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A Synthesis of Theoretical Concepts for Analysing Non-Farm Rural Employment AgEcon
Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Mollers, Judith.
Employment diversification is a major livelihood strategy in rural areas and is thus a focal point of the ongoing rural development debate. The issue of non-farm diversification is undoubtedly complex and its determinants are difficult to identify. Increasingly, there is a need to address, clarify and bring together theoretical concepts for analysing non-farm rural employment (NFRE). With this in mind, the objective of this paper is to summarize and link existing theories and to introduce some new aspects with regard to modelling NFRE and employment diversification. NFRE dynamics are closely interrelated with the institutional framework and its incentives and constraints. The behaviour of rural decision-makers also depends on fundamental determinants such...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural non-farm employment; Diversification; Theoretical framework; Labor and Human Capital; O18; Q12.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25475
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Agent Behavior under Risky and Uncertain Conditions. An Empirical Verification of Irving Fisher’s Notion of Time Preference AgEcon
Balgah, Roland Azibo; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
Irving Fisher's theory on time preference in the 1930s arguably influenced the analysis of agents' current behavior with respect to future outcomes. By suggesting linear discount rates implying rational and self-interested motives of agents, Fisher substantiated neoclassical economic thinking. However, Fisher's notion of time preference, the choice between present and future enjoyment that actually integrates a psychological discounting component has not received similar attention in the scholarly literature. This paper aims at closing this gap. It empirically examines agent behavior under uncertain conditions culminating from natural shocks, and differentiates the psychic from the physical component. To empirically test Fisher's notion of time preference,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risks; Uncertainty; Agent behavior; Fisher; Time preference; Cameroon; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114214
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Agricultural economics and transition: What was expected, what we observed, the lessons learned Proceedings (Volume I / II) AgEcon
Csaki, Csaba; Forgacs, Csaba; Koester, Ulrich; Liefert, William M.; Banse, Martin; Gay, Stephan Hubertus; McDonald, Scott; M'Barek, Robert; Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Kim, Hanho; An, Donghwan; Hubbard, Lionel J.; Rieger, Laszlo; Szoke, Gyula; Cristoiu, Adriana; Udovc, Andrej; Kagan, Adam; Sassi, Maria; Takacs, Istvan; Takacs, Emese; Cimpoies, Dragos; Ertsey, Imre; Kovacs, Sandor; Przygodzka, Renata; Dziemianowicz, Ryta Iwona; Magda, Robert; Borodina, Elena; Borodina, Alexandra; Gavrilescu, Dinu; Pecze, Denes; Balogh, Peter; Cechura, Lukas; Sayin, Cengiz; Cengiz, M. Nisa; Osanami, Fumio; Szabo, Gabor G.; Karaman, Suleyman; Szekely, Geza; Szczepaniak, Iwona; Szczegolska, Monika; Serova, Eugenia; Pieniadz, Agata; Barmon, Basanta Kumar; Kondo, Takumi; Becvarova, Vera; Levkovych, Inna; Hockmann, Heinrich; Bezlepkina, Irina V.; Kupavych, Alexander; Konig, Gabor; Halmai, Peter; Vasary, Viktoria; Vincze, Maria-Magdolna; Lerman, Zvi; Kolcsey, Andrea; Bokusheva, Raushan; Turtoi, Crina Sinziana; Toma, Camelia; Gavrilescu, Camelia; Davidova, Sophia; Blaas, Gejza; Antonova, Maria; Zeller, Manfred; Deininger, Klaus W.; Savastano, Sara; Carletto, Calogero; Caceres-Clavero, Francisco; Lucena-Cobos, Blanca; Latruffe, Laure; Takacs-Gyorgy, Katalin; Bandlerova, Anna; Sadowski, Adam; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio; Luca, Lucian; Cristoiu, Adriana; Ciaian, Pavel; Pokrivcak, Jan; Drabik, Dusan; Voneki, Eva; Tonini, Axel; Burger, Anna; Szep, Katalin; Majewski, Edward; Raggi, Meri; Viaggi, Davide; Maccarini, Elisa Ricci; Monasterolo, Irene; Vandeplas, Anneleen; Jongeneel, Roelof A.; Novak, Petr; Brasili, Cristina; Meyer, William H.; Kuhne, Bianka; Fanfani, Roberto; Gellynck, Xavier; Molnar, Adrienn; Gagalyuk, Taras; Traikova, Diana; Mollers, Judith; Cochrane, Nancy J.; Kazlauskiene, Natalija; Fekete-Farkas, Maria; Molnar, Jozsef; Szucs, Istvan; Popp, Jozsef; Udovecz, Gabor; Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Fritzsch, Jana; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Kasarjyan, Milada; Podruzsik, Szilard; Korff, Rudiger; Wilkin, Jerzy; van Leeuwen, Myrna; Bartova, Lubica; Erjavec, Emil; Katona-Kovacs, Judit; Baranyai, Zsolt; Hubbard, Carmen.
