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Registros recuperados: 23
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A NOTE ON NONLINEARITY BIAS AND DICHOTOMOUS CHOICE CVM: IMPLICATIONS FOR AGGREGATE BENEFITS ESTIMATION AgEcon
Souter, Ray A.; Bowker, James Michael.
It is a generally known statistical fact that the mean of a nonlinear function of a set of random variables is not equivalent to the function evaluated at the means of the variables. However, in dichotomous choice contingent valuation studies a common practice is to calculate an overall mean (or median) by integrating over offer space (numerically or analytically) an estimated logit or probit function in which sample mean values for the concomitant variables are used. We demonstrate this procedure to be incorrect and we statically test the procedure against the correct method for nonlinear models. Using data resulting in a well-behaved logit model, we reject the hypothesis of congruence between the two means. Such a finding should be considered in...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31649
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A PROPOSED METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING ECOREGIONAL VALUES FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION IN THE UNITED STATES AgEcon
Bhat, Gajanan; Bergstrom, John C.; Bowker, James Michael; Cordell, H. Ken.
This paper provides a methodology for the estimation of recreational demand functions and values using an ecoregional approach. Ten ecoregions in the continental US were defined based on similarly functioning ecosystem characters. The individual travel cost method was employed to estimate the recreational demand functions for activities such as motorboating and waterskiing, developed and primative camping, coldwater fishing, sightseeing and pleasure driving, and big game hunting for each ecoregions. Estimates of per trip net income value range from $12.93 to $218.38 while per day estimates range from $4.31 to $109.19. While our ecoregional approach differs conceptually from previous work, our results appear consistent with the previous travel cost...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Recreation; Ecoregion; Travel cost method; Truncated poisson model; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16686
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Accounting for Geographic Heterogeneity in Recreation Demand Models AgEcon
Sardana, Kavita; Bowker, James Michael; Bergstrom, John C.; Starbuck, C. Meghan; English, Donald B.K..
Spatial differences in site characteristics and user populations may result in heterogeneity of recreation preferences and values across geographic regions. Non-linear mixed effects models provide a potential means of accounting for this heterogeneity. This approach was tested by estimating a national-level recreation demand model with encouraging results.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6437
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AN ANALYSIS OF WILLINGNESS TO PARTICIPATE IN WILDERNESS OR OTHER PRIMITIVE AREAS AgEcon
Adhikari, Murali; Bergstrom, John C.; Houston, Jack E.; Bowker, James Michael; Paudel, Laxmi; Cordell, H. Ken.
A logit model was used to determine the major factors explaining willingness to participate of an individual in the wilderness or other primitive area visits. The results of the study showed that education and environmental awareness were in wilderness participation decision. Demographic variables like age, race, and sex also were statistically significant and emerged as important policy variables in defining wilderness participation behavior. Characteristics of wilderness areas like crowdness, pollution, and poor management failed to produce any significant impacts in the decision making process of wilderness area visit.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Wilderness or other primitive area visits; Policy variables; Demographic characteristics; Participation behavior; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/35093
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AN ECOREGIONAL APPROACH TO BENEFIT TRANSFER AgEcon
Bhat, Gajanan; Bergstrom, John C.; Bowker, James Michael.
This study has examined the transferability of consumer's surplus estimates (fixed value transfer) and transferability of benefit functions from the Southern Appalachian Mountain ecoregion to a local site within the ecoregional level. Given data used in this study, it is found that transferability of benefit estimated are possible in 50% of the activities, whereas benefit functions can be transferred in all of the activities considered in this study. The results are compared to previous studies. Different problems in testing benefit estimates transfer are discussed.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Benefit Transfer; Ecoregion; Travel Cost Method; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16647
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BENEFITS TRANSFER AND COUNT DATA TRAVEL COST MODELS: AN APPLICATION AND TEST OF A VARYING PARAMETER APPROACH WITH GUIDED WHITEWATER RAFTING AgEcon
Bowker, James Michael; English, Donald B.K.; Bergstrom, John C..
