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Registros recuperados: 15
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A los 150 años desde "El origen de las especies": ¿es darwinista la biología contemporánea? RChHN
FOLGUERA,GUILLERMO; BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO.
A los 150 años de la publicación de "El origen de las especies" de Charles Darwin, numerosos homenajes se han realizado en diferentes ciudades del mundo. Sin embargo, es importante preguntarse hacia el seno de la comunidad científica acerca del alcance efectivo del darwinisimo dentro de la biología. En este trabajo analizamos este supuesto intentando responder, al menos de una manera aproximativa, la pregunta: ¿es darwinista la biología en la actualidad? A estos fines, consideramos algunos de los principales aportes que suelen asignarse al darwinismo en las ciencias de los sistemas vivos: el análisis y centro en la diversidad, un origen único de los sistemas vivos, la incorporación del azar y el reconocimiento de las causas proximales. En términos...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Causas próximas; Darwinismo; Diversidad biológica.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2009000400003
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An "enactive" approach to integrative and comparative biology: Thoughts on the table Biol. Res.
PALACIOS,ADRIAN G.; BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO.
We discuss the concept of Enaction as originally proposed by Varela. We attempt to exemplify through two specific topics, sensory ecology and behavior, as well as physiological and behavioral ecology, on which the enactive approach is based. We argue that sensory physiology allows us to explore the biological and cognitive meaning of animal 'private' sensory channels, beyond the scope of our own sensory capacity. Furthermore, after analyzing the interplay between factors that may impose limits upon an animal's use of time and energy, we call for a program of research in integrative and comparative biology that simultaneously considers evolutionary ecology (including physiological and behavioral ecology) and neurobiology (including cognitive mechanisms as...
Tipo: Journal article
Ano: 2003 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602003000100008
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Avian physiological ecology: old questions, new systems and new approaches RChHN
BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO; MARTINEZ DEL RIO,CARLOS.
Tipo: Journal article
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2000000300002
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Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae) en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central RChHN
SOTO,RUBÉN E.; CASTILLA,JUAN C.; BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO.
En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 %) y...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Gastrópodo; Intermareal; Chile central; Forrajeo; Selección de presas.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2004000100012
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Daily and seasonal limits of time and temperature to activity of degus RChHN
KENAGY,G.J.; NESPOLO,ROBERTO F.; VÁSQUEZ,RODRIGO A.; BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO.
We present an analysis of behavioral flexibility in a day-active caviomorph rodent, the degu, Octodon degus, in response to temporal (daily and seasonal), spatial, and thermal heterogeneity of its environment. We quantified activity and foraging behavior in a population, together with thermal conditions, in an open habitat in the seasonally hot and arid matorral of central Chile. Summer activity was bimodal, with a gap of more than 8 h between the morning bout of 2.5 h of intensive foraging and the afternoon bout of 2 h. More than half of the 4.5 h of summer activity occurred in the shade of early morning or late afternoon when the sun was below the local skyline. Autumn and spring activity were also bimodal, but with greater proportions of activity under...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Foraging; Seasonality; Thermal ecology; Forrajeo.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2002000300008
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Digestive Phenotypic Flexibility in Post-Metamorphic Amphibians: Studies on a Model Organism Biol. Res.
NAYA,DANIEL E; BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO.
Studies of phenotypic flexibility are central to the understanding of evolutionary and comparative physiology. Research conducted on many vertebrate species has shown that the digestive system is highly responsive and sensitive to environmental cues. However, amphibians, which are a standard and classic model organism for the study of many physiological processes, have been poorly considered in the study of ecological consequences on digestive flexibility. Here we review and analyze the current information on this topic for amphibians. We identify three major bodies of empirical evidence: a) seasonal changes in gut development, b) lack of dietary modulation of gut attributes in adult individuals, c) a relationship between feeding habits and the magnitude...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Amphibians; Digestive theory; Gut adjustments; Phenotypic flexibility.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-97602004000300002
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Distribution of aquaporins in the nasal passage of Octodon degus, a South-American desert rodent and its implications for water conservation RChHN
GALLARDO,PEDRO; HERRERA,SOFÍA; SAFFER,KARIN; BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO.