Over fifteen years have elapsed since the transition from the centrally planned economic system started in the early 1990’s. During this time agricultural and rural areas of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone profound structural changes with wide variations in the degree of transformation and in the rate of success in creating a competitive market and private ownership based food and agricultural system. By becoming member of the European Union the "transition" in its traditional interpretation has been concluded in ten of the Central East European countries. The transition to market based agriculture, however, is far from completion in Southern and Eastern Europe and especially in the CIS countries. International Association of Agricultural...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management; Financial Economics; Industrial Organization; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Land Economics/Use; Production Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92319
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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSING STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN AGRICULTURE AND RURAL LIVELIHOODS AgEcon
Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Mollers, Judith; Happe, Kathrin; Davidova, Sophia; Fredriksson, Lena; Bailey, Alastair; Kancs, d'Artis; Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Vranken, Liesbet; Hubbard, Carmen; Ward, Neil; Juvancic, Luka; Milczarek, Dominika; Plamen, Mishev.
The Deliverable 2.1 (D2.1) of the SCARLED project provides the conceptual framework for analysing structural change in agriculture and rural livelihoods in the NMS and established Member States of the EU. It concisely summarizes the underlying theories and concepts of the pertinent research issues in SCARLED. SCARLED addresses a topic of wide interest with regard to the identification of past and future key social and agricultural restructuring processes for a living countryside in the NMS. Methodologically, the topic is approached by comparative, structured multi-country farm surveys complemented by an analysis of structural changes in the farm sectors of two selected regions with the agent-based simulation model AgriPoliS, taking special account of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91737
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CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE 4TH YOUNG SCIENTISTS WORKSHOP ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE YSW-2006 AgEcon
Bokusheva, Raushan; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
This Discussion Paper contains the greater part of the contributions to the Young Scientists Workshop on Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO, September 4-5, 2006). After last years’ positive response, the workshop has been organized for the fourth time and has a solid number of contributions. The aim of this annual event is to give young scientists the opportunity to present and discuss their transition-related research. The following short versions of the workshop contributions serve as a basis for discussion during the workshop, but also offer a cross-sectional overview of current research being carried out by young scientists. Although the issues covered by the workshop contributions are quite diverse, they share a common...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Farm Management; Industrial Organization; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Public Economics.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91964
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Croatia's EU accession: socio-economic assessment of farm households and policy recommendations AgEcon
Mollers, Judith; Zier, Patrick; Frohberg, Klaus; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Bojnec, Stefan.
Croatia is very close to meeting the requirements necessary for becoming a member of the European Union (EU). On February 6, 2008, the European Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn said that accession negotiations with Croatia are moving ahead well. As in all new member states (NMS), the agricultural sector and food processing chain are core issues within the negotiation process. Successful negotiation requires intimate knowledge of the issue at hand, including the socio-economic situation and the fears and strategies of the stakeholders, particularly small-scale farmers. This report attempts to close some of these knowledge gaps by reviewing Croatia’s rural development dynamics and farm structures, as well as agricultural and rural policies. Based on an...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Croatia; Rural development; EU accession; Slovenia; Farm households; Competitiveness; Agricultural policy; CAP; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; O18; O13; O12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53665
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Documentation of a multi-topic questionnaire-based survey on sustainable resource use in rural China AgEcon
Jia, Xiangping; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
This Discussion Paper documents a survey conducted in rural China in 2005. A multi-topic survey funded by the Sino-German international Training Program "Sustainable Resource Use in North China", the project covers farm management, land property rights and rural credit access on the North China Plain. From a credit standpoint, this paper covers questionnaire design, sample, survey implementation, data entry, a brief assessment of the overall experience, as well as lessons drawn.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Questionnaire; Survey; Credit access; Household model; Categorical variables; Stata.; Agribusiness; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Development; Land Economics/Use; Productivity Analysis; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C81; C93; D19.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90856
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DOES NON-FARM INCOME DIVERSIFICATION IN NORTHERN ALBANIA OFFER AN ESCAPE FROM RURAL POVERTY? AgEcon
Meyer, Wiebke; Mollers, Judith; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
The paper uses up-to-date household data from two Northern-Albanian regions. It summarises socio-economic facts on taking up remunerative non-farm employment and identifies the determinants of non-farm income diversification at the farm household level based on a binary logistic regression. Furthermore, the paper provides insight in the northern-Albanian farming structure, migration patterns, attitudes towards and reasons for income diversification into the non-farm sector. Income diversification indeed has a positive impact on the welfare of the households: A statistically significant increasing trend in incomes with rising diversification level was observed.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Non-farm income diversification; Farm households; Migration; Albania; Ausserlandwirtschaftliche Einkommensdiversifizierung; Landwirtschaftliche Haushalte; Migration; Albanien; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use; Q12; R23; F22; P36.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91912
