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臺灣茄科植物青枯病菌菌系間的細胞外多醣類之比較 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
廖英明; 徐世典; Ying-ming Liao; Shih-tien Han.
[[abstract]]應用氣液層次分析法(Gas-liquid chromatography )分析臺灣茄科物青枯菌(Pseudomonas solanacearum E. F. Smith)之細胞外多醣類(extracellular polysaccharide )顯示供試菌系間具有變異性。細胞外多醣類之組成除64號菌株較為特殊外,其餘菌系間差異不大,僅在量上具有區別。多醣類係經HTAB(Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium broide)及KCl 之沉澱抽取後,再經酸水解作用(acid hydrolysis),並以Sigma-Sil-A處理轉化為TMS derivatives,再加以分析。細菌培養時間能影響多醣類之產生,以第四天產量為最高。經氣液層次分析的結果顯示P. solanacearum細胞外多醣類之酸水解產物可被測出的包括D(+) fucose, α及β-glucose, glucosamine, α-D(+) mannose, α-glacturonic acid, β-galactose及一些未鑑定之化合物,但並不含鼠李糖(rhamnose) The amount of extracellular polysaccharide produced by strains of Pseudomonas solanacearum, the pathogen of bacterial wilt of solanaceous plants found in Taiwan, was variable and was affected by culture age. The composition of the polysaccharide was analyzed by...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1980
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臺灣茄科植物青枯病菌菌體所含多醣類之氣液層次分析研究 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
廖英明; Ying-ming Liao.
[[abstract]]分析臺灣茄科植物青枯病菌 (Pseudomonas solanacearum ) 16 個菌株細胞體多醣類,發現其組成變異性大。這16 個菌株大致可區分為五類,各類BlJ 間之區分甚為明顯;菌株70 及81 號和其他菌株問之差異程度尤大。存在於細胞體多醣類之化學組成為L ( + ) 樹膠醛糖,α-D ( + ) 甘露糖,α及β葡萄糖,β-分解乳糖,氨基葡萄糖,L ( + ) 鼠李糖,β-分解乳糖酸及一些未鑑定之單糖。在菌株50 中,其lipid A 所含之脂肪酸則以癸酸,棕櫚酸及花生油酸為主,另含少量之其他脂肪酸。 Analysis of cellular polysaccharides mostly derived from cell wall shown that 16 isolates of Pseudomonas solanacearum varied greatly in their components of the polysaccharide, and they could be divided into 5 types. The composition of cellular polysaccharides found in P. solanacearum were L (+) arabinose, L-D (+) mannose, αandβ-glucose, β-galactose, glucosamine, L (+) rhamnose, L-galacturonic acid, and other unidentified components. Fatty acids obtained from lipid A of isolate 50...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1980
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臺灣茄科植物青枯病菌菌體所含多醣類之氣液層次分析研究 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
廖英明; Ying-ming Liao.
[[abstract]]分析臺灣茄科植物青枯病菌 (Pseudomonas solanacearum ) 16 個菌株細胞體多醣類,發現其組成變異性大。這16 個菌株大致可區分為五類,各類BlJ 間之區分甚為明顯;菌株70 及81 號和其他菌株問之差異程度尤大。存在於細胞體多醣類之化學組成為L ( + ) 樹膠醛糖,α-D ( + ) 甘露糖,α及β葡萄糖,β-分解乳糖,氨基葡萄糖,L ( + ) 鼠李糖,β-分解乳糖酸及一些未鑑定之單糖。在菌株50 中,其lipid A 所含之脂肪酸則以癸酸,棕櫚酸及花生油酸為主,另含少量之其他脂肪酸。 Analysis of cellular polysaccharides mostly derived from cell wall shown that 16 isolates of Pseudomonas solanacearum varied greatly in their components of the polysaccharide, and they could be divided into 5 types. The composition of cellular polysaccharides found in P. solanacearum were L (+) arabinose, L-D (+) mannose, αandβ-glucose, β-galactose, glucosamine, L (+) rhamnose, L-galacturonic acid, and other unidentified components. Fatty acids obtained from lipid A of isolate 50...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1980
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臺灣落花生根瘤線蟲Meloidogyne arenaria 之鑑定 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
程永雄; 杜金池; Y.H. Cheng; C.C. Tu.