We combine currently popular count data methods with earlier work by Vaughan and Russell on varying parameter travel cost models to model trip demand and calculate consumer surplus. We test and reject the hypothesis that per trip consumer surplus from guided rafting is invariant to river characteristics. We then develop and test a series of benefit transfer functions against benefits derived from individual river models. Our findings suggest that this flexible form of count data model offers considerable promise as a benefit transfer function.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Benefits transfer; Whitewater rafting; Travel cost; Count data models; Varying parameters; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16703
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Determinants of Demand for Participation in Wildlife Hunting: A County level Analysis AgEcon
Poudyal, Neelam C.; Cho, Seong-Hoon; Bowker, James Michael.
We developed an economic demand model of wildlife hunting and found that sociodemograpahic and ecological characteristics of county are its strong predictors. Result shows that the hunting is not popular among younger generation; and promoting hunting clubs and lease-hunting, recruiting young hunters could be effective policy considerations for retaining/promoting hunting.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Wildlife hunting; License sales; Demand model; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q21; Q26; L83.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34860
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Estimating the Net Economic Value of National Forest Recreation: An Application of the National Visitor Use Monitoring Database. AgEcon
Bowker, James Michael; Starbuck, C. Meghan; English, Donald B.K.; Bergstrom, John C.; Rosenberger, Randall S.; McCollum, Daniel W..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59603
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Estimating Travel Cost Model: Spatial Approach AgEcon
Kim, Seung Gyu; Bowker, James Michael; Cho, Seong-Hoon; Lambert, Dayton M.; English, Donald B.K.; Starbuck, C. Meghan.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Travel cost model; Spatial analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61774
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ESTIMATION OF THE NONMARKET BENEFITS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND RETENTION IN EASTERN CANADA AgEcon
Bowker, James Michael; Didychuk, D.D..
We assess the nonmarket value for retention of farmland in the Moncton area of New Brunswick. We examine a number of factors explaining household external values for farmland preservation and expand on previous work by Beasley et al., Bergstrom et al., and Halstead. Our findings indicate that the marginal external benefit of preserving farmland in general in this region is small compared to the market price and that spatial embedding is not automatic in contingent valuation studies.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31438
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IMPACTS OF ALTERNATIVE FARM POLICIES ON RURAL COMMUNITIES AgEcon
Bowker, James Michael; Richardson, James W..
The purpose of this study was to describe an LP/IO model for evaluating the economic impacts of alternative farm policies on rural communities and demonstrate its capabilities by analyzing the impacts of three farm policies on a rural community in Texas. Results indicate that in the noncrop sector, two groups of industries are most affected by farm policy. The first group relates to production directly (agricultural services, banking and credit, and nondurable manufacturing) and the second group relates to households (retail trade and services). Farm policies which reduce production but increase net returns cause losses for the first group while benefitting the second group. Both groups are made worse off by farm policies which reduce agricultural...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 1989 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30088
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Measuring the Contribution of Water and Green Space Amenities to Housing Values: An Application and Comparison of Spatially Weighted Hedonic Models AgEcon
Cho, Seong-Hoon; Bowker, James Michael; Park, William M..
This study estimates the influence of proximity to water bodies and park amenities on residential housing values in Knox County, Tennessee, using the hedonic price approach. Values for proximity to water bodies and parks are first estimated globally with a standard ordinary least squares (OLS) model. A locally weighted regression model is then employed to investigate spatial nonstationarity and generate local estimates for individual sources of each amenity. The local model reveals some important local differences in the effects of proximity to water bodies and parks on housing price.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Hedonic model; Locally weighted regression; Park; Spatial; Water bodies; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8630
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Measuring the Contribution of Water and Green Space Amenities to Housing Values: An Application and Comparison of Spatially-weighted Hedonic Models AgEcon
Cho, Seong-Hoon; Bowker, James Michael; Park, William M..
