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A comparative analysis of Alexandrium catenella/tamarense blooms in Annaba Bay (Algeria) and Thau lagoon (France); phosphorus limitation as a trigger ArchiMer
Hadjadji, Imene; Frehi, Hocine; Ayada, Lembarek; Abadie, Eric; Collos, Yves.
Environmental conditions ultimately leading to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella/tamarense were investigated at two Mediterranean sites (Annaba Bay, Algeria and Thau lagoon, France). Three years were examined in details: 1992 (a pre-Alexandrium period), 2002 (a year with the first bloom in Annaba) and 2010 (a year with a major bloom in Annaba). Most conditions were similar, but ammonium concentrations were much higher in Annaba (up to 100 μM) than in Thau (up to 10 μM). First records of A. catenella/tamarense were in 1995 for Thau and 2002 for Annaba, and coincided with soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) decreasing below a concentration of about 1 μM. No other environmental variable could be related to those blooms. Thus, it is likely...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Alexandrium catenella/tamarense; Blooms; Algeria; France; Mediterranean.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00174/28574/26995.pdf
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A Feedback Mechanism to Control Apoptosis Occurs in the Digestive Gland of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas Exposed to the Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Producer Alexandrium catenella ArchiMer
Rolland, Jean-luc; Medhioub, Walid; Vergnes, Agnes; Abi-khalil, Celina; Savar, Veronique; Abadie, Eric; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Laabir, Mohamed.
To better understand the effect of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) accumulation in the digestive gland of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, we experimentally exposed individual oysters for 48 h to a PSTs producer, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella. In comparison to the effect of the non-toxic Alexandrium tamarense, on the eight apoptotic related genes tested, Bax and BI.1 were significantly upregulated in oysters exposed 48 h to A. catenella. Among the five detoxification related genes tested, the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) was shown to be correlated with toxin concentration in the digestive gland of oysters exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate. Beside this, we observed a significant increase in ROS production, a decrease in...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Shellfish; Toxin; Biomarker; Expression; Phytoplankton.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00225/33606/32003.pdf
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Beta-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine: LC-MS/MS Optimization, Screening of Cyanobacterial Strains and Occurrence in Shellfish from Thau, a French Mediterranean Lagoon ArchiMer
Reveillon, Damien; Abadie, Eric; Sechet, Veronique; Brient, Luc; Savar, Veronique; Bardouil, Michele; Hess, Philipp; Amzil, Zouher.
beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxic non-protein amino acid suggested to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases. It was reported to be produced by cyanobacteria, but also found in edible aquatic organisms, thus raising concern of a widespread human exposure. However, the chemical analysis of BMAA and its isomers are controversial, mainly due to the lack of selectivity of the analytical methods. Using factorial design, we have optimized the chromatographic separation of underivatized analogues by a hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) method. A combination of an effective solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, appropriate chromatographic resolution and the use of specific mass spectral...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Cyanotoxins; BMAA; DAB; AEG; HILIC-MS/MS; Cyanobacteria; Bivalve mollusks; French Mediterranean.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00245/35579/34112.pdf
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Comparing diatom and Alexandrium catenella/tamarense blooms in Thau lagoon: Importance of dissolved organic nitrogen in seasonally N-limited systems ArchiMer
Collos, Yves; Jauzein, Cecile; Ratmaya, Widya; Souchu, Philippe; Abadie, Eric; Vaquer, André.
Diatom blooms in Thau lagoon are always related to rain events leading to inputs of inorganic nutrients such as phosphate, ammonium and nitrate through the watershed with time lags of about 1 week. In contrast, blooms of Alexandrium catenella/tamarense can occur following periods of 3 weeks without precipitation and no significant input of conventional nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate. Field results also indicate a significant drop (from 22–25 to 15–16 μM over 3 days) in dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) at the bloom peak, as well as a significant inverse relationship between A. catenella/tamarense cell density and DON concentrations that is not apparent for diatom blooms. Such dinoflagellate blooms are also associated with elevated (6–9 μM) ammonium...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Alexandrium catenella/tamarense; Non classical blooms; Organic nitrogen; Ammonium; Growth rate.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00194/30488/29758.pdf
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Contamination de l'etang de Thau par Alexandrium tamarense. Episode de novembre a decembre 1998 ArchiMer
Abadie, Eric; Zouher, Amzil; Belin, Catherine; Comps, Marie-annick; Elziere-papayanni, Panayota; Lassus, Patrick; Le Bec, Claude; Marcaillou-le Baut, Claire; Nezan, Elizabeth; Poggi, Robert.
A bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense was observed for the first time in Thau iagoon between November and December 1998. Maximum cell concentrations detected in shellfish farming areas (85 000 Cells/1) were high enough to make mussels and clams unsuitable for human consumption (max. 850 ug. STX eq.100 g'1) while toxic levels in oysters did not exceed, or even reach, the international public health threshold established for PSP toxins. This event, new to French Mediterranean waters, was investigated by both local and national veterinary services and by the Ifremer teams involved in the National Monitoring Network for Phytoplankton and Phycotoxines (Réphy). The chronological and operational description of the event was compared with data...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Alexandrium; Monitoring; Toxic dinoflagellates; Thau lagoon; Alexandrium; Surveillance; Dinoflagellés toxiques; Etang de Thau.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/1999/rapport-884.pdf
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Contamination virale de l'environnement littoral ArchiMer
Miossec, Laurence; Besseau, Laetitia; Haugarreau, Larissa; Le Guyader, Francoise; Menard, Dominique; Pommepuy, Monique; Abadie, Eric; Comps, Marie-annick; Guillou, Jean-louis; Le Bec, Claude; Sauvagnargues, Jean-claude; Bon, Fabienne; Jamot, B.; Kohli E, Evelyne; Potier, P.; Daurat, G.; Guyonnet, J.p..
Les microorganismes, bactéries et virus d'origine entérique, sont abondants dans les rejets urbains. Si la charge bactériologique contenue dans les eaux usées est notablement réduite lors des traitements appliqués dans les stations d'épurations, de nombreux microorganismes persistent et sont rejetés avec les eaux épurées dans le milieu récepteur, en rivière ou directement en mer. Le développement de méthodes analytiques basées sur la biologie moléculaire a permis récemment la détection de virus entériques non cultivables dans les échantillons de l'environnement, tels que les entérovirus, le virus de l'hépatite A, les calicivirus, les astrovirus et les rotavirus. En France, les données publiées sur la présence de ces virus entériques, détectés par RTPCR,...
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Ano: 1999 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00044/15552/12941.pdf
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Contribution of several nitrogen sources to growth of Alexandrium catenella during blooms in Thau lagoon, southern France ArchiMer
Collos, Y; Vaquer, A; Laabir, M; Abadie, Eric; Laugier, Thierry; Pastoureaud, Annie; Souchu, Philippe.
A monitoring program with a weekly sampling frequency over a 15-month period indicates that urea concentrations above a certain threshold level may trigger the blooms of Alexandrium catenella in Thau lagoon. However, urea concentrations were also sometimes related to ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations, indicating that the role of urea may not be a direct one. An original approach is used to assess the relative contribution of several nitrogen sources (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, urea) to growth of A. catenella by comparing nitrogen uptake rates to nitrogen-based growth rates estimated from dilution experiments during four blooms over a 4-year period (2001-2004) in Thau lagoon. Nitrate and nitrite contributed 0.1-14% and 0.1-5%...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Uptake kinetics; Ammonium; Urea; Growth; Nitrogen; HAB; Alexandrium catenella.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-6454.pdf
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Dietary BMAA Exposure in an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cluster from Southern France ArchiMer
Masseret, Estelle; Banack, Sandra; Boumediene, Farid; Abadie, Eric; Brient, Luc; Pernet, Fabrice; Juntas-morales, Raoul; Pageot, Nicolas; Metcalf, James; Cox, Paul; Camu, William.
Background Dietary exposure to the cyanotoxin BMAA is suspected to be the cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Western Pacific Islands. In Europe and North America, this toxin has been identified in the marine environment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis clusters but, to date, only few dietary exposures have been described. Objectives We aimed at identifying cluster(s) of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Hérault district, a coastal district from Southern France, and to search, in the identified area(s), for the existence of a potential dietary source of BMAA. Methods A spatio-temporal cluster analysis was performed in the district, considering all incident amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases identified from 1994 to 2009 by our expert...
