level. When farm subsidy expenditures are high, import subsidies for ethanol may increase social welfare due to the substantial size of the fuel market relative to the corn market.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Ethanol; Tariffs; Tax credit; Welfare; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49865
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The welfare effects of microfinance in Vietnam: empirical results from a quasi-experiment survey AgEcon
Nghiem, Hong Son; Coelli, Tim J.; Rao, Prasada.
In this paper we analyse the effects of microfinance programs upon household welfare in Vietnam. Our analytical framework builds upon the rural household models of Singh et al. (1986) and Rosenzweig (1990). Data on 470 households across 25 villages was collected using a quasiexperiment survey approach to overcome self-selection bias. In our econometric analysis the welfare effects of microfinance are proxied using measures of household income and consumption. The empirical results indicate that participation in microfinance has a positive effect upon household welfare, with the size of the effect increasing at a decreasing rate as a household spends more time in the microfinance program.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Rural households; Vietnam; Quasi-experiment survey; Effectiveness; Welfare; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10437
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Uso do resfriamento evaporativo (adiabático) na criação de frangos de corte. Infoteca-e
ABREU, P. G. de; ABREU, V. M. N.; MAZZUCO, H..
Princípio de funcionamento do resfriamento (adiabático) evaporativo; Regiões favoráveis a utilização do sistema evaporativo; Gráfico psicométrico; Sistemas de resfriamento evaporativo; Dimensionamento dos resfriadores; Desempenho do sistema de resfriamento.
Tipo: Documentos (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Frango de corte; Ambiência; Resfriamento evaporativo; Bem estar; Broiler; Misting system; Welfare.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/437183
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Welfare Benefits: the changing face of the Queensland beef industry. AgEcon
Rolfe, John; Donaghy, Peter.
Australian agriculture has suffered from a long-term decline in its terms of trade and a persistent cost-price squeeze. The effects on farm viability have led to declining and aging rural populations, rising rural unemployment, and substantial agricultural restructuring. To cushion these effects and assist in rural restructuring Australian State and Federal Governments have provided support to primary producers including drought aid, reconstruction aid and other support mechanisms. In Queensland the principle agency responsible for providing this support is the Queensland Rural Adjustment Authority (QRAA). This paper will examine the recent pattern of support QRAA has provided the Queensland beef industry and comment on its effectiveness and flow-on effects.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Welfare; Restructuring; Beef industry; Agribusiness; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123631
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Welfare Effects of Demographic Changes in a Ramsey Growth Model AgEcon
Stiller, Silvia.
Population ageing and decline are inescapable facts for Germany which are expected to have - especially due to the labour force decrease - negative impacts on the economy. In this context it is often referred to the possibility of countering potentially negative economic effects of population ageing by a fertility increase or immigration of people at the working age. Of course, changing fertility and immigration are both suited to reduce population ageing. But they influence the population structure, labour supply and thus the economic conditions in substantially different way. This discussion paper focuses on one aspect which is related to this issue. It is examined by simulations how different demographic scenarios affect consumption development and thus...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Demographic Forecast; Population Ageing; Consumption; Welfare; Labor and Human Capital; J11; E17; E21.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26285
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Welfare impacts of alternative biofuel and energy policies AgEcon
Cui, Jingbo; Lapan, Harvey E.; Moschini, GianCarlo; Cooper, Joseph C..
We employ an open economy general equilibrium model to investigate the effects of government energy policy, with emphasis on corn-based ethanol, on the U.S. economy. The model specification incorporates world and domestic markets, assumes pollution costs from fuel consumption, and allows endogenous determination of equilibrium quantities and prices for oil, corn and ethanol. The model is calibrated to represent a recent benchmark data set for 2009 and is used to simulate the positive and normative effects of alternative policies. We find that a second best policy of a fuel tax and ethanol subsidy approximates fairly closely the welfare gains associated with the first best policy (optimal carbon tax and tariffs on traded goods).The largest economic gains to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biofuel; Calibration; Welfare; Second Best Policies; Agricultural and Food Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61138
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Welfare Impacts of BSE-Driven Trade Bans AgEcon
Mutondo, Joao E.; Brorsen, B. Wade; Henneberry, Shida Rastegari.