[[abstract]]落花生根瘤線蟲病近年來在雲林地區逐漸成為重要之花生病害。其病原線蟲經鑑定為Meloidogyne arenaria ( Neal , 1889 ) Chitwocd , 1949。其成熟雌蟲之陰門模紋型(Perineal pattern)通常為卵圓型,但其長軸卻與側線(Lateral line)平行。特徵為拱弧(Arch)較低而圓,由平整條紋(Smooth striae)所構成,背部及腹部條紋(Dorsd and ventral striae)在側線處成角度之相會,側線處有許多雜亂之短條紋,肛門上方無點狀物(Punctation)。雌蟲排泄孔(Excretory pore)約位於頭端後方2 倍口針長之處。本線蟲二齡幼蟲體長1.440 mm 二-( 0.37 ~• 0.49 mm)。侵染落花生後,引起植株矮小、黃化及提早落葉等病徵。根部被感染則產生類似串珠狀之根瘤,但不像M . hapla 會自根瘤處再生放射狀之側根。豆莢及莢柄被侵害,則引起腫狀瘤而畸型。M. arenaria 對蕃茄(盛岡7 號)及小鳳西瓜也有病原性,會引起腫瘤,但對棉花(Stoneville 7A)則無病原性。 Peanut root-root-knot nematode disease has become an important and has threated to peanut production in Yien-lin growth area recently. The causal agent was identified as Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal, 1889) Chitwood, 1949. Perineal pattern of M. arenaria...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1980
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菌質與麻豆文旦立枯症兆發生關係之研究 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
黃秋雄; 張清安; Chiou-hsiung Huang; Chin-an Chang.
[[abstract]]自麻豆地區五處及嘉義一處文旦園採回文旦立枯植株之接穗,除一處外,其餘果園採回之病穗,芽接於椪柑或椪柑與酸桔之穗砧組合幼苗上,經4~6個月後,可發現椪柑新生葉片呈現黃化之病徵,此病徵與一般之柑橘立枯病病原所引起者相同。自麻豆鎮近郊所採回之柳橙及椪柑立枯植株之接穗,嫁接後所得結果與文旦病穗相同。唯文旦穗嫁接後發病比椪柑或柳橙低。另部份由文旦穗生長之葉片亦有黃化及硬化現象。據此,麻豆地區不論文旦、柳橙或椪柑立枯植株,已普遍存在與柑橘立枯病相同或相似病原且此種病原可能為文旦植株葉片黃化、硬化之主因。 比較柑橘立枯病複合病原(Mycoplasma-like orgoism 與Tristeza virus)、立枯病單獨病原(Mycoplasma -like organism)及麻豆文旦立枯之分離株在葡萄柚苗、白柚/廣東檸檬及白柚/墨西哥雷木之穗砧組合苗上之反應,則文旦分離株與立枯病單獨病原相同,經進一步利用墨西哥雷木檢定,該分離株確無Tristeza 病毒之反應。四處採回之文旦枝條,尚未發現Tristeza,但椪柑及柳橙則有。 將文旦及柳橙病穗浸於100 ppm 之抗生素四環素溶液三或六小時,嫁接後幼苗新生葉片尚有部份呈現立枯病病徵,顯示浸藥六小時無法將病組織內之病原完全不活化。 This paper deals with Wentan Pummelo decline by indexing on indicator plants. Symptoms incited by disease sources from declined Wentan Pummelo and likubin-affected citrus trees were compared. The effect of...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1980
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葡萄組織培養之研究-環境因子對葡萄癒傷組織生長及分化的影響 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
賴本智; 易希道; Pen-Chih Lai; Shi-Tao Yie.