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Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00168/27941/26234.pdf
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Effect of Nitrate, Ammonium and Urea on Growth and Pinnatoxin G Production of Vulcanodinium rugosum ArchiMer
Abadie, Eric; Kaci, Lamia; Berteaux, Tom; Hess, Philipp; Sechet, Veronique; Masseret, Estelle; Rolland, Jean-luc; Laabir, Mohamed.
ulcanodinium rugosum, a recently described dinoflagellate species producing a potent neurotoxin (pinnatoxin G), has been identified in French Mediterranean lagoons and was responsible for recurrent episodes of shellfish toxicity detected by mouse bioassay. Until now, the biology and physiology of V. rugosum have not been fully investigated. We studied the growth characteristics and toxicity of a V. rugosum strain (IFR-VRU-01), isolated in the Ingril lagoon in June 2009 (North-Western French Mediterranean Sea). It was cultivated in Enriched Natural Sea Water (ENSW) with organic (urea) and inorganic (ammonium and nitrate) nitrogen, at a temperature of 25 °C and irradiance of 100 μmol/m2·s−1. Results showed that ammonium was assimilated by cells more rapidly...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Vulcanodinium rugosum; Pinnatoxin G; Ingril lagoon; Growth; Nitrogen source.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00276/38748/37290.pdf
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Etude de Vulcanodinium rugosum (Dinoflagellé producteur de pinnatoxines) se développant dans la lagune méditerranéenne de l’Ingril ArchiMer
Abadie, Eric.
Harmful and / or toxic phytoplankton blooms impact for a long time marine ecosystems worldwide. These massive developments have an adverse effect on ecosystems and their exploitation. The lagoons of the region Languedoc-Roussillon are affected for decades. In addition to recurring health risks from Dinophysis (DSP toxins) and Alexandrium (PSP toxins), Vulcanodinium rugosum was identified in 2011 in the lagoon Ingril. This new species product pinnatoxins (neurotoxins). Through this thesis work, the biology of this new species (life cycle, growth condition, toxin production), its shellfish contamination capacity and geographic distribution in neighboring lagoons were studied on cultures in the laboratory and via environmental monitoring. The results of this...
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Ano: 2015 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00473/58425/61002.pdf
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Etude sanitaire de la zone n° 34.39 "Lotissements conchylicoles de la lagune de Thau" Groupe III. Département de l'Hérault ArchiMer
Marzin, Anahita; Crottier, Anais; Piquet, Jean-come; Abadie, Eric; Roque D'Orbcastel, Emmanuelle; Fiandrino, Annie.
L’étude de zone des lotissements conchylicoles de la lagune de Thau (34.39) a été menée, à la demande du Comité Régional de la Conchyliculture en Méditerranée et du préfet de l’Hérault, pour étudier la possibilité de sectoriser la zone de production en sous-zones, au regard du risque microbiologiques (REMI). Une étude de dossier a été réalisée afin de recenser les principales sources de contamination. Celles-ci sont essentiellement d’origine anthropique et impactent différemment les secteurs envisagés. Des prélèvements de coquillages du groupe 3 ont été réalisés de mai 2017 à mai 2018 avec une fréquence bimensuelle. Au regard des critères du règlement (CE) n° 854/2004, les résultats des analyses microbiologiques (indicateur Escherichia coli) ont permis...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: REMI; E. coli; Contamination bactériologique des coquillages; ROCCH; Contaminants chimiques; Milieu marin; Étude de zone; Lagune de Thau; Département de l’Hérault.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00459/57056/58965.pdf
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Evaluation de la qualité des zones de production conchylicole.Départements des Pyrénées orientales, de l’Aude, de l’Hérault et du Gard. Edition 2018 ArchiMer
Crottier, Anais; Abadie, Eric; Brun, Melanie; Piquet, Jean-come; Fiandrino, Annie.
Après un rappel des objectifs, du fonctionnement et de la méthode d’interprétation des résultats des réseaux de contrôle microbiologique (REMI) et de surveillance chimique (ROCCH), ce rapport inclut un bilan national et décrit le programme annuel des départements de l’Hérault, du Gard et de l’Aude. Il présente l’ensemble des résultats obtenus, en particulier l’estimation de la qualité microbiologique et chimique des zones de production de coquillages classées pour la période 2015-2017. Sur les 29 zones de production conchylicole classées et suivies en Occitanie, la qualité a pu être estimée pour 23 d’entre elles. Selon les critères réglementaires pris en compte (règlement CE n°854/2004, modifié par le règlement n°2285/2015), dans les départements de...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: REMI; E. coli; Contamination bactériologique des coquillages; ROCCH; Contaminants chimiques; Milieu marin; Classement sanitaire des zones de production; Département de l’Hérault; Départemen tdu Gard; Département de l’Aude.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00445/55635/57280.pdf
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Exposure to the Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Producer Alexandrium catenella Increases the Susceptibility of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas to Pathogenic Vibrios ArchiMer
Abi-khalil, Celina; Lopez-joven, Carmen; Abadie, Eric; Savar, Veronique; Amzil, Zouher; Laabir, Mohamed; Rolland, Jean-luc.