There is often a need to respond quickly to assess the likely implications of policy changes. Here, an equilibrium displacement model is adapted to study international bans on U.S. beef. An equilibrium displacement model offers a convenient way of quickly predicting the effects of supply and demand shocks. The equilibrium displacement model used here has an international sector, which allows the study of issues that past models with only a domestic sector could not. The estimated welfare loss of U.S. beef producers, due to both Japanese and South Korean bans after the discovery of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United States, is $565.31 million.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Equilibrium displacement; International trade; Meat; Trade ban; Welfare; Marketing.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59236
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Welfare Implications of Washington Wheat Breeding Programs AgEcon
Nogueira, Lia; Marsh, Thomas L..
We calculate the welfare effects of the WSU wheat breeding programs for producers and consumers in Washington State, Oregon, Idaho, the United States and the rest of the world. We develop a partial equilibrium multi-region, multi-product, multi-variety trade model for wheat that provides consumer, producer and total surplus for each wheat class and region. Our results provide evidence suggesting that WSU wheat breeding programs have increased welfare in Washington State, in the United States and the rest of the world.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Welfare; Wheat breeding programs; Economic surplus; Partial equilibrium; Agribusiness; F14; F17; Q11; Q16; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93419
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Welfare in captivity - a challenge to be overcome MV&Z
Pizzutto, Cristiane Schilbach; Scarpelli, Karime Cury; Rossi, Alexandre Pongracz; Chiozzotto, Evelyn Nestori; Leschonski, Claudia.
To provide and to measure welfare of animals in captivity is a great challenge for professionals in this fi eld. Having to adapt to a diversity of stressor stimuli may bring with it important biological expenses for the clinical, physiological and behavioral aspects of these animals. Environmental enrichment is an important tool in the search for species-typical behaviors, better quality of life and the desirable welfare.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Welfare; Stress; Behavior; Captivity; Environmental Enrichment bem-estar; Estresse; Comportamento; Cativeiro; Enriquecimento ambiental.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.revistamvez-crmvsp.com.br/index.php/recmvz/article/view/16218
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Welfare Measurement and Quality Product Differentiation in Agriculture: An Example From the EU15 Beef Sector AgEcon
Ramos, Maria Priscila; Drogue, Sophie; Marette, Stephan.
This paper examines the impact of two different model specifications on welfare estimations. A model specification that takes into account product differentiation is compared to a specification where the product differentiation is overlooked. The welfare comparison under both specifications show some biases of aggregation as well as ambiguous results: the welfare under one specification may be larger or lower than the welfare under the alternative assumption. In order to illustrate our theoretical conclusions, we present an application to the EU15 beef market. We show that the welfare when the product differentiation is taken into account is smaller than the welfare when the product differentiation is omitted.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Product differentiation; Beef demand; European Union; Welfare; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24720
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Welfare Measures and Mandatory Regulation for Transgenic Food in the European Union: A Theoretical Framework for the Analysis AgEcon
Diez, Maria Del Carmen Fernandez.
This paper presents an analytical framework for studying the impact of mandatory labelling regulation for transgenic food. We compare Genetically Modified (GM) and conventional crop markets and identify gains for food processors prior to mandatory labelling and losses after this measure for the GM market. Nevertheless, food processors could obtain gains for conventional products after market disgregation. Finally, consumers will be worse off both for conventional and GM foods unless qualities other than changes to prices are considered.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Welfare; Mandatory labelling; Transgenic; Genetically modified organism; European Union policy; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q18; K32; D62.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24472
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Welfare-Improving Collusion in the Japanese Pork Import Market AgEcon
Fabiosa, Jacinto F..
Imports are increasingly becoming a significant source of Japan's pork supply. Japan's share of imports to total consumption increased from 9 percent in 1980 to 24 percent in 1990, reaching a maximum of 44 percent in 1996. Under the World Trade Organization (WTO) safeguard provisions for pork, Japan can raise its gate price by 24 percent when imports in a given quarter are 119 percent higher than the average imports of the last three years of the same quarter. Japan has already invoked the safeguard provision twice since the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) was signed in 1995. In both cases, the level and volatility of retail prices increased; the CIF values of imports increased, making the impact on the government of Japan (GOJ) tax revenue...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Collusion; International agricultural trade; Policy analysis; Welfare; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18491
Registros recuperados: 93
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