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Registros recuperados: 15
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Costs, Emissions Reductions, and Vehicle Repair: Evidence from Arizona AgEcon
Ando, Amy Whritenour; McConnell, Virginia D.; Harrington, Winston.
The Arizona I/M program provides one of the first opportunities to examine the costs and effectiveness of vehicle emission repair. This paper examines various aspects of emission reductions, fuel economy improvements, and costs of repair, drawing data from over 80,000 vehicles failing the I/M test in Arizona between 1995 and the first half of 1996. We summarize the wealth of repair data from the Arizona program and highlight its limitations. Because missing or incomplete cost information has been a serious shortcoming for evaluation of I/M programs, we develop a method for estimating the costs of repair when those costs are not reported. We find surprising evidence that almost one quarter of all vehicles that take the I/M test are never observed to pass...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: I/M; Repair; Emissions; Mobile sources; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; R48.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10915
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Defensive purchasing and motor-vehicle policy effectiveness AgEcon
Ando, Amy Whritenour; Brozovic, Nicholas.
We present a theory of vehicle choice where utility depends on the vehicle choices made by other consumers. We use parameters from current transportation and public safety data to show that changes in motor vehicle policy may have unexpectedly large or non-existent effects on safety, fleet mix, and the environment.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Public Economics.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20404
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Delay on the Path to the Endangered Species List: Do Costs and Benefits Matter? AgEcon
Ando, Amy Whritenour.
This paper uses duration analysis to evaluate the ability of interest groups to influence the timing of decisions to add species to the endangered species list by exerting pressure on the Fish and Wildlife Service. Using data from 1990 to 1994, it finds that public opposition and support can substantially slow and hasten (respectively) the progress of candidate species through the parts of the listing process most directly under the agency's control. Since the Service is not an atypical agency, similar patterns of public influence on delay may exist in other areas of bureaucratic decision making as well.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Duration analysis; Endangered species; Political economy; Interest groups; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10564
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Demand-Side Factors in Optimal Land Conservation Choice AgEcon
Ando, Amy Whritenour; Shah, Payal.
The dominant paradigm of conservation-reserve planning in economics is to optimize the provision of physical conservation benefits (measured in units like species protected) given a budget constraint. Large-scale biology-based priority setting implies that the value we place on biodiversity and ecosystem function is not affected by human proximity to that natural capital. There is significant evidence, however, that human willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation declines with distance (e.g. Loomis 2000) – a phenomenon we refer to as “spatial value decay”. This paper begins a new strand of the conservation planning literature that takes demand-side factors – the location of people in the landscape and the degree to which their willingness to pay for an...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Conservation; Endangered species; Optimal reserve-site selection; Spatial; Demand-side; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q24; Q57.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49209
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Do Interest Groups Compete? AgEcon
Ando, Amy Whritenour.
This paper conducts a test of the hypothesis that interest groups compete strategically for influence with a policy-making agency. It adapts econometric methodology from the empirical industrial organization literature that was designed to work with discrete game-theoretic models, and uses data on whether or not supporting and opposing interest groups submitted comments to the Fish and Wildlife Service about each of 173 proposals to add new species to the endangered species list. The results imply that groups do respond to variations in the expected costs and benefits of a listing when deciding whether to pressure the agency. There is no support, however, for the hypothesis that the levels of pressure exerted by the groups emerge from the Nash equilibrium...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Interest groups; Strategic competition; Empirical game theory; Endangered species; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; C25; C72; D72; Q28.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10732
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Economies of Scope in Endangered-Species Protection: Evidence from Interest-Group Behavior AgEcon
Ando, Amy Whritenour.
This paper looks for positive spillovers from the legal protection of one species to the welfare of others, and for evidence of economies of scope in the costs associated with protecting species under the Endangered Species Act. The analyses use data on the intensity of interest-group comment activity in response to proposals to protect new species. The results suggest that these phenomena are significant, strengthening arguments that wildlife-protection policy should be shifted towards species groups or ecosystems. However, the findings are also consistent with diminishing public willingness-to-pay for protected species in a given area, a pattern which also has public-policy implications.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economies of scope; Endangered species; Political economy; Interest groups; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10903
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Estimating Full IM240 Emissions from Partial Test Results: Evidence from Arizona AgEcon
Ando, Amy Whritenour; Harrington, Winston; McConnell, Virginia D..
The expense and inconvenience of enhanced vehicle emissions testing using the full 240-second dynamometer test has led states to search for ways to shorten the test process. In fact, all states that currently use the IM240 allow some type of fast-pass, usually as early in the test as second 31, and Arizona allows vehicles to fast-fail after second 93. While these shorter tests save states millions of dollars in inspection lanes and driver costs, there is a loss in information since test results are no longer comparable across vehicles. This paper presents a methodology for estimating full 240 second results from partial-test results for three pollutants: HC, CO and NOx. Using random sample of vehicles in Arizona which received full 240 second tests, we use...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Inspection and maintenance; Mobile source; Fast pass; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10734
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Getting on the Map: The Political Economy of State-Level Electricity Restructuring AgEcon
Ando, Amy Whritenour; Palmer, Karen L..