Rodents from arid and semiarid environments live under conditions where the spatial and temporal availability of water is limited. Octodon degus is a South-American desert-dwelling rodent inhabiting arid and semiarid habitats of central and northern Chile. Its survival depends on morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations that allow water conservation. This rodent has a high urine concentrating ability, high capacity of fecal dehydration and low evaporative water loss, related to the ability of the nasal passages to condense water from the exhaled air; this water must be absorbed in order to avoid its accumulation in the nasal passages and potential loss through the nostrils. We hypothesize that aquaporins (AQPs) might be present in the nasal...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Aquaporin; Nasal passage; Desert rodent.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2008000100003
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Does the presence of livestock alter the trophic behaviour of sympatric populations of wild camelids Vicugna vicugna Molina 1782 and Lama guanicoe Müller 1976 (Artiodactyla: Camelidae)?: Evidence from Central Andes Gayana
TIRADO,CARLOS; CORTÉS,A.; CARRETERO,M. A.; BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO.
We described and compared the diets of two sympatric Andean camelids, during the humid season (austral summer) in a site of Northern Chile, in presence of domestic livestock. Results indicate that: 1) grasses and shrubs are the main component in the diet of both camelids, 2) shrubs were more consumed by V. vicugna; 3) V. vicugna and L. guanicoe used the same trophic resources but in different proportions; 4) in mountain environments, wetlands exploitation by wild camelids seems restricted by domestic cattle, which would cause the displacement of Vicuñas and Guanacos to suboptimal habitat for feeding.
Tipo: Journal article
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-65382016000100004
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Ecología energética y nutricional en aves herbívoras pequeñas RChHN
LOPEZ-CALLEJA,M. VICTORIA; BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO.
La herbivoría en aves es una estrategia poco común. Solo el 3% de las aves actuales consumen plantas como fuente de energía. Tanto la composición química de las plantas como las restricciones asociadas al vuelo y digestión en aves pueden explicar el reducido número de pequeños endotermos, como las aves, que son herbívoros. Nuestro objetivo es explicar como las aves herbívoras satisfacen sus requerimientos nutricionales y energéticos cuando consumen dietas extremadamente pobres. Para lo cual nos centramos en Phytotoma rara (Phytotomidae), posiblemente el ave herbívora más pequeña. Phytotoma rara presenta numerosas características, como el rápido tiempo de transito, un efectivo rompimiento de la pared celular, y la alta y constante actividad de las enzimas...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Herbivoría; Aves; Tamaño corporal; Forrajeo; Digestión; Energética.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2000000300005
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Immunological vulnerability and adjustments to environmental thermal variability RChHN
BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO; CATALÁN,TAMARA P; KALERGIS,ALEXIS M.
Ecological physiologists recognize the potential impacts of temperature on physiological traits, however less attention has been paid to changes in thermal variation on a scale that pertains directly to living organisms. Also, few studies have examined the effects of temperature variation or other climatic drivers on host-pathogen interactions. We evaluated the effect of acclimation to ambient temperature variability (0, 4 and 8 °C daily variability) on the immune performance in the insect Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera). We observed that antibacterial activity differed significantly between treatments. In addition, variances of antibacterial activity were larger under the more variable thermal conditions. Similarly to antibacterial responses, tyrosinase...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Ecoimmunology; Immune performance; Mealworm beetles; Temperature; Tyrosinase phenoloxidase.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2013000400009
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Inter-population thermal variability and physiological response in the intertidal fish Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae) RChHN
PULGAR,JOSÉ M; BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO; OJEDA,F. PATRICIO.
Determining habitat conditions that generate individual physiological variability represents key basic knowledge to understand the direction of animal's responses to habitat change. The coastal fish Scartichthys viridis inhabits low intertidal pools along the Chilean coast. Because seawater in the low intertidal is renewed during every tidal cycle, this zone is characterized by a low thermal variation and abundant food within and between localities. We evaluated whether seawater thermal conditions and food availability of low intertidal pools registered in three localities of Chilean coast are sufficient to generate physiological and energetic differences in individuals of S. viridis captured from three geographic separate populations spanning...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Intertidal fish; Physiological compensation; Tidepool; Scartichthys viridis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2007000400005
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Nutritional ecology and digestive response to dietary shift in the large South American fox, Pseudalopex culpaeus RChHN
SILVA,SERGIO I.; JAKSIC,FABIÁN M.; BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO.
