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Registros recuperados: 24
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Rhizoctonia solani 各菌絲融合羣對馬鈴薯之侵害情形 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
張義璋; 杜金池; Y.C. Chang; C.C. Tu.
[[abstract]]馬鈴薯「五豐」及「克難」兩品種對Rhizoctonia solani 引起之黑痣病均屬感病性。生育後期(80 ~95 天)田間發病率「五豐」為31.2 士3.2 % ,收穫前「五豐」為52.7 士7 %,「克難」為16.4 士3.7 %。R. solani 各菌絲融合群(TRAG)侵害馬鈴薯之比率為:TRAG 1佔9.3 % , 主要由莖部侵入後蔓延至莖基部及塊莖上;TRAG 2 佔11.1 % ,本群病原性較弱,主要危害莖部;TRAG 3 及TRAG 4 各佔39.9 與38.9 % ,均可分另別由莖、莖基部及種薯侵入為害。 Potato cultivars, such as Wu-feng and Ko-nan, were susceptible to black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kűhn. A survey carried out in the 1977/1978 period indicated that there were 31.2 ± 3.2% and 52.7±7% of disease for the variety Wu-feng at the late growth period and the time prior to harvest, respectively. While there were 16. 4±3.7% of disease for the variety Ko-nan at the time prior to harvest. Of those diseased potatoes, about 9.3% were caused by isolates of anastomosis...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1980
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Studies on the anastomosis groups of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn in Taiwan Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
C.C. Tu; Y.C. Chang; 杜金池; 張義璋.
[[abstract]]Anastomosis among 264 isolates of Rhizocionia solani (=Thanatephorus cucumeris) indicated that 251 isolates fell into one of five groups (TRAG 1-TRAG 5) corresponding to groups previously descriebd by Ogoshi in Japan. Four of them (TR-AG 1-TRAG 4) were also comparable with those groups reported by Parmeter, et al in the North America, and Schultz and Richter & Schneider in the Europe. Anastomosis between isolates from the same group was perfect fusion, imperfect fusion, or contact fusion. No hyphal fusion was observed between isolates of different groups. Each anastomosis group seemed to have specificity in the host range, but this specificity was not rigid. Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn菌絲融合(Anastomosis)之方式有三:(1)菌絲尖端對菌絲尖端、(2)菌絲尖端對側生小枝(Telemorphic...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1978
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亞麻立枯病抑病土壤駐在細菌對萎凋病菌之擷抗效能及田間防治效果 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
杜金池; 程永雄; 張義璋; C.C. Tu; Y.H. Cheng; Y.C. Chang.
[[abstract]]分離自亞麻立枯病抑病土壤之兼性嫌氣細菌(Bacillus sp.)對西瓜、香蕉及亞麻等不同分化型之萎凋病鐮刀菌均有不同程度之抑制作用。亞麻立枯病抑病土壤對各種作物之萎凋病也發現有抑病效果。網室試驗證明供試兼性嫌氣細菌9菌株和嫌氣芽抱桿菌2菌株個別加入土壤內雖均有抑病效果,卻以上述全部細菌混合後加入病土之抑病效果最佳,田問試驗將擷抗細菌混合液淋入田間土內,對亞麻生育初、中期之立枯病有防治效果,抑病期限約維持兩個月。 Flax Fusarium wilt-suppressive soil was proved to be also suppressive to banana and watermelon wilts. Nine isolates of facultative anaerobic Bacillus isolated from this soil were antagonistic to various form species of F. oxysporum on petri dish. Excellent disease control of flax wilt was obtained with application of these antagonistic bacteria into the infested soil in pot test. However, the control effect of these antagonistic bacteria lasted for only about 2 months in the field.
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1978
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利用水稻稻熱病之罹病葉保存稻熱病菌 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
謝麗娟; 張義璋; 陳純葳; 謝廷芳; Lih-Jiuan Hsieh; Yih-Chang Chang; Chun-Wei Chen; Ting-Fang Hsieh.
Palavras-chave: 水稻; 稻熱病; 稻熱病菌; 罹病葉保存法; 接種源 Rice Rice blast; Pyricularia oryzae; Blast-disease-leaf preservation method; Inoculum source [[classification]]10.
