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Registros recuperados: 40
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Accidents Waiting to Happen: Liability Policy and Toxic Pollution Releases AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Austin, David H..
Proponents of environmental policies based on liability assert that strict liability imposed on the polluter will induce firms to handle hazardous wastes properly and to avoid disposing them into the environment. Economic theory and a few well-publicized cases, however, suggest that a number of factors may dilute the incentives posed by strict liability. In this paper, we run regressions relating unintended releases of pollution into the environment (aggregated at the state level, and followed over nine years from 1987 to 1995) to the imposition of strict liability on the polluter, exploiting variation across states in the liability provisions of their mini-Superfund laws, and in the years these were adopted. We experiment with instrumental variable...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Strict liability; Toxic spills; Policy endogeneity; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; C33; K32.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10450
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Accidents Waiting to Happen: Liability Policy and Toxic Pollution Releases AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Austin, David H..
Proponents of environmental policies based on liability assert that strict liability imposed on polluters induces firms to handle hazardous wastes properly. We run regressions relating unintended pollution releases to strict liability imposed on polluters, exploiting variation across states and over time in the liability provisions of state mini-Superfund laws. Strict liability reduces the frequency and severity of pollution releases, provided it is modeled endogenously with the latter. Its effects vary with firm size. Partially sheltered from liability, small firms may have specialized in riskier production processes, but their number has not necessarily grown in response to the states' liability policy.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Strict liability; Negligence; Hazardous waste; State environmental policy; Endogenous policy adoption; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; D72; K13.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10518
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Age, Health, and the Willingness to Pay for Mortality Risk Reductions: A Contingent Valuation Survey in Japan AgEcon
Itaoka, Kenshi; Krupnick, Alan J.; Akai, Makoto; Alberini, Anna; Cropper, Maureen L.; Simon, Nathalie B..
A contingent valuation survey was conducted in Sizuoka, Japan, to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for reductions in the risk of dying and calculate the value of statistical life (VSL) for use in environmental policy in Japan. Special attention was devoted to the effects of age and health characteristics on WTP. We find that the VSLs are somewhat lower (103 to 344 million yen) than those found in the virtually identical survey applied in some developed countries. These values were subject to a variety of validity tests, which they generally passed. We find that the WTP for those over age 70 is lower than that for younger adults, but that this effect is eliminated in multiple regression. Rather, when accounting for other covariates, we find that WTP...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Willingness to pay; Value of statistical life; Mortality risk; Contingent valuation; Age; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10829
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Age, Health, and the Willingness to Pay for Mortality Risk Reductions: A Contingent Valuation Survey of Ontario Residents AgEcon
Krupnick, Alan J.; Alberini, Anna; Cropper, Maureen L.; Simon, Nathalie B.; O'Brien, Bernie; Goeree, Ron; Heintzelman, Martin.
Much of the justification for environmental rulemaking rests on estimates of the benefits to society of reduced mortality rates. This research aims to fill gaps in the literature that estimates the value of a statistical life (VSL) by designing and implementing a contingent valuation study for persons 40 to 75 years of age, and eliciting WTP for reductions in current and future risks of death. Targeting this age range also allows us to examine the impact of age on WTP and, by asking respondents to complete a detailed health questionnaire, to examine the impact of health status on WTP. This survey was self-administered by computer to 930 persons in Hamilton, Ontario, in 1999. The survey uses audio and visual aids to communicate baseline risks of death and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Mortality risk valuation; Canada; Contingent valuation; Age; Health status; Risk and Uncertainty; I1; Q20; Q26.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10888
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Context and the VSL: Evidence from a Stated Preference Study in Italy and the Czech Republic AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Scasny, Milan.