[[abstract]]巨峰葡萄(Vitis viniferal L. CVS. Sentenia1 X 石原早生)植株的莖段,葉片及果肉培養於含NAA 0.1 mg / l、Kinetin 0.2 mg / l 及15%(w / v ) coconut milk的Gamborg 和Eveleigh 基本培養基中可誘導形成癒傷組織,經上述培養基繼代培養得多量癒傷組織,以進行各種環境因子對其生長及分化影響的測定。經研究顯示,莖段癒傷組織生長最適的PH 值為5.6。光線的強弱能影響癒傷組織的生長,果肉癒傷組織適合生長於750 到3,000 lux 之問的光強,光強超過4,500 lux 或在黑暗下培養均不利於癒傷組織的生長。在各種光質中以藍光最適於果肉癒傷組織的生長,黃光、紅光次之,綠光較差,固體培養基培養之葉片與莖段癒傷組織均可形成烏巢狀的維管束環節(nest-like Vascular nodule),其內部具有許多木質化的細胞或管形細胞,外部則具有許多類似形成層細胞(Cambium-like cells)的環狀結構,由此類形成層結構,可再進一步分化形成根。而葉片癒傷組織外部的細胞也可分化形成芽原體(shoot Primordia)之構造。果肉癒傷組織在任何培養情形下,均無分化的細胞。液體震盪培養下的葉片和莖段癒傷組織其細胞僅可分化形成似根之多極性(poly-arch)維管組織型(Vascular pattern),無再進一步分化的現象。而果肉癒傷組織則均呈游離的細胞或細胞群,沒有癒傷組織塊的形成,也無分化的現象。液體震盪培養雖能誘發葉片及莖段癒傷組織的特化,唯較固體培養者差。 Callus from grape stem, leaf and fruit sections were induced in...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1980
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蕹菜種子生產改進技術之研究-Ⅰ.開花習性與栽培方式對不同品種蕹菜種子生產力之影響 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
劉政道; Tsung-dao Liou.
[[abstract]]蕹菜是一種耐熱與耐濕性很強之半水生蔬菜,在位於亞熱帶地區之本省,屏東尖葉青骨蕹菜或白骨大葉蕹菜每年均從9月至翌年之4月陸續開花,花序是腋生之聚繖花序,每一花序由3-7朵花組成,是一種兩性整齊之合瓣花,形狀與甘藷花相似,蕹菜開花之順序為由下面節位之花穗漸次往上開,在同一花穗上亦由下面之花朵順次往上開花,開花受精後約1.5-2個月蒴果與種子成熟,每一蒴果含有種子2-6粒,但以4粒居多。 兩品種蕹菜除開花時間外,各園藝性狀均無顯著之差異,白骨蕹菜比青骨蕹菜較早開花,栽培環境(水田或旱田)對蕹菜之開花時間、分蘗能力、落花率、結實率、蒴果種子數、種子百粒重及種子\藁比均無顯著影響,旱田栽培之情況下,白骨與青骨兩品種蕹菜均能產生較多之花數與蒴果,藁重與種子產量也有顯著之差異存在。 旱田栽培之種子產量為每公頃1,172 kg,幾乎為水田產量562 kg之二倍,青骨蕹菜旱田栽培之種子產量也比白骨蕹菜高,水田栽培者,兩品種蕹菜之種子產量雖無顯著差異,但白骨蕹菜之種子產量似乎較高,由此獲知白骨蕹菜較適合水田採種栽培,而青骨蕹菜更適合於旱田採種哉培,此種資料可提供農民蕹菜採種之應用與學術研究之參考。 Water convolvulus (I pomoea aquatica Forsk.) is a semi-aquatic vegetable tolerant toward heat and flooding. Two popular cultivars, cv. Pingtung Green Stem (pointed leaf) and cv. White Stem (broad leaf) flower continuously from September through April in...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]15.
Ano: 1980
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蘆筍花葯培養單倍植物體形成之研究 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蔡新聲; 賴本智; 紀迺淳; Hsin Sheng Tsay; Pen Chih Lai; Nai Chwen Chi.