Ano: 2007
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台灣水稻重要病害之生態及防治要領 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
張義璋; Yih-chang Chang.
[[abstract]]臺灣稻作及稻米記載共有75種病害,其中13種為近年來常見的重要病害。依據生態特性,稻熱病及白葉枯病可定位為流行病,其餘則為風土病。水稻病害防治方面,以抗病品種之應用最為有效率。然而許多抗病之稻品種推出後,病原菌會演化出新生理小種,致使抗病品種罹病化;惟區域性稻品種多樣化可有效降低病害之大流行。栽培管理工作,包括稻種處理、育苗、整地,灌排水、行株距、施肥及田間衛生等均需綜合應用,瞭解發病生態可掌握藥劑防治適機。風土病每年甚至每期稻作都會發生的病害,可依據稻生育期決定防治時機。流行病則受氣候影響,要留意病害發生預測,掌握發病初期的防治措施。 Seventy-five diseases of rice were reported in Taiwan. Thirteen of them often occurred and presented as the major diseases during recent years. According to ecological characteristics, blast and bacterial blight of rice were two major epidemic diseases, the others were considered as endemic diseases in Taiwan. Application of resistant varieties for disease control was more efficient strategy. Many resistant rice cultivars have been developed against the diseases. However,...
Palavras-chave: 稻作病害; 稻病防治; 生態; 抗病品種; 栽培管理; 藥劑防治 水稻健康管理研討會專集 rice disease; Ecology; Disease control; Resistant variety Proceedings of 2004 Symposium on Rice Health Management [[classification]]6.
Ano: 2004
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影響稻紋枯病菌生長及菌核形成之因子 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
張義璋; Yih-Chang Chang.
[[abstract]]供試紋枯病菌9 個菌株均以28℃ 為菌絲最適生長溫度。對菌核形成而言,菌株TC41 、TC44 、TC87 、TC96 、TC105 、CY83 及FS 等以16℃ 為最適溫度,菌株TC162 及S21 則以20℃ 為最適溫度,在32℃ 時菌株TC87 幾乎無菌核形成,但TC96 則與最適溫度下所形成之菌核量差異不大。當20℃ 與32℃兩種溫度交替培養時,顯示TC44 及TC87 對高溫比其他菌株較為敏惑。紋枯病菌無論菌絲生長或菌核形成之最適酸鹼度近於pH7.0。菌絲生長對酸性比鹼性較有耐性;相反地,菌核形成對鹼性較有耐性。水份潛勢(φ0)對紋枯病菌之影響亦受溫度所左右。菌株TC44 菌絲生長於溫度12 至24℃間之最適水份潛勢為-5.1 bars ; 28 及32℃ 時則為-8.0 bars 。菌株TC96 於12 至20℃ 間為-3.4bars 變24℃ 時-5.lbars ; 28 及32℃ 則為-8.0 bars 。菌株TC44 於溫度12 至16℃;間,菌核形成最適水份潛勢為-5.1 bars ; 20 至32℃ 間則為-10.2bars.;水份潛勢低至-34.4 bars 則無菌核形成。菌株TC96 以-10.2 bar為菌核形成之最適水份潛勢;水份潛勢低至-34.4 bars ,溫度24-32℃ 環境下尚有菌核產生。 The mycelial growth of nine isolates of Rhizoctonia solani AG 1 was found best at 28 C. Isolates TC41, TC44, TC87, TC96, TC105, CY83, and F5 produced most sclerotia at 16 C and...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1985
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抗臺灣地區白葉枯病之稻品種篩選 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
張義璋; 謝麗娟; Yih-Chang Chang;Lih-Jiuan Hsieh.
[[abstract]]本研究為尋找出抗臺灣地區稻白葉枯病之稻品種系,以17株白葉枯病菌株接種111個稻品種系,共3年5期作之試驗。接種源以濃度109-10cells/ml做剪葉接種。結果病原菌以XF 17、XM 1、XH 2、XM 10及XH 24-b等5株菌株之致病力較強。稻品種系以IR 4442-46-3-3-3、IR 22、IR 22082-41-2、Malagkit songsong、JR 29、IR 30、IR 20΄、IR 28、IR 20、台農秈19號、嘉農秈6號、IR 1514A、B 5354-5D-MR-l、IR 1545-339、IR 26΄ 等15個稻品種系之抗病性較強,可供抗病育種之參考。其中IR 20΄ 和IR 26΄ 皆為1992年自IRRI再引進之品系。
Palavras-chave: 水稻品種 稻白葉枯病 白葉枯病菌 生理小種 抗病性 Rice variety; Bacterial blight of rice; Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae; Races; Disease resistance [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1999
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本所植物病害診斷服務工作之檢討 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
張義璋.