We report on the results of a survey based on conjoint choice experiments that was specifically designed to investigate the effect of context on the Value of a Statistical Life (VSL), an important input into the calculation of the mortality benefits of environmental policies that reduce premature mortality. We define “context” broadly to include i) the cause of death (respiratory illness, cancer, road traffic accident), ii) the beneficiary of the risk reduction (adult v. child), and iii) the mode of provision of the risk reduction (public program v. private good). The survey was conducted following similar protocols in Italy and the Czech Republic. When do not distinguish for the cause of death, child and adult VSL are not significantly different from one...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: VSL; Conjoint Choice Experiments; Mortality Risk Reductions; Cost-benefit Analysis; Forced Choice Questions; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; I18; J17; K32; Q51.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90952
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Detecting Starting Point Bias in Dichotomous-Choice Contingent Valuation Surveys AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Veronesi, Marcella; Cooper, Joseph C..
We examine starting point bias in CV surveys with dichotomous choice payment questions and follow-ups, and double-bounded models of the WTP responses. We wish to investigate (1) the seriousness of the biases for the location and scale parameters of WTP in the presence of starting point bias; (2) whether or not these biases depend on the distribution of WTP and on the bids used; and (3) how well a commonly used diagnostic for starting point bias—a test of the null that bid set dummies entered in the right-hand side of the WTP model are jointly equal to zero—performs under various circumstances. Because starting point bias cannot be separately identified in any reliable manner from biases caused by model specification, we use simulation approaches to address...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12230
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Determinants and Effects on Property Values of Participation in Voluntary Cleanup Programs: The Case of Colorado AgEcon
Alberini, Anna.
State Voluntary Cleanup Programs (VCPs) were established starting in the 1990s to encourage the environmental remediation and redevelopment of contaminated properties. These programs typically offer liability relief, subsidies and other regulatory incentives in exchange for site cleanup. This paper asks three questions: First, what type of properties are attracted to voluntary cleanup programs? Second, what is the interaction between these state programs and other incentives for remediation and economic development, such as Enterprise Zone and Brownfield Zone designations? Third, what is the effect of participation in the VCP on property values? We use data from Colorado'’s VCP to answer these questions. We find that most of the properties enrolled in this...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12215
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Discount Rates in Risk v. Money and Money v. Money Tradeoffs AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Chiabai, Aline.
We use data from a survey of residents of five Italian cities conducted in late Spring 2004 to estimate the discount rates implicit in (a) money v. future risk reductions and (b) money v. money tradeoffs. We find that the mean personal discount rate is 2% in (a) and 8.7% in (b). The latter is lower than the discount rates estimated in comparable situations in many recent studies, greater than market interest rates in Italy at the time, and exhibits modest variation with age and gender. The discount rate implicit in money v. risk tradeoffs is in line with estimates from studies in the US and Europe, and does not depend on observable individual characteristics.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12209
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Does the Cause of Death Matter? The Effect of Dread, Controllability, Exposure and Latency on the Vsl AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Scasny, Milan.
The Value of a Statistical Life is a key input into the calculation of the benefits of environmental policies that save lives. To date, the VSL used in environmental policy analyses has not been adjusted for age or the cause of death. Air pollution regulations, however, are linked to reductions in the risk of dying for cancer, heart disease, and respiratory illnesses, raising the question whether a single VSL should be applied for all of these causes of death. We conducted a conjoint choice experiment survey in Milan, Italy, to investigate this question. We find that the VSL increases with dread, exposure, the respondents’ assessments of the baseline risks, and experience with the specific risks being studied. The VSL is higher when the risk reduction is...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: VSL; Conjoint Choice Experiments; Mortality Risk Reductions; Cost-benefit Analysis; Forced Choice Questions; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; I18; J17; K32; Q51.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98097
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Does the Value of a Statistical Life Vary with Age and Health Status? Evidence from the United States and Canada AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Cropper, Maureen L.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Simon, Nathalie B..
Much of the justification for environmental rulemaking rests on estimates of the benefits to society of reduced mortality rates. Yet the literature providing estimates of the willingness to pay (WTP) for mortality risk reductions measures the value that healthy, prime-aged adults place on reducing their risk of dying, whereas the majority of statistical lives saved by environmental programs, according to epidemiological studies, appear to be the lives of older people and people with chronically impaired health. This paper provides an empirical assessment of the effects of age and baseline health on WTP for mortality risk reductions by reporting the results of two contingent valuation surveys designed to test the above hypotheses. One survey was...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Willingness to pay; Mortality; Contingent valuation; Age; Health status; Health Economics and Policy; D61; D62; Q20; Q26.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10769
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Estimating the Value of Safety with Labor Market Data: Are the Results Trustworthy? AgEcon
Hintermann, Beat; Alberini, Anna; Markandya, Anil.
