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Registros recuperados: 19
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An aqueous extract of the dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum induces resistance in several crops under controlled and field conditions Organic Eprints
Thürig, Barbara; Binder, Andres; Boller, Thomas; Guyer, Urs; Jiménez, Sonia; Rentsch, Christina; Tamm, Lucius.
We have examined the effect of Pen, an aqueous extract of the dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum, on plant–pathogen interactions. Pen controlled a broad range of pathogens on several crop plants under greenhouse and field conditions. Pen protected grapevine from downy and powdery mildew (caused by Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), tomato from early blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans), onion from downy mildew (Peronospora destructor) and apple trees from apple scab (caused by Venturia inaequalis) to a similar extent as fungicides such as copper and sulphur or well-known inducers such as benzothiadiazole or b-aminobutyric acid. Pen had no major direct fungicidal effect and is thus supposed to protect plants by activating their defense...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Vegetables Viticulture Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/9077/1/Thuerig%2Detal%2D_2006%2DPlantPathology%2DPen.pdf
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An extract of Penicillium chrysogenum elicits early defense-related responses and induces resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana independently of known signalling pathways Organic Eprints
Thürig, Barbara; Felix, Georg; Binder, Andreas; Boller, Thomas; Tamm, Lucius.
An aqueous extract of the mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum (further called ‘Pen’ induced early defense-related responses such as an extracellular alkalinisation in cell cultures and ethylene production in leaf slices of numerous mono- and dicotyledon plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, tobacco and rice. The Pen-elicitor was sensitive to protease digestion but insensitive to other enzymes, suggesting that the elicitor-active region is a protein or a peptide. Reversed phase, ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography revealed that the Penelicitor is heterogeneous. This prevented further identification of the elicitor. Pen protected A. thaliana from a broad range of pathogens, including an oomycete (Hyaloperonospora parasitica), two...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/9078/1/Thuerig%2Detal%2D2006%2Dpenicillium%2Dchrysogenum%2Dpmpp.pdf
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Application of Mycorrhiza and Soil from a Permaculture System Improved Phosphorus Acquisition in Naranjilla Organic Eprints
Symanczik, Sarah; Gisler, Michelle; Thonar, Cécile; Schlaeppi, Klaus; van der Heijden, Marcel; Kahmen, Ansgar; Boller, Thomas; Mäder, Paul.
Naranjilla (Solanum quitoense) is a perennial shrub plant mainly cultivated in Ecuador, Colombia, and Central America where it represents an important cash crop. Current cultivation practices not only cause deforestation and large-scale soil degradation but also make plants highly susceptible to pests and diseases. The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can offer a possibility to overcome these problems. AMF can act beneficially in various ways, for example by improving plant nutrition and growth, water relations, soil structure and stability and protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, the impact of AMF inoculation on growth and nutrition parameters of naranjilla has been assessed. For inoculation three European reference AMF...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/33353/1/Symanczik-etal-2017_FrontPlantSci_Vol8_Article1263_pp1-12.pdf
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Arbuscular mycorrhizae in a long-term field trial comparing low-input (organic, biological) and high-input (conventional) farming systems in a crop rotation Organic Eprints
Mäder, Paul; Edenhofer, Stephan; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres; Niggli, Urs.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) root colonization was studied in a long-term field trial in which four farming systems currently in use in Switzerland were continuously applied to a randomized set of plots at a single field site from 1978 till 1993. There were two low-input farming systems (organic and bio-dynamic) and two high-input (conventional) farming systems (according to Swiss guidelines of integrated plant production with and without farmyard manure). The systems had an identical 7-year crop rotation and tillage scheme and differed essentially only in the amount and type of fertilizer supplied and in plant protection management. The percentage of root colonization by AM fungi was determined in field samples 2–3 times over the growing season in crops in...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://orgprints.org/26771/1/Maeder_et_al_2000_BFS.pdf
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Distinct sporulation dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities from different agroecosystems in long-term microcosms Organic Eprints
Oehl, Fritz; Sieverding, Ewald; Ineichen, Kurt; Mäder, Paul; Wiemken, Andres; Boller, Thomas.