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1994
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水稻不同齡期及品種對稻細菌性穀枯病菌之感病性 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
簡錦忠; 張義璋; C.C. Chien; Y.C. Chang.
[[abstract]]由Pseudomonas glumae引起之稻細菌性穀枯病,在本省第二期稻作比第一期作發病較為嚴重,例如據1983年於南部地區調查結果,第二期稻作被害穗率最高達30%,罹病穗常呈聚集狀分佈;第一期稻作之被害穗率一般低於1%,罹病穗則呈零星散佈。稻種以濃度108cfu/ml之P.glumae懸浮液接種後,病菌對稻種發芽並無影響,但可引起約98%之秧苗腐敗枯死。孕穗期稻以注射法接種上述濃度之懸浮液於劍葉葉鞘內側,使病原細菌直接與幼穗接觸,其葉鞘及幼穗皆被感染,而病變呈深褐色,同時期如以噴霧法接種,病原細菌並未感染葉鞘,但會引起60%以上之穀粒被感染而未能飽實。抽穗期稻以噴霧法接種上述濃度之病菌懸浮液,亦未見葉鞘病變之現象;稻穗對B24及01兩個菌株,在抽穗前4日至抽穗後2日期間,皆呈極感病;稻穗對B15及B23兩個菌株,在抽穗前4日至抽穗後4日期間,皆呈極感病。在田間種植21種水稻優良推廣品種,於抽穗前10日,以人工噴霧接種結果,顯示菌株間之病原性或稻品種間之感病性皆呈顯著差異。其中以菌株B89之病原性最強,其次為B9O及B43,而B88之病原性最弱。稻品種中以臺南6號最為感病,其次為新竹糯4號及臺東27號,以高雄秈7號最為抗病。由品種與菌株間之交感作用分析結果顯示,稻細菌性穀枯病菌似有不同病原型之存在。 The results showed that the pathogen didn’t affect the germination of rice seeds but caused seedlings to die about 98% when rice seeds were dipped in a water suspension of Pseudomonas glumae...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1987
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水稻台中秈10號不同生育期對引起淡黃化型白葉枯病之菌株反應 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
謝麗娟; 張義璋; 謝廷芳; Lih-Jiuan Hsieh; Yih-Chang Chang; Ting-Fang Hsieh.
[[abstract]]西元2002 年,在農試所試驗農場進行兩期作水稻臺中秈10 號不同生育期對2 株分 離自葉枯型病株和3 株分離自淡黃化型病株之白葉枯病菌菌株的反應試驗,分別在插秧 時、分蘗期和孕穗期等三個生育期進行接種,插秧時幼苗分別以剪葉及浸根方式接種, 分蘗期和孕穗期則以剪葉及噴霧方式接種。結果發現兩期作水稻於插秧時採浸根接種, 除第二期作以葉枯型病徵分離之菌株XM 30 接種後無枯死病株外,其餘處理均可出現 kresek 病徵,剪葉接種則均出現葉枯型病徵,但未見淡黃化型病株。兩期稻作於抽穗時 再調查三個生育期接種之發病情形,結果顯示插秧時以浸根與剪葉接種處理均未出現葉 枯型病徵,剪葉接種之幼株雖都呈現葉枯病徵,但當罹病葉枯死後,即不再產生葉枯型 之新病葉;在分蘗期和孕穗期各以剪葉與噴霧接種處理時,所有菌株於兩期作都出現感 病性葉枯型病徵。其中由淡黃化型病株分離之3 株白葉枯病菌菌株,除第一期作插秧時 之剪葉處理未產生黃化株外,其餘在兩期作插秧時和分蘗期之各二種接種處理,至抽穗 期調查時都產生淡黃化型病徵;然而,兩期作的孕穗期經噴霧與剪葉處理時,均未出現 淡黃化病株。另外,供試之2 株分離自葉枯型白葉枯病株之菌株,以任何方式接種,均 未能在三個生育期造成淡黃化型病徵,顯示菌株間之病原性存在差異性。綜合上述結果 顯示,水稻早期於插秧和分蘗期感染才容易產生淡黃化型病徵,至孕穗期感染即不顯現 該病徵。kresek 和淡黃化型病徵皆屬於系統性病害,幼苗會產生kresek,成株則出現淡 黃化型。另外,第一期作插秧時低溫接種會引起kresek 急速萎凋型及淡黃化型病徵,因 此推論高溫並非此二型病害發生之必要條件。
Palavras-chave: 水稻 生育期 白葉枯病 淡黃化型病徵 急速萎凋型病徵 溫度 Rice; Growth stages; Bacterial leaf blight of rice; Pale-yellow-leaf symptom; Kresek symptom; Temperature determination [[classification]]10.