The multifactorial etiology of massive Crassostrea gigas summer mortalities results from complex interactions between oysters, opportunistic pathogens and environmental factors. In a field survey conducted in 2014 in the Mediterranean Thau Lagoon (France), we evidenced that the development of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, which produces paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), was concomitant with the accumulation of PSTs in oyster flesh and the occurrence of C. gigas mortalities. In order to investigate the possible role of toxic algae in this complex disease, we experimentally infected C. gigas oyster juveniles with Vibrio tasmaniensis strain LGP32, a strain associated with oyster summer mortalities, after oysters were exposed to Alexandrium...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Harmful algae; Environment; Interaction; Pathogens; Defense; Paralytic shellfish toxin.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00309/42016/41308.pdf
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Extended evaluation of polymeric and lipophilic sorbents for passive sampling of marine toxins ArchiMer
Zendong, Zita; Herrenknecht, Christine; Abadie, Eric; Brissard, Charline; Tixier, Celine; Mondeguer, Florence; Sechet, Veronique; Amzil, Zouher; Hess, Philipp.
Marine biotoxins are algal metabolites that can accumulate in fish or shellfish and render these foodstuffs unfit for human consumption. These toxins, released into seawater during algal occurrences, can be monitored through passive sampling. Acetone, methanol and isopropanol were evaluated for their efficiency in extracting toxins from algal biomass. Isopropanol was chosen for further experiments thanks to a slightly higher recovery and no artifact formation. Comparison of Oasis HLB, Strata-X, BondElut C18 and HP-20 sorbent materials in SPE-mode led to the choice of Oasis HLB, HP-20 and Strata-X. These three sorbents were separately exposed as passive samplers for 24 h to seawater spiked with algal extracts containing known amounts of okadaic acid (OA),...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Passive sampling; Oasis HLB; Strata-X; LOPE; PDMS; SPATT.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00186/29756/28187.pdf
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Influence of Environmental Factors on the Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Content and Profile of Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) Isolated from the Mediterranean Sea ArchiMer
Laabir, Mohamed; Collos, Yves; Masseret, Estelle; Grzebyk, Daniel; Abadie, Eric; Savar, Veronique; Sibat, Manoella; Amzil, Zouher.
Laboratory experiments were designed to study the toxin content and profile of the Alexandrium catenella strain ACT03 (isolated from Thau Lagoon, French Mediterranean) in response to abiotic environmental factors under nutrient-replete conditions. This dinoflagellate can produce various paralytic shellfish toxins with concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 50.3 fmol/cell. The toxin profile was characterized by carbamate toxins (GTX3, GTX4 and GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1, C2, C3 and C4). C2 dominated at 12-18 degrees C, but only for salinities ranging from 10 to 25 psu, whereas GTX5 became dominant at temperatures ranging from 21 to 30 degrees C at almost all salinities. There was no significant variation in the cellular toxin amount from 18 degrees C...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Alexandrium catenella; PSP toxins; Temperature; Salinity; Light.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00148/25969/24056.pdf
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Isolation of 12 microsatellite markers following a pyrosequencing procedure and cross-priming in two invasive cryptic species, Alexandrium catenella (group IV) and A. tamarense (group III) (Dinophyceae) ArchiMer
Laporte, Martin; Shao, Zhaojun; Berrebi, Patrick; Laabir, Mohamed; Abadie, Eric; Faivre, Nicolas; Rieuvilleneuve, Fabien; Masseret, Estelle.
Alexandrium catenella (group IV) and Alexandrium tamarense (group III) (Dinophyceae) are two cryptic invasive phytoplankton species belonging to the A. tamarense species complex. Their worldwide spread is favored by the human activities, transportation and climate change. In order to describe their diversity in the Mediterranean Sea and understand their settlements and maintenances in this area, new microsatellite markers were developed based on Thau lagoon (France) samples of A. catenella and A. tamarense strains. In this study twelve new microsatellite markers are proposed. Five of these microsatellite markers show amplifications on A. tamarense and ten on A. catenella. Three of these 12 microsatellite markers allowed amplifications on both cryptic...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Invasive species; Phytoplankton; Alexandrium; Dinophyceae; Microsatellite markers; Biogeography.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00189/30026/29398.pdf
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La crise anoxique du bassin de Thau de l'été 1997. Bilan du phénomène et perspectives ArchiMer
Souchu, Philippe; Abadie, Eric; Vercelli, Catherine; Buestel, Dominique; Sauvagnargues, Jean-claude.