We use a panel dataset of UK workers to look for evidence of compensating wage differentials for workplace risk. Risk data are available at the four-digit industry level or at the three-digit occupation level. We discuss various econometric problems associated with the hedonic wage approach, namely measurement error, instability of the estimates to specification changes, and endogeneity. We find that if we assume a classical measurement error, the true risk signal would be completely drowned out in our data, which would imply a severe downward bias of the OLS coefficient on risk. But this prediction is at odds with our OLS estimates of the VSL, which are large, especially for blue collar workers. Further, the coefficient on risk changes varies dramatically...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12213
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Fleet Turnover and Old Car Scrap Policies AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Harrington, Winston; McConnell, Virginia D..
This paper incorporates owners' decisions to keep, repair or scrap their old vehicles into a simulation model of fleet emissions. This decision depends critically on the owner's perceived value of the vehicle, so we examine the factors affecting owners' valuations of their old vehicles using a unique longitudinal dataset. Willingness to accept for the vehicle is well predicted by mileage and condition of the car, and declines systematically with its age. Our estimated model of vehicle value is used as an input into a simulation model of a 1,000-car fleet representative of California's fleet. Other inputs into the simulation models are the estimated distributions of emissions in the fleet, and two equations that link emissions reductions to the cost of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Mobile source; Inspection and maintenance; I/M; Scrappage; Emission fees; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q25.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10897
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Getting Cars Off the Road: The Cost-Effectiveness of an Episodic Pollution Control Program AgEcon
Cropper, Maureen L.; Jiang, Yi; Alberini, Anna; Baur, Patrick.
Ground level ozone remains a serious problem in the United States. Because ozone non-attainment is a summer problem, episodic rather than continuous controls of ozone precursors are possible. We evaluate the costs and effectiveness of an episodic scheme that requires people to buy permits in order to drive on high ozone days. We estimate the demand function for permits based on a survey of 1,300 households in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Assuming that all vehicle owners comply with the scheme, the permit program would reduce VOCs by 50 tons and NOx by 42 tons per Code Red day at a permit price of $75. Allowing for non-compliance by 15% of respondents reduces the effectiveness of the scheme to 39 tons of VOCs and 33 tons of NOx per day. The...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Ground-Level Ozone; Episodic Pollution Control Schemes; Mobile Sources; Volatile Organic Compounds (Vocs); Cost Per Ton of Vocs Removed; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q52; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60749
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Mortality Risk Valuation for Environmental Policy AgEcon
Krupnick, Alan J.; Alberini, Anna; Cropper, Maureen L.; Simon, Nathalie B.; Itaoka, Kenshi; Akai, Makoto.
Most benefit-cost analyses of reductions in air pollutants and other pollutants carrying mortality risks rely on estimates of the value of reductions in such risks produced by compensating wage studies, or contingent valuation studies that value risk reductions in the context of transport or job-related accidents. As we argue below, these estimates are inappropriate when valuing risk changes produced by environmental programs. The objectives of this paper are to explain why these estimates are inappropriate and to describe an improved approach to valuing reductions in risk of death from environmental programs, especially programs to reduce air pollution. We have implemented this approach in a pilot study in Tokyo, Japan. The paper provides estimates of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Mortality risk valuation; Contingent valuation; Japan; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10882
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On and Off the Liability Bandwagon: Explaining State Adoptions of Strict Liability in Hazardous Waste Programs AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Austin, David H..