Ano: 2006
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水稻品種對淡黃化型白葉枯病之抗感病性 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
謝麗娟; 張義璋; 謝廷芳; Lih-Jiuan Hsieh; Yih-Chang Chang; Ting-Fang Hsieh.
[[abstract]]本研究於農試所試驗農場測定台灣212株白葉枯病菌菌株在水稻台中秈10號產生淡黃化型病徵之差異,及檢定53個稻品種表現淡黃化型病徵之罹病度。以212株菌株接種水稻,經1999及2000年3期作的試驗結果,有72株菌株可使水稻呈現淡黃化型病徵,其中14株菌株是在1997年首次嚴重發生淡黃化型病害之前所分離之菌株,顯示引起淡黃化型病徵之菌株早已存在台灣。以3株分離自淡黃化型病株和3株原保存分離自葉枯型病株之白葉枯病菌菌株,接種於53個推廣稻品種,經2000及2001年4期作的試驗結果,發現淡黃化型病徵之產生與菌株之致病力和稻品種之抗感病性有關,菌株間與稻品種間亦具交互差異性。自淡黃化型病株分離的菌株引起淡黃化型病徵之能力較強,且其造成之稻品種罹病度大多與其所造成之葉枯型病徵之罹病度間呈正相關,但反之非必然。此病徵型的出現在期作間亦有差異,以第一期作的罹病度較第二期作高。在供試品種中,有27個稻品種對所有供試菌株均不呈現淡黃化型病徵,具高抗病性,而另有10個品種對淡黃化型白葉枯病害為感病性。
Palavras-chave: 淡黃化型白葉枯病 稻品種 抗病性 Pale-yellow-leaf of rice bacterial blight; Rice varieties; Disease resistance [[classification]]10.
Ano: 2007
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水稻抗黃萎病品系之育成 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
林明華; 張德梅; 簡錦忠; 張義璋; M.H. Lin; T.M. Chang; C.C. Chien; Y.C. Chang.
[[abstract]]利用高產但感黃萎病之水稻品種臺南5號和臺農61號為母本或輪迴親,及以抗病品種Firooz-(1)和Kabara為父本或非輪迴親,以譜系法和回交法同時進行抗水稻黃萎病之育種工作,經五年的時間已選出五個抗病品系。此五個抗病品系全部選自以臺農61號為母本或輪迴親的什交組合,其中有YD-15、22、28和75等四個品系之抗病因子來自Kabara,僅有YD-62一個品系之抗病因子來自Firooz-(1)。又五個抗病品系中有YD-62和75等二個品系選自譜系法,其株高及生育日數較選自回交法者為矮及早熟。五個抗病品系之產量在第一期作之表現均較臺南5號高,但第二期作則因褐飛蝨之為害而影響產量至鉅。五個抗黃萎病品系之不具褐飛蝨抵抗性為其最大缺點,但仍可供今後進一步從事抗黃萎病育種的良好種源及橋梁親本之利用。 Yellow dwarf is one of the major diseases of the second crop rice in Taiwan. In order to develop the disease resistant varieties, two susceptible but high yielding varieties, Tainan 5 and Tainung 61,were used as the female(recurrent) parents, and two resistant but tall varieties, Firooz-(1) and Kabara, were used as the male (donor) parents in this study. Selection for the disease resistance were made...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1980
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水稻根部真菌之分離鑑定及其對稻作生育之影響 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
張義璋; 杜金池; 簡錦忠; Y.C. Chang; C.C. Tu; C.C. Chien.