[[abstract]]含有2 mg/1 NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid), l mg/1 BA (N6-Benzyladenine), 6% sucrose及將無機鹽類減半(Na-Fe-EDTA除外)之Murashigea and Skoog(1962)培養基,可誘導蘆筍單核期的花莉產生極高百分率的花葯callus。不同品種間誘導callus 形成的百分率差異極大。UC 309 第一次花粉有絲分裂期所培養的花葯,黑暗處理者優於照光處理者。植株間花葯具有不同的callus形成力,這種株間巨大的差異可能是幾次試驗無法獲得一致結果的主要原因。 蘆筍花葯培養callus的形成,與花葯的褐化有明顯的相關(相關係數r=0.8046**),大部分產生callus的花葯,都在培養後3週褐化;變成白色的花葯,形成callus機會極少。將誘得之花葯callus繼代培養於含有1 mg/1 NAA , 0.5 mg/1 BA 之Murashige et al. (1972) 培養基可誘導植物體產生。不同品種間的callus 具有不同的分化能力。 Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) anthers containing microspores in early- uninucleate to early-binuclate stages were successfully cultured in 1/2 strength Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium (except Na-Fe-EDTA) supplemented 2 mg/l NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid), 1 mg/I BA...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1980
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蝴蝶蘭葉插組織培養之研究 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
林瑞松; Ruey Song Lin.
[[abstract]]本研究在探討蝴蝶蘭葉片組織培養明確之配方。1.蝴蝶蘭經B5無機鹽及有機鹽,myo – inositoll00 mg / l,蔗糖30 g/ 1 , agar 1%, NAA 5 mg / 1 , kinetin 10 mg / l 的培養基(pH 5.5)誘導,得癒合組織及芽球相似物突起。經在相同培養基作繼代培養可使分化成幼苗。2.葉組織培養中,以心葉形成芽球相似物之能力為最高,而在上表皮形成率較下表皮形成率為高。3.由組織切片顯微鏡觀察,芽球相似物之形成是由表皮細胞及其下面細胞分裂而來。同時亦發現維管束鞘附近薄壁細胞,細胞核/細胞質比例大,具有細胞分裂活性。 An investigation of finding the clear and good media were carried out in order to establish the method of clonal propagation by leaf tisue culture in Phalaenopsis. Calli and protocorm-like bodies (PLB)were induced from leaf tissue Phalaenopsis of in a basal medium containing Gamborg’s B5 salts, 100 mg/l of myoinositol, 30 g/l of sucrose, 10 g/l of agar, 5 mg/l of NAA and 10 mg/l of kinetin, the pH was adjusted to 5.5. Plantlets were also induced by subculture in...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1980
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蝴蝶蘭葉插組織培養之研究 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
林瑞松; Ruey Song Lin.
[[abstract]]本研究在探討蝴蝶蘭葉片組織培養明確之配方。1.蝴蝶蘭經B5無機鹽及有機鹽,myo – inositoll00 mg / l,蔗糖30 g/ 1 , agar 1%, NAA 5 mg / 1 , kinetin 10 mg / l 的培養基(pH 5.5)誘導,得癒合組織及芽球相似物突起。經在相同培養基作繼代培養可使分化成幼苗。2.葉組織培養中,以心葉形成芽球相似物之能力為最高,而在上表皮形成率較下表皮形成率為高。3.由組織切片顯微鏡觀察,芽球相似物之形成是由表皮細胞及其下面細胞分裂而來。同時亦發現維管束鞘附近薄壁細胞,細胞核/細胞質比例大,具有細胞分裂活性。 An investigation of finding the clear and good media were carried out in order to establish the method of clonal propagation by leaf tisue culture in Phalaenopsis. Calli and protocorm-like bodies (PLB)were induced from leaf tissue Phalaenopsis of in a basal medium containing Gamborg’s B5 salts, 100 mg/l of myoinositol, 30 g/l of sucrose, 10 g/l of agar, 5 mg/l of NAA and 10 mg/l of kinetin, the pH was adjusted to 5.5. Plantlets were also induced by subculture in...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1980
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關于肥料試驗的若干意見 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
蘇楠榮.
Palavras-chave: 作物需肥診斷技術; [[classification]]4.