This study estimates the influence of proximity to water bodies and park amenities on residential housing values in Knox County, Tennessee, using the hedonic price approach. Values for proximity to water bodies and parks are first estimated globally with a standard ordinary least square (OLS) model. A locally weighted regression model is then employed to investigate spatial non-stationarity and generate local estimates for individual sources of each amenity. The local model is able to capture the variability in the quality of water bodies and parks across the county, something a conventional hedonic model using OLS cannot do.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21242
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MEASURING USE VALUE FROM RECREATION PARTICIPATION: COMMENT AgEcon
English, Donald B.K.; Bowker, James Michael.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15434
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Measuring Welfare Effects of Substitute Recreation Site Using Spatial Travel Cost Model AgEcon
Kim, Seung Gyu; Bowker, James Michael; Cho, Seong-Hoon; Roberts, Roland K.; English, Donald B.K.; Starbuck, C. Meghan; Lambert, Dayton M..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Spatial travel cost model; Substitute recreation site availability; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103703
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Modeling Demand for Outdoor Recreation Settings with Choice Based Data Accounting for Exogenous and Endogenous Stratification AgEcon
Sardana, Kavita; Bowker, James Michael; Bergstrom, John C..
Estimating regional demand models by pooling different samples without correcting for such differences causes model misspecification as each sample belongs to a different population. Weighted regression using Pseudolikelihood to account for differences in sample population with adjustment for heteroskedasticity improves efficiency but the estimates are biased. We estimate regional demand for National Forest settings types in the southeastern states of U.S using weighted and unweighted regression. Using estimation of demand for National Forests as a case study, we resolve problems relating to inference about the data generating process when different samples are pooled together. We show that though efficiency of weighted estimates improves after correcting...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Exogenous stratification; Endogenous stratification; Choice based data; Outdoor recreation; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q000; Q500.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61046
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Modeling Willingness to Pay for Land Conservation Easements: Treatment of Zero and Protest Bids and Application and Policy Implications AgEcon
Cho, Seong-Hoon; Yen, Steven T.; Bowker, James Michael; Newman, David H..
This study compares an ordered probit model and a Tobit model with selection to take into account both true zero and protest zero bids while estimating the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation easements in Macon County, NC. By comparing the two models, the ordered/unordered selection issue of the protest responses is analyzed to demonstrate how the treatment of protest responses can significantly influence WTP models. Both models consistently show that income and knowledge are positive and significant factors, while distance to poorer quality streams and duration of residency are negative and significant factors on WTP.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Censored dependent variable; Conservation easement; Protest bid; Sample selection; WTP; Agribusiness; Land Economics/Use; Political Economy; 25; 42; Q56.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45524
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THE ENDOWMENT EFFECT AND WTA: A QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL TEST AgEcon
MacDonald, H.F.; Bowker, James Michael.
This paper reports a test of the endowment effect in an economic analysis of localized air pollution. Regression techniques are used to test the significance of perceived property rights on household WTP for improved air quality versus WTA compensation to forgo an improvement in air quality. Our experiment contributes to the research into the WTP/WTA divergence by providing a new basis for supporting the existence of an endowment effect. Our results are in contrast to recent work by Shogren et al. which supports the substitution proposition of Hanemann while rejecting the endowment effect.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Contingent valuation; Endowment effect; Property rights; Substitution effect; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15169
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THE ROLE OF THE BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT IN THE PROVISION OF OUTDOOR RECREATION OPPORTUNITIES IN THE WEST AgEcon
Gentle, Paul F.; Bergstrom, John C.; Betz, Carter J.; Bowker, James Michael; Cordell, H. Ken; English, Donald B.K.; Teasley, R. Jeff.
Future demand projections reported in this paper indicate a steady increase in demand for outdoor recreational opportunities in U.S. regions where BLM lands are located. From a supply perspective, BLM lands represent "prime targets" for meeting increased recreational demand in the western U.S. The BLM will face the challenge of balancing increased recreation use with other multiple uses, and minimizing the negative environmental impacts of increased recreation use such as damages caused by motorized vehicles, horses and foot traffic. In the future, the BLM will also face management challenges related to financing the provision of increased recreational opportunities.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16665
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TOWARD A VALUE FOR GUIDED RAFTING ON SOUTHERN RIVERS AgEcon
Bowker, James Michael; English, Donald B.K.; Donovan, Jason A..
This study examines per trip consumer surplus associated with guided whitewater rafting on two southern rivers. First, household recreation demand functions are estimated based on the individual travel cost model using truncated count data regression methods and alternative price specifications. Findings show mean per trip consumer surplus point estimates between $89 and $286, depending on modeling assumptions and river quality. Magnitudes of these surpluses are very dependent on assumptions about the opportunity cost of time.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Consumer surplus; Count data; Guided rafting; Travel cost; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15127
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