La crise anoxique ou «malaïgue» qui a sévi dans le bassin de Thau durant l'été 1997 a détruit presque le tiers de la production annuelle d'huîtres. Son déclenchement a suivi une période durant laquelle les vents étaient exceptionnellement faibles. Après un rappel scientifique des processus mis en jeu, la crise anoxique est décrite au travers des observations de mortalités et des concentrations en oxygène dissous. Les eaux anoxiques se sont développées dans les zones conchylicoles vers l'Est et l'Ouest à partir d'un foyer situé à proximité du principal port conchylicole (Mourre-Blanc à Mèze). La comparaison de la crise de 1997 avec celles qui l'ont précédée fait apparaître un recul de l'eutrophisation depuis 25 ans. En revanche, des secteurs très localisés...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Lagunes; Thau; Conchyliculture; Anoxies; Eutrophisation; Crassostrea gigas.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00039/15010/12336.pdf
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Modelling the accumulation of PSP toxins in Thau Lagoon oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from trials using mixed cultures of Alexandrium catenella and Thalassiosira weissflogii ArchiMer
Lassus, Patrick; Amzil, Zouher; Baron, Regis; Sechet, Veronique; Barille, Laurent; Abadie, Eric; Bardouil, Michele; Sibat, Manoella; Truquet, Philippe; Berard, Jean-baptiste; Gueguen, Marielle.
In October and November 2003 a bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella was observed in the North-east zone of Thau lagoon (French Mediterranean coast). Sea water samples were collected every hours to evaluate time-related variations of phytoplankton concentrations and to compare the relative ratio of A. catenella versus other phytoplankton species during the outbreak. From these observations, trials using recirculated sea water systems were performed to: i) evaluate the physiological effects on oyster of increasing proportions of A. catenella within a mixed microalgal diet where the non-toxic diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii was present at concentration: 1500 cells ml(-1), ii) compare the effect of two temperatures (12 degrees C and 18...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mediterranean Sea; Alexandrium catenella; Toxin content; Model; Crassostrea gigas; Paralytic shellfish poisoning.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-2624.pdf
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Oligotrophication and emergence of picocyanobacteria and a toxic dinoflagellate in Thau lagoon, southern France ArchiMer
Collos, Yves; Bec, Beatrice; Jauzein, Cecile; Abadie, Eric; Laugier, Thierry; Lautier, Jacques; Pastoureaud, Annie; Souchu, Philippe; Vaquer, Andre.
Time series data have been examined in Thau lagoon (Southern France) from 1972 to 2006 for water temperature, salinity, nutrients and from 1987 to 2006 for phytoplankton. A first main trend identified is an increase in mean annual water temperature (1.5 degrees C over 33 years or 0.045 degrees C/year) that was not evenly distributed among seasons. The highest rate of increase was in the spring (+ 3.0 degrees C over 33 years), followed by summer (+ 2.0 degrees C and fall (+ 1.7 degrees C. In winter, no significant increase over the 33 year period could be found. A second clear trend is a large decrease in soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration over the same 33 year period (summer values decreased from 10 mu M to 1 mu M. while winter values...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Skeletonema costatum; Alexandrium catenella; Picocyanobacteria; Oligotrophication; Long term variability; Thau lagoon.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-6420.pdf
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Oyster Farming, Temperature, and Plankton Influence the Dynamics of Pathogenic Vibrios in the Thau Lagoon ArchiMer
Lopez-joven, Maria-carmen; Rolland, Jean-luc; Haffner, Philippe; Caro, Audrey; Roques, Cecile; Carre, Claire; Travers, Marie-agnes; Abadie, Eric; Laabir, Mohamed; Bonnet, Delphine; Destoumieux-garzon, Delphine.
Vibrio species have been associated with recurrent mass mortalities of juvenile oysters Crassostrea gigas threatening oyster farming worldwide. However, knowledge of the ecology of pathogens in affected oyster farming areas remains scarce. Specifically, there are no data regarding (i) the environmental reservoirs of Vibrio populations pathogenic to oysters, (ii) the environmental factors favoring their transmission, and (iii) the influence of oyster farming on the persistence of those pathogens. This knowledge gap limits our capacity to predict and mitigate disease occurrence. To address these issues, we monitored Vibrio species potentially pathogenic to C. gigas in 2013 and 2014 in the Thau Lagoon, a major oyster farming region in the coastal French...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Vibrio; Shellfish farming; Bivalve mollusks; Mortality outbreak; Phytoplankton; Zooplankton.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00463/57479/59598.pdf
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