Ano: 1980
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防治水稻黑尾葉蟬藥劑田間復選試驗 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
劉達修; 鄭清煥; T.S. Liu; C.H. Cheng.
[[abstract]]本試驗係農林廳交辦,由嘉義農業試驗分所及臺中區農業改良場,將政府歷年來推荐於水稻黑尾葉蟬之防治藥劑於相同環境下進行藥效之比較試驗。試驗分別於民國64年及67年第一期作舉行。結果顯示,目前植物保護手冊所列用於防治黑尾葉蟬藥劑,對黑尾葉蟬之防治效果差異很大。在兩試區防治效果較優者,按其優劣順位為(1)乳劑類:55 % Azodrins , 50 % Tamaron L . C , 40.64 % Furadan F, 27.4 % Bidrins , 24 % Lannate L , 40 % Kilval S 等六種藥劑。(2)可濕性粉劑類:75 % Orthene SP , 50 % Orthene WP , 90 % Lannate WP,及75 % Furadan WP 等四種。(3)粒劑及粉劑類對黑尾葉蟬之防治效果較差,其中以3.5 % Ofunack-M , D , 3 % Furadan G 及5 % RGeofos G 稍佳。在第一期稻作期問防治黑尾葉蟬時可選用上列乳劑類及可濕性粉劑類藥劑,於水稻孕穗至乳熟期施藥1-2 次較為經濟。 Th rice green leafhopper, Nephotettix spp. is an important insect pest of rice in Taiwan. During 1st rice crop, the population of the insect pest in central and southern parts of Taiwan used to reach more than 100 hoppers per sweep net and cause economic damage to rice...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]14.
Ano: 1980
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馬鈴薯種子繁殖栽培之研究-開花與結實 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
曹幸之; 張有明; Shing-jy Tsao; Yu-ming Chang.
[[abstract]]馬鈴薯嫁接於蕃茄砧木,進行光照處理,植株每日接受光期17小時,約經一個月即能陸續開花,並且花期在40天以上,供試之馬鈴薯品系,其著果率均低,各品系花粉稔性有差異,試驗期間環境欠佳對結果不利。 以自然短日為對照,均顯示三種長日處理能促進馬鈴薯開花但效果差異不顯著,此三種長日處理以白熾燈延長自然短日至16小時、18小時,以及夜半45分鐘的黑夜中斷(night-break)農林一號與五峰三號兩栽培品種在自然短日(5f.c.以上的時數為12.6小時)下能少量開花,除Kennebec與Cardinal兩品種外其餘品種在短日照情形下均以嫁接株較未嫁接株開花早。 Grafted potatoes, given a total period of illumination of l7hr, were induced to flowering. The natural short daylength was supplemented by incandescent light. The percentage of fruit set of all lines was rather low. It might be due to unfavorable environmental factors as well as low male fertility. Four photoperiodic treatments were used to study their effects on flowering---l6hr, l8hr, natural short day + 45mm night-break, and natural short day(12.5 hr.)....
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1980
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鮑氏土壤機械分析法 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
王新傳.
[[abstract]]土壤中大小粒子分佈名為質地,而測定此大小粒子分佈之操作稱為機械分析.在此分析當中,最主要事情,乃為使各土粒完全分散,單獨懸浮於水中,且不致於破壞土壤各單粒.為逹到此目的,仍須應用分散劑及攪拌作用,以除去或溶解土粒間之膠結物質或使失去其膠結作用.最簡單的機械分析法為鮑氏比重法(bouyoucos hydrometer method).
Palavras-chave: 作物需肥診斷技術; [[classification]]4.
Ano: 1980
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鶏卵における高および低卵黄・卵白比の選抜について Ⅲ.卵形質に対する相関反応 OAK
三好, 俊三; 光本, 孝次.
Ano: 1980 URL: http://ir.obihiro.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10322/441
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鶏卵における高および低卵黄・卵白比の選抜について Ⅱ.選抜7世代にわたる直接反応 OAK
三好, 俊三; 光本, 孝次.
Ano: 1980 URL: http://ir.obihiro.ac.jp/dspace/handle/10322/440
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