We tested the role of dietary shifts (from rodents to fruits and to mixed diets) on the nutritional ecology of the culpeo fox Pseudalopex culpaeus, a native canid of South America. We studied the effects of food quality on digestive processes, nutrition, and mass balance, and the implications of diet quality for fox survival. We observed at the end of the nutritional trials that body mass differed significantly between the three diet groups (fruits, rats and mixed diets), while percentage of body mass change differed significantly only in the fruit diet treatment. Foxes fed with fruits consumed more food to meet their dietary and metabolic needs. Across diets, dry-matter as well as energy digestibility increased significantly with diet quality. Also, mean...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Nutritional bottleneck; Fox; Dietary shift; Fruit consumption.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2005000200007
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Relación costo_beneficio en la termorregulación de Chinchilla lanigera RChHN
CORTES,ARTURO; ROSENMANN,MARIO; BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO.
Chinchilla lanigera, es un roedor endémico de Chile que habita áreas desérticas del norte de Chile. Postulamos que C. lanigera (silvestre) por habitar en ambientes con escasa disponibilidad de alimento y agua, debiera poseer atributos fisiológicos que minimicen los requerimientos (costos) de energía y agua. Se evaluó el metabolismo energético en atmósferas de aire y He-O2, la pérdida de agua por evaporación (EWL) y temperatura corporal (Tb) a diferentes temperaturas ambientales (Ta). Los resultados más relevantes muestran que la tasa metabólica basal (BMR) fue 0,66 mlO2/g h y la conductancia térmica (C) de 0,0376 mlO2/g h°C; valores que corresponden al 80,4% y 72,5% de la magnitud predicha para un mamífero euterio de similar tamaño corporal,...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Chinchilla lanigera; Metabolismo basal; Conductancia térmica; Pérdida de agua por evaporación.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2000000200010
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Variabilidad geográfica en la tolerancia térmica y economía hídrica del gastrópodo intermareal Nodilittorina peruviana (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822) RChHN
ROJAS,JOSE MIGUEL; FARIÑA,JOSE MIGUEL; SOTO,RUBEN E.; BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO.
El gastrópodo Nodilittorina peruviana es un habitante común de la zona intermareal rocosa de la costa norte y centro de Chile. Las poblaciones de esta especie se caracterizan por presentar distribuciones agregadas. Por medio de mediciones de terreno y ensayos de laboratorio se evaluó la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades de termorregulación y conservación de agua, en individuos pertenecientes a dos localidades de la costa de Chile que presentan distintos regímenes termales (Taltal 25º 25' S; 70º 29' W y Las Cruces 33º 35' S; 71º 38' W). Los resultados indican que la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades termorregulatorias es dependiente de las condiciones locales. A pesar de que los individuos de ambas localidades presentaron...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Gastrópodo; Intermareal; Termorregulación; Agregación; Biogeografía.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2000000300018
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Water economy of three Cinclodes (Furnariidae) species inhabiting marine and freshwater ecosystems RChHN
SABAT,PABLO; NESPOLO,ROBERTO F; BOZINOVIC,FRANCISCO.
Birds living in desert environments have been the preferred models for the study of physiological adaptations to water scarcity. Passerine birds living in marine coastal habitats face similar problems, yet physiological adaptations to water conservation in such species have been poorly documented. We measured total evaporative water loss (TEWL) and rates of oxygen consumption (VO2) in three species of passerine birds dwelling in marine and fresh water habitats. Mass specific total evaporative water loss was significantly lower in the marine species, Cinclodes nigrofumosus, than in species inhabiting areas near freshwater sources. We found a positive relationship between TEWL and VO2. The ratio of TEWL to VO2 (relative evaporative water loss, RTEWL) showed...
Tipo: Journal article Palavras-chave: Evaporative water loss; Cinclodes; Osmoregulation; Passerines; Salt.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2004000200001
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