The aim of this study was to investigate sporulation dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities from agroecosystems differing in land use intensity in long-term experimental microcosms. These were set up with characteristic grassland plants (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, Plantago lanceolata), and inoculated with soils from several grasslands and arable lands subjected to crop rotation or continuous monocropping. The microcosms were maintained under ambient light and temperature conditions over 3 years. A novel, localized sampling scheme was applied for attaining exclusively the newly formed spores at bimonthly intervals. Overall, 39 AMF species were detected by morphological spore identification. Some species were recovered from all...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/26382/1/Oehl_etal_2009_AEE134.pdf
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Erträge und Nährstoffgehalte von alten, biologisch und konventionell gezüchteten Winterweizensorten in verschiedenen landwirtschaftlichen Systemen Organic Eprints
Hildermann, Isabell; Thommen, Andreas; Dubois, David; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres; Mäder, Paul.
Due to limited nutrient conditions in organic farming winter wheat cultivars can often not perform to the full extent of their genetic potential. This study aims to assess nutrient acquisition potential and yields of old, organically and conventionally bred winter wheat cultivars. Ten cultivars were tested within the DOK long-term experiment in two organic systems at low and moderate intensity, a conventional stockless system and an unfertilized control. Yields and nutrient contents of grain and straw were significantly affected by cultivars and systems. Cultivar x system interactions were not detected. Yields were increasing with nutrient level and year of release of cultivars. Under organic conditions all cultivars performed equally well with...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Breeding; Genetics and propagation.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/14030/1/Hildermann_14030.pdf
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Finger Millet Growth and Nutrient Uptake Is Improved in Intercropping With Pigeon Pea Through “Biofertilization” and “Bioirrigation” Mediated by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Organic Eprints
Saharan, Krishna; Schütz, Lukas; Kahmen, Ansgar; Wiemken, Andres; Boller, Thomas; Mathimaran, Natarajan.
Legume-cereal intercropping is well known in traditional dry land agriculture. Here, we tested whether finger millet, a shallow-rooted cereal, can profit from neighboring pigeon pea, a deep-rooted legume, in the presence of “biofertilization” with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), under drought conditions. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using compartmented microcosms. Pigeon pea was grown in a deep compartment with access to a moist substrate layer at the bottom, whereas finger millet was grown in a neighboring shallow compartment, separated by 25-µm nylon mesh, without access to the moist substrate layer. In the presence of a common mycorrhizal network (CMN), with or without PGPR, a drought condition...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions Nutrient turnover Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/35409/1/Saharan-etal-2018-frontiersEnvSci-vol6-article46-p1-11.pdf
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Genotype x Environment Interactions of Winter Wheat Organic Eprints
Hildermann, Isabell; Messmer, Monika; Kunz, Peter; Pregitzer, Anjana; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres; Mäder, Paul.
Winter wheat cultivars for organic farming have to be adapted to highly variable environments. Yield and yield stability, the nutritional value and the bread making quality are here of major importance. Particularly, seed quality, tillering capacity, regeneration ability after harrowing, weed suppression ability, resistance or tolerance against diseases and improved nutrient use efficiency (NUE) under limited nutrient conditions need to be improved by specific breeding efforts (Kunz et al., 2006; Löschenberger et al., 2008). Ten winter wheat cultivars were grown in 2007 in two organic systems of the DOK long-term experiment in CH-Therwil. Eight of these cultivars were tested in 2008 at three organic farms in different pedo-climatic environments in...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Breeding; Genetics and propagation.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/19328/1/Hildermann_Eucarpia_2010_Paris_abstract.pdf
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Impact of land use intensity on the species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agroecosystems of central Europe Organic Eprints
Oehl, Fritz; Sieverding, Ewald; Ineichen, Kurt; Mäder, Paul; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres.
The impact of land use intensity on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated at eight sites in the “three-country corner” of France, Germany, and Switzerland. Three sites were low-input, species-rich grasslands. Two sites represented low- to moderate-input farming with a 7-year crop rotation, and three sites represented high-input continuous maize monocropping. Representative soil samples were taken, and the AMF spores present were morphologically identified and counted. The same soil samples also served as inocula for “AMF trap cultures” with Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium pratense, and Lolium perenne. These trap cultures were established in pots in a greenhouse, and AMF root colonization and spore formation were monitored over...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/26750/1/Oehl_et_al_2003_AEM.pdf
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Impact of pyrochar and hydrochar on soybean (Glycine max L.) root nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation Organic Eprints
Scheifele, Michael; Hobi, Andrea; Buegger, Franz; Gattinger, Andreas; Schulin, Rainer; Boller, Thomas; Mäder, Paul.