Retail competition in electricity markets is expected to lead to more efficient electricity supply, lower electricity prices, more innovation by suppliers and a greater variety of electric power service packages. However, only a handful of states have currently gone so far as to pass legislation and/or make regulatory decisions to establish retail wheeling. This paper analyzes a variety of factors that may influence the rate at which legislators and regulators move towards establishing retail competition. In general, we find that where one interest group dominates others in the struggle for influence over the decision makers, the net effect seems to push a state forward more quickly when retail wheeling is expected to yield large efficiency gains.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity restructuring; Deregulation; Political economy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D78; L51; L94.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10643
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Optimal Contract Length for Voluntary Land Conservation Programs AgEcon
Chen, Xiaoxuan; Ando, Amy Whritenour.
In many parts of the world, deteriorating environmental conditions have led policy makers to develop policies and programs aimed at promoting conservation practices on lands devoted to agriculture. Such programs have been studied by environmental economists, but little research has been done on the usefulness of strategically varying the conservation contract’'s length. This paper uses theory and simulation to investigate the optimal contract length of land conservation programs when a policy maker tries to maximize the present discounted value of the stream of environmental benefits from the program. We find that contract length should vary with characteristics of the ecological processes that yield benefits from land retirement. Optimal contracts are...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21259
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State-Level Variation in Land-Trust Abundance: Could It Make Economic Sense AgEcon
Albers, Heidi J.; Ando, Amy Whritenour.
Few economic analyses examine land trusts, their decisions, and the land-trust "industry," despite their growing importance. For example, statistics on the wide variation in the number of trusts in different regions of the United States raise questions about whether such variation makes economic sense. This paper builds a model to identify the optimal number of private conservation agents. The model depicts two competing forces: regional spatial externalities in conservation benefits that increase the efficiency of having fewer agents and organizational costs, and fund-raising specialization, which increases the efficiency of having more agents. Using state-level variables, we perform a count-data analysis of the number of trusts conserving land in each...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land trusts; Public goods; Organizational size; Conservation benefits; U.S. land conservation; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10873
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The Enhanced I/M Program in Arizona: Costs, Effectiveness, and a Comparison with Pre-regulatory Estimates AgEcon
Harrington, Winston; McConnell, Virginia D.; Ando, Amy Whritenour.
Using data from 1995 and 1996, we estimate the cost of the Arizona Enhanced I/M Program and the emission reductions achieved. We begin by enumerating briefly the components of I/M costs and discuss their size and incidence. Then we describe the empirical information from Arizona and how we use it to construct cost estimates for both vehicle inspection and repair of failing vehicles. Inspection costs include the costs of operating the test stations and the costs motorists incur in time and money to get to the station and go through the testing process. We find that the inspection costs account for over two-thirds of the full costs of I/M, while costs associated with actual vehicle repair account for only one third. We conclude by comparing the empirical...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: I/M cost-effectiveness; Vehicle emissions; Mobile sources; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q25.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10867
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The Price-Elasticity of Stumpage Sales from Federal Forests AgEcon
Ando, Amy Whritenour.
This paper explores the influence of the behavior of the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management on effective public policy toward the national forests. It shows that fluctuations in stumpage sales from such forests have been large. Furthermore, those fluctuations could well have a significant impact on the price elasticity of harvest even with large stocks of uncut volume under contract. System analysis of harvest and sale patterns in nine regions during the period 1951-1992 shows that stumpage sales displayed little correlation with prices during the period; the positive price elasticity of harvest seems to have been induced largely by the behavior of logging firms. However, it finds a positive link between National Forest budgets and annual sales....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Stumpage; Harvest; Sales; National Forests; Budget; Price elasticity; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q23; Q28.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10456
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U.S. Conservation Policy Reconsidered AgEcon
Ando, Amy Whritenour.
Research related to the Endangered Species Act tends to take the presence of that policy as given and focus on issues of implementation and effects. This paper seeks to reconsider U.S. conservation policy entirely. The ESA does not protect species or ecosystems that are not endangered, and formally requires that conservation efforts be spread evenly across endangered species to prevent their extinctions. However, the focus of conservation science has evolved in recent years towards ecosystems and away from species. This paper characterizes the composition of optimal conservation spending when species are valued for their contributions to ecosystem services and not always for their own existence. The ESA clearly fails to provide ecosystem services when the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9884
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VALUING PREFERENCES OVER STORMWATER MANAGEMENT OUTCOMES GIVEN STATE-DEPENDENT PREFERENCES AND HETEROGENEOUS STATUS QUO AgEcon
Londono, Catalina; Ando, Amy Whritenour.
Paper removed at the request of the authors.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Nonmarket valuation; State-dependent preferences; Stormwater; Aquatic habitat; Choice experiment; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103415
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Water quality warnings and recreational fishing: effects over time and across space AgEcon
Speir, Cameron; Ando, Amy Whritenour.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9945
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