[[abstract]]依據本研究結果,本省水稻根部真菌已鑑定者分隸17屬,即:Aspergillus, Botryoderma, Chaetophoma, Cladosporium Curvularia, Fusarium, Homococus, Humicola, Hymenella, Paceilomyces, Papularia, , Rhinotrichum, Rhizoctonia solani, Scytalidium, Trichoderma viride與Verticillium等。 第一期作與第二期作之稻根真菌種類及族羣數量互不相同。同為生育後期,前者根部帶有極高族羣之Curvularia 及Homococus ,亦帶有第二期作所未分離到的Botryoderma, Hymenella, Rhizoctonia solani及Scytalidium等。第二期作則帶有較多量的Aspergillus, Papularia 及Rhinotrichum 等,並帶有第一期作所未分離到的真菌為Chaetophoma 及Phoma等。稻根真菌種類亦因栽培地區不同而有差異,臺中地區以Aspergillus, Paceilomyce較多,而清水地區則以Papularia, Rhinotrichum 及Trichoderma 較多。上述17屬稻根真菌對水稻生育之影響,可分成抑制、促進及無影響等三類,其影響之程度因菌株而異,即使同屬之菌株,其影響程度亦參差不一。對第二期作水稻可能引起不良影響之稻根真菌包括有: Aspergillus, Trichoderma 及Humicola 等3屬真菌。 嚴重發生香蕉黃葉病之蕉園似不宜轉作水稻,因香蕉黃葉病菌會侵染稻根,產生褐斑,繼之枯死,嚴重影響株高及根長。...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1977
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水稻病蟲害診斷與防治資訊系統 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
呂秀英; 黃守宏; 張義璋; 鄭清煥; 魏夢麗; 李竺玲; 呂椿棠.
Palavras-chave: 水稻病蟲害防治; 知識庫; 徵狀診斷規則表; 台灣稻作資訊系統; [[classification]]10.
Ano: 2010
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水稻白葉枯病抗病檢定方法之改良 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
謝麗娟; 張義璋; 謝廷芳; Lih-Jiuan Hsieh; Yih-Chang Chang; Ting-Fang Hsieh.
[[abstract]]本研究為探討水稻白葉枯病抗病檢定接種技術,以四個供試稻品種,於1994 年第 二期作及1995 年第一期作,測定30、45 和60 天苗期,孕穗期及抽穗期等生育期之抗 感病性反應。結果顯示任一稻品種以剪葉法接種,都以30 天苗期之平均罹病指數為最 高,且除抽穗期外,其它各生育期接種均能檢定出稻品種間不同之抗感病性,又45 及 60 天苗期稻株接種之結果,與本田孕穗期檢定之結果相近。另外,於抽穗期測定剪葉 長度及不同葉位序剪葉接種對發病之影響,結果任一稻品種以剪除1/2、1/4 及1/8 葉長 度間之平均罹病指數並無顯著差異,且1/2 剪葉長度接種,除第一期作稻外,都能檢 測出不同品種之抗感病性。再以1/2 剪葉長度接種劍葉以下四個位序葉片,發現不同稻 品種不同葉位序間之平均罹病指數差異變化大,但大多以第四位序為最高,且除了第一 期作稻外,接種第一和第二位序時,較可區別出品種間不同之抗感病性。
Palavras-chave: 水稻 水稻白葉枯病 抗病性 Rice; Bacterial leaf blight of rice; Resistance screening techniques [[classification]]10.
Ano: 2005
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水稻臺農七十號對稻熱病抗性之罹病化研究 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
簡錦忠; 謝麗娟; 張義璋; C.C. Chien; L.C. Hsieh; Y.C. Chang.