The aim of this study was to identify effects of carbonized organic material (‘‘biochar’’) on soybean growth, root nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation, and to elucidate possible underlyingmechanisms.Soybean (Glycine max L.) was grown in four arable soils amended with carbonized organic material produced from wood or maize as feedstocks, by pyrolysis (‘‘pyrochar’’) or hydrothermal carbonization (‘‘hydrochar’’). Nodulation by Bradyrhizobium, biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) assessed by15N techniques, plant growth, nutrient uptake and changes in chemical soil propertiesafter soil amendment were determined. Data were analyzed by means of a three way ANOVA onthe factors soil, carbonization technique and feedstock. It turned out that soybean root...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Composting and manuring Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2017
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Impact of water regimes on an experimental community of four desert arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species, as affected by the introduction of a non-native AMF species Organic Eprints
Symanczik, Sarah; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andreas; Al-Yahya'ei, Mohamed N..
Field studies have revealed the impact of changing water regimes on the structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities, but it is not known what happens to the abundance of individual AMF species within the community when the water conditions in the rhizosphere change. The behavior of four AMF species isolated from the Arabian desert (Diversispora aurantia, Diversispora omaniana, Septoglomus africanum, and an undescribed Paraglomus species) was investigated when assembled in microcosms containing Sorghum bicolor as host plant, and treated with various water regimes. Furthermore, the impact of invasion of these assemblages by Rhizophagus irregularis, an AMF species widely used in commercial inocula, was studied. The abundance of each AMF...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/33352/1/Symanczik-etal-2015_Mycorrhiza_Vol25_Issue8_pp639-647.pdf
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Improving Crop Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency via Biofertilization - A Global Meta-analysis Organic Eprints
Schütz, Lukas; Gattinger, Andreas; Meier, Matthias; Müller, Adrian; Boller, Thomas; Mäder, Paul; Mathimaran, Natarajan.
The application of microbial inoculants (biofertilizers) is a promising technology for future sustainable farming systems in view of rapidly decreasing phosphorus stocks and the need to more efficiently use available nitrogen (N). Various microbial taxa are currently used as biofertilizers, based on their capacity to access nutrients from fertilizers and soil stocks, to fix atmospheric nitrogen, to improve water uptake or to act as biocontrol agents. Despite the existence of a considerable knowledge on effects of specific taxa of biofertilizers, a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the performance of biofertilizers with different traits such as phosphorus solubilization and N fixation applied to various crops at a global scale is missing. We...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/32536/1/schuuetz-etal-2018-FrontPlantSci-8-2204-p1-13.pdf
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Nutrient use efficiency and arbuscular mycorrhizal root colonisation of winter wheat cultivars in different farming systems of the DOK long-term trial Organic Eprints
Hildermann, Isabell; Messmer, Monika; Dubois, David; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres; Mäder, Paul.
BACKGROUND: For organic farming, cultivars are required with high nutrient use efficiency under nutrient limited conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to contribute to nutrient uptake under low input conditions. We compared nutrient use efficiency (NUE) of old and modern organically and conventionally bred cultivars in organic and conventional systems and assessed AMF-root colonisation (AMF-RC) in relation to nutrient concentrations. RESULTS: Cultivars and systems had a statistically significant effect on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and NUE parameters, whereas no genotype × environment interactions appeared. In contrast to N and P uptake, the NUE parameters were higher under organic than under conventional...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Breeding; Genetics and propagation Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/17911/1/Hildermann-etal-2010-jsci-food-agric.pdf
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Response of old, new and organically bred winter wheat cultivars in different farming systems:concept and experimental layout in the DOK field trial Organic Eprints
Hildermann, Isabell; Thommen, Andreas; Dubois, David; Wiemken, Andres; Boller, Thomas; Maeder, Paul.
Organic farmers often use winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars that have been bred under conventional high-input conditions. We test the hypothesis, whether old and organically bred cultivars are better adapted to low-input conditions through a better functioning of the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Our aim is to assess the nutrient acquisition potential of old, new and organically bred winter wheat cultivars and to identify the role of AMF for nutrient uptake and growth. In October 2006, an experiment with 10 wheat cultivars was superimposed to all four field replicates of the DOK long-term experiment, comprising four different treatments with increasing nutrient input: unfertilized, biodynamic low and moderate intensity and...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/12307/1/Hildermann_12307_ed.doc
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Sorte x Umwelt – Interaktionen von Winterweizen im Biolandbau Organic Eprints
Hildermann, Isabell; Messmer, Monika; Kunz, Peter; Pregitzer, Anjana; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres; Mäder, Paul.