We analyze factors in states' decisions to switch their approaches to hazardous waste liability policy from negligence standards to policies based on strict liability. Many, but not all, states have switched in recent years. We explain differences in the timing of states' adoption of strict liability into their "mini-superfund" programs using data on states' industrial activities, environmental programs, wealth and education, and political orientation. We test implications of a theoretical model in which states adopt the liability regime (strict versus negligence-based liability) that they see as having greater net benefits. We test this model by estimating a profit equation of the presence or absence of strict liability in a state hazardous waste cleanup...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Strict liability; Toxic spills; Liability policy; Hazardous materials; Environmental Economics and Policy; D78; H73; I18.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10680
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Overcoming Public Aversion to Congestion Pricing AgEcon
Harrington, Winston; Krupnick, Alan J.; Alberini, Anna.
Transportation authorities have consistently failed to employ economic incentives on major roadways--i.e. time-of-day pricing or "congestion fees"--to internalize the costs of congestion. In principle at least, such tolls can easily be shown to increase social welfare by making motorists pay something closer to the full social costs of their driving decisions. In addition, recent advances in electronics make it possible to implement such fees fairly cheaply and non-intrusively. While these same authorities generally understand and acknowledge the case for using congestion fees, they also claim that their use is politically infeasible because too many motorists would suffer large increases in commuting costs. This is the puzzle: If congestion tolls truly do...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Congestion; HOT lanes; Freeways; Time-of-day pricing; Public Economics; R41.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10730
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Paying for Permanence: Public Preferences for Contaminated Site Cleanup AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Tonin, Stefania; Turvani, Margherita; Chiabai, Aline.
We use conjoint choice questions to investigate people’s preferences for income and reductions in mortality risks delivered by contaminated site remediation policies. Our survey is self-administered using the computer by residents of four cities in Italy with severely contaminated sites. We estimate the Value of a Statistical Life to be about €5.6 million for an immediate risk reduction. If the risk reduction takes place 20 years from now, however, the implied VSL is about €1.26 million. The discount rate implicit in the responses to the conjoint choice questions is about 7%. People are willing to pay for permanent risk reductions, but not just any amount. Risk reductions in the nearer future are valued more highly than risk reductions in the more distant...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12208
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Public Policies for Contaminated Site Cleanup: The Opinions of the Italian Public AgEcon
Turvani, Margherita; Chiabai, Aline; Alberini, Anna; Tonin, Stefania.
Cleaning up contaminated sites is one of the most important environmental policy priorities in many countries. Remediation of contaminated sites is attractive because it reduces risks to human health and ecological systems, and brings a host of potential social and economic benefits. Even when the burden of paying for cleanup is imposed on the parties that are responsible for the contaminated sites, in many countries government programs are established for enforcement purposes, to set cleanup standards, and to address contamination at those sites where the responsible parties are no longer in existence or do not have the means to pay for cleanup (“orphan” sites). This paper presents the results of a survey of the Italian public where we ask citizens to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10276
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Public Support for Pollution Fee Policies for Motor Vehicles: Survey Results AgEcon
Krupnick, Alan J.; Harrington, Winston; Alberini, Anna.
In this paper we report on the results of a telephone survey conducted in Southern California during August and September 1996. The purpose of the survey was to inform respondents about a set of rather complex pricing policies designed to reduce motor vehicle emissions and to estimate respondent support for those policies. After receiving extensive information about these policies, respondents were polled on whether they would support, i.e., vote for, any or all of these options. The pollution fee survey elicited support for a plan that levied a fee on vehicles in the region, depending on the vehicle's emissions per mile and on the miles driven. The sample was then split in two, with half the respondents being told that a portion of the revenues would be...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Mobile sources; Survey; Emissions fees; Environmental Economics and Policy; R41; Q28.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10469
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Rates of Time Preferences for Saving Lives in the Hazardous Waste Site Context AgEcon
Alberini, Anna; Tonin, Stefania; Turvani, Margherita.
Replaced with revised version of paper 02/20/09.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Value of a Statistical Life; Latent Risk Reductions; Individual Discount Rates; Rate of Time Preference for Saving Lives; Contaminated Sites; Remediation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; J17; I18; K32; Q51; Q53.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47177
Registros recuperados: 40
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