[[abstract]]水稻臺農70號於民國74年第一期作命名,而自同年第二期作正式推廣。命名當時具有高產、良質、抗葉稻熱病,對穗稻熱病屬於中抗的優良品種,但於民國76年第一期作,即自正式推廣後僅四期作,即失去抗性,發生嚴重的穗稻熱病。本研究主要為探討本省稻熱病菌生理小種對該品種致病性之變化情形。供試稻熱病菌計78 個菌株(包括73年度採集的27個菌株及76年度採得51個菌株),並行人工接種於16判別品種及臺農70號,測定其生理型及對臺農70號之致病性,結果可類別10種生理小種,其中僅有race P─12及P─63兩種生理小種對臺農70號具有致病(S)反應。自73年度所採集的27個菌株中有僅3個菌株(1菌株為P─12,2菌株為P─63,佔11%),76年所得51個菌株中,有18個菌株(12菌株為P─12,6個菌株為P─63,佔35%)對臺農70號顯示感病(S)反應。此兩種生理小種,原來在本省已有存在,但其密度極低,自臺農70號急速大面積種植後,才增加其密度比例,致使該品種的罹病化。本省的栽培稻品種,有稉稻(japonica)及秈稻(indica)混合種值於田間,因此稻熱病菌生理小種之變化頗複雜。 Rice cultivar Tainung 70 was named in the first crop season and released in the second crop season of 1985, due to its high yielding, high quality, resistance to leaf blast, and moderate resistance to panicle blast. After 2 years (4 crop seasons), the...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1989
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田間亞麻萎凋病鐮刀菌與水稻之相互關係研究 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
杜金池; 程永雄; 張義璋; C.C. Tu; Y.H. Cheng; Y. C. Chang.
[[abstract]]亞麻萎凋病(立枯病)發病土壤(FC-11)分:(A)不處理、(B)60℃消毒1小時、 (C)60℃消毒1小時後加亞麻萎凋病激發田之前作稻根,(D)60℃消毒1小時後加亞麻萎凋病株莖部碎片,(E)60℃消毒1小時後加水稻紋枯病菌,(F)121℃ 15 lbs 減菌1小時等6處理,於網室內磚砌栽培床栽植第一期作水稻(臺南5號)。栽植一月後調查各處理每克土壤所含Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini之菌體數,分別為(A)5,800 (C)1,400 (D)7,000第2個月菌體數減少,至第3個月降為(A)4,200 (C)400 (D)4,000。同時,栽植後2月調查之每克稻根含病菌菌體數為(A)1,000 (C)500 (D)1,500。至第3個月每克稻根所含之菌體數增至(A)1,500 (C)1,000 (D)2,000,(B) (E) (F)三處理之土內及稻根雖含有其他真菌,但均未見有F. oxysporum f. sp. lini出現。 根部感染F. oxysporum f. sp lini之水稻山外觀無法看出罹病趨向,但與未感染之水稻詳加比較,可發現前者較為矮化。另山前述處理產量推算每公頃產量,結果分別為(B)3,080.4kg、(E)2,966.3kg、(F)3,182.0kg、(A)2,840.5kg、(C)2,785.3kg、(D)2,450.7kg,得知被感染之水稻有一成至二成半減產。民國64年第2期作水稻重複試驗,亦有相似之趨勢。 在產地一組發病田(FC-11)與抑病田(FS-11)第2期作均種白殼硬糯水稻,其稱株平均株高差異極顯著。另組發病田(FC-13)與抑病田(FS-14)則種高雄66號水稻,雖株高差異不顯著,但其分蘗數則呈極顯著差異。...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1977
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稻苗徒長病病原菌之有性世代 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
張義璋; 孫守恭; Yih-Chang Chang; Shou-Kung Sun.
[[abstract]]由水稻徒長病病株上之Gibberella fujikuroi子囊胞子或分生胞子分離所得之單胞菌株,均有細長之鏽刀型大胞子及鏈生小胞子,為典型之Fusarium moniliforme,再由接種試驗確定各菌株均有高度病原性。 單胞菌株純培養時不能形成子囊殼。如果在單胞菌株中給以適當配對及適合培養基與環境,子囊殼即可詼育形成。由隨機組合配對得知單子囊中8個子囊胞子分成兩種觀和配對型(A, a),A與a之比例為1:1。另由交互配對試驗測出各菌株尚有性因子存在,分別為雄性菌株、雌性菌株或雌雄同體三種。臺灣各地區親和性之配對型菌株同時存在,故極易形成子囊殼,異絲生殖(Heterothalhsm)得以證明。 The cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi in this experiment were obtained by single sporeisolation from either perithecia or conidia. Each single ascospore or conidium culture produced the long and slightly curved macroconidia and chains of microconidia typical of Fusarium moniliforme. Pathogenicity tests comfirmed their caused relationship to disease. Single ascospore or conidium culture did not produce perithecium in pure culture. However, when...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]10.