Winterweizensorten mit Eignung für den Biolandbau müssen an sehr variable Umweltbedingungen angepasst sein. Möglichkeiten, diese Bedingungen in biologischen Anbausystemen zu kontrollieren, sind stark begrenzt, da die Nährstoffzufuhr limitiert ist und keine chemisch synthetischen Pflanzenschutzmittel und leichtlöslichen Mineraldünger eingesetzt werden. Die Züchtungsziele für den Biolandbau weichen teilweise deutlich von den Zielen für den konventionellen Anbau ab. Von besonderer Bedeutung im Biolandbau sind Bestockungsvermögen, Regenerationsfähigkeit nach mechanischer Unkrautbekämpfung, rasche Nährstoffaufnahme, Unkrautunterdrückungsvermögen, Pflanzenhöhe und Resistenz oder mindestens Toleranz gegenüber Blatt- vor allem aber Ährenkrankheiten, ein gut...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Breeding; Genetics and propagation.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/19281/1/Hildermann_et_al_DGQ_2010_V01.pdf
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Sorte x Umwelt – Interaktionen von Winterweizen im biologischen Landbau Organic Eprints
Hildermann, Isabell; Messmer, Monika; Kunz, Peter; Pregitzer, Anjana; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres; Mäder, Paul.
Winterweizensorten für den Biolandbau müssen an sehr variable Umweltbedingungen angepasst sein. Acht biologisch und konventionell gezüchtete Weizensorten wurden 2007 im DOKLangzeitversuch in CH-Therwil in zwei bio-dynamischen Systemen (BIODYN 1 und BIODYN 2) auf Loess und 2008 auf bio-dynamischen Betrieben in Rheinau (SH) (Sand mit hohem Kiesanteil), Fehraltorf (ZH) (sandiger Lehm) und Vielbringen-Worb (BE) (sandiger Lehm) an marginalen Standorten getestet.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Breeding; Genetics and propagation.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/26574/1/SGPW_Bulletin23_2010.pdf
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Sorte x Umwelt-Interaktionen von Winterweizen im biologischen Landbau Organic Eprints
Hildermann, Isabell; Messmer, Monika; Kunz, Peter; Pregitzer, Anjana; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres; Mäder, Paul.
The possibilities to balance environmental conditions in organic farming systems are strongly restricted as the input of nutrients is limited and no soluble fertilisers and synthetic pestizides are used. These systems require cultivars that are able to adapt to stressful, less controlled and therefore highly variable environments. This study sums up the results of winter wheat cultivars tested under marginal and fertile soil conditions on organic farms in Switzerland. Three were derived from organic, three from conventional breeding programs and two old cultivars. Across three marginal sites, there was a slight trend towards higher yields of the organically bred cultivars. This difference was statistically signifi cant at the lowest yielding site. However,...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Breeding; Genetics and propagation.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/19282/1/Hildermann_NUE_Gumpenstein_2009.pdf
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Tracing of Two Pseudomonas Strains in the Rootand Rhizoplane of Maize, as Related to Their Plant Growth-Promoting Effectin Contrasting Soils Organic Eprints
Mosimann, Carla; Oberhänsli, Thomas; Ziegler, Dominik; Nassal, Dinah; Kandeler, Ellen; Boller, Thomas; Mäder, Paul; Thonar, Cécile.
TaqMan-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed to study the persistence of two well-characterized strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf153 and Pseudomonas sp. DSMZ 13134, in the root and rhizoplane of inoculated maize plants. This was performed in pot experiments with three contrasting field soils (Buus, Le Caron and DOK-M). Potential cross-reactivity of the qPCR assays was assessed with indigenous Pseudomonas and related bacterial species, which had been isolated from the rhizoplane of maize roots grown in the three soils and then characterized by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Sensitivity of the qPCR expressed as detection limit of...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/31294/1/mosimann-etal-2017-fmicb-vol7-article02150.pdf
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Yield and baking quality of winter wheat cultivars in different farming systems of the DOK long-term trial Organic Eprints
Hildermann, Isabell; Thommen, Andreas; Dubois, David; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres; Mäder, Paul.
A challenge in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding for organic farming is to provide high-yielding cultivars with appropriate baking qualities under the limiting conditions of organic fertiliser input and without the use of pesticides. Cultivars are usually tested on organic and conventional farms. However, field properties may differ owing to spatial variations of soils and microclimate heterogeneity. In this study, old, organically bred and conventionally bred cultivars were tested in organic and conventional farming systems of the DOK long-term system comparison trial.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/17849/1/Hildermann-etal-2009-jsci-food-agric.pdf
Registros recuperados: 19
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