Ano: 1975
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精準農業共同試驗田區農耕資料庫之建立 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
劉滄棽; 蔡金川; 張義璋; 余志儒; 陳治官; Tsang-Sen Liu; Jin-Chuan Tsai; Yih-Chang Chang; Jih-Zu Yu; C.G. Chern.
[[abstract]]農委會農試驗所精準農業計畫各研究小組收集的資料項目繁多,資料庫格式不一,在資料之交換上亦造成困擾,且大部分為地理分佈資料。為使各項收集資料達到共同使用之效果,如能成立共用資料庫,並訂定資料庫格式規範,架設伺服網站提供網路資料查詢下載,將可增進資料流通效率及減少人力浪費,便於自動化農機開發利用及各應用模組間之資料傳輸。本研究乃持續將土壤及植體之採樣分析資料,以地理資訊系統整合並經地理統計推估空問變異,分別建立各項空間資料庫。此等資料可傳輸至施肥決策專家系統估算各點之施肥量,計算結果經繪製成精密施肥分佈圖,可再傳輸至變率施肥機械來控制各小區之施肥量。由於精準農業之共同試驗田區土壤及植體採樣資料,其取樣位置及密度不同,而有無法匹配之疑慮,因此利用地理統計分析及地理資訊系統建立細密之基本空問資訊,供為變量施肥機具施用養分資材之依據及產量與施肥管理之相關性研究之基礎。而為使共同試驗田區之資料充分供給各研究人員利用,乃於農試所往站設置共用資料庫網站,檢視整理各執行人上傳之檔案及資料,再開放計畫相關人員查詢。經由權限設定,讓研究人員自行維護自產資料,並下載相關之非自產資料。網站提供具地理座標之圖形資料,並利用網站之功能提供面積、位置、等級分佈等圖面資料,由高效率之空間資料庫引擎,提供資料交換、流通、全面性的安全管控,達到共享式的多使用者環境,節省管理人力之耗費。 One of the key working items for this project was to record the spatial and temporal data generated from field surveys on important agronomy characters and main pest...
Palavras-chave: 網路; 資料庫; 精準農業 水稻精準農業體系 Web; Database; Precision agriculture Rice Precision Farming System [[classification]]4.
Ano: 2003
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精準農業試驗田區2000-2002庫水稻主要病害之消長 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
張義璋; 謝麗娟; Yih-Chang Chang; Li-Jyuan Hsieh.
[[abstract]]臺灣位居亞熱帶,屬高溫多濕海島型氣候,適合各種稻作病原之繁殖及為害,估計每年因病害造成6 %損失。本研究配合農委會農業試驗所精準農業計畫執行,調查精準農業農場之田間病害發生狀況,提供建立計畫之基礎資料庫及精準農場栽培管理之參考。試驗期間調查稻熱病、紋枯病及白葉枯病等三種主要病害。結果顯示稻熱病主要發生於第一期作,氣候影響罹病程度甚鉅,試驗期間以2001 年最適合稻熱病之流行。二期稻作均會發生白葉枯病,第二期作比第一期作早發病且嚴重,由農場栽培管理之記錄,白葉枯病在初發生期實施藥劑防治效果最佳。紋枯病因農場管理良好,發病不嚴重。 Rice diseases are prevailing throughout the island of Taiwan due to locating at the tropical and subtropical regions with hot and humid island-style climate, which is favorable for pathogen propagation and spread. Damages caused by diseases account for more than 6% of agricultural production. As part of Precision Agriculture research project, this study was designated to survey rice diseases occur during the experimental periods for database establishment and other specific...
Palavras-chave: 水稻病害; 精準農業; 稻熱病; 白葉枯病 水稻精準農業體系 Rice disease; Precision agriculture; Rice leaf blast; Bacterial leaf blight Rice Precision Farming System [[classification]]10.
Ano: 2003
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