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Effects of Natural Shocks on Risk Behavior. Experimental Evidence from Cameroon AgEcon
Balgah, Roland Azibo; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
Increasing occurrence of devastating natural shocks has stimulated research interest in the economics of natural disasters. Much of this scholarly work concentrates on effects of shocks on poverty, risk and vulnerability, and very little on understanding the effects of natural shocks on risk behavior. Referring to a 25 year-old disaster, we use unique survey data and experiment results from two disaster affected communities in rural Cameroon to test two hypotheses: (1) Natural shocks affect long term risk behavior; and (2) self-relocation into risk-prone areas is an explicit demonstration of risk taking. The results reveal differentiated risk behavior in self-relocated and state-resettled households, with the former taking higher risks compared to...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Shocks; Risk behavior; Experiment; Cameroon; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114215
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Effects of rural non-farm employment on economic vulnerability and income distribution of small farms in Croatia AgEcon
Mollers, Judith; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
Replaced with revised version of paper 10/06/09.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural non-farm employment; Rural poverty; Croatia; Income distribution; Agribusiness; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; Q12; P25; O15; O18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52863
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Employment diversification of farm households and structural change in the rural economy of the New Member States AgEcon
Fritzsch, Jana; Mollers, Judith; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109518
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Facilitating access to rural services in Vietnam: The invisible social capital link AgEcon
Quoc, Hoang Dinh; Dufhues, Thomas; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
This paper investigates the effects of individual social capital on the access of rural households to services. In the context of agriculture economics, an innovative data collection approach is used to determine social capital. The approach originates from the field of sociology and entails a personal network survey. We define four social capital variables according to tie strength (bonding/bridging) and social distance (bondinglink/bridginglink) between the respondent and his/her network member. The econometric results suggest that social capital with weaker ties in combination with socially distant ties (bridginglink social capital) can potentially improve households’ access to rural services.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Rural services; Social capital; Rural households; Vietnam.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123402
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FARM INCOME AMONG HOUSUEHOLD PLOT FARMERS IN UKRAINE – THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL AgEcon
Wolz, Axel; Fritzsch, Jana; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Nedoborovskyy, Andriy; Zinovchuk, Vitaly.
Following the two rounds of land reform in Ukraine since independence, household plot farmers emerged as the major suppliers of agricultural goods. But they form a very heterogeneous group. Not all of them are equally successful and integrated to markets. In general, a varying degree of access and adoption of production factors is identified as being of influence. In this paper, we argue that social capital is an additional factor contributing to higher agricultural incomes. We tested our hypothesis using primary evidence from a survey in Ukraine among 255 household plot farmers. Based on 23 social capital indicators we deduced four separate index variables linking the social capital dimension of form, i.e. structural and cognitive, with the social capital...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Empirical survey; Household farming; Agricultural income; Social capital; Ukraine; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52668
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Individual social capital and access to formal credit in Thailand AgEcon
Dufhues, Thomas; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Munkung, Nuchanata.
This study shows how different forms of individual social capital affect access to formal credit in rural Thailand. In the context of agriculture economics, an innovative data collection approach is used that originates from the field of sociology (personal network survey). We measure social capital according to: 1. the tie strength between the respondent and the personal network member (bonding/bridging); and 2. the social distance between the respondent and the personal network member (linking). Strong ties (bonding) in combination with access to socially distant network members (linking) reduce the chances of being access-constrained.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Thailand; Access to credit; Social capital; Personal networks; Agricultural Finance; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123401
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Insurance preferences of smallholders : results from an adaptive conjoint analysis in Northern Vietnam AgEcon
Fischer, Isabel; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
Livestock plays a pivotal role for smallholder production systems in mountainous Northern Vietnam. Poor rural farm households are vulnerable and their livelihood systems are often so fragile and finely-balanced that a small misfortune can destabilize the households for many years. Economic risks, especially loss of livestock, are one of the major reasons for slipping into poverty. Normally, insurance systems could step in here. In developing countries however, insurance markets are usually underdeveloped. Empirical research reveals that raising livestock and selling it in case of a livelihood emergency is a particularly popular risk management strategy. Based on the results of a computer-based Adaptive Conjoint Analysis (ACA) with 155 responding households...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Risk management; Livestock insurance; Adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA); Vietnam; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92830
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Making rural households’ livelihoods more resilient. The importance of social capital and the underlying social networks. AgEcon
Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Dufhues, Thomas; Beuchelt, Tina; Fischer, Isabel; Fritzsch, Jana; Wolz, Axel; Reinsberg, Klaus; Kasarjyan, Milada; Korff, Rudiger.
Although interest in the structure and relational features of social capital and its underlying networks has grown since the early 1990s, the terms do not embody any ideas that are really new to sociologists, but are indeed rather new to economists. Until the 1950s, land, labour, and financial capital (i.e., levels of investment) were seen as being relevant for economic growth. Then technology (physical capital) was added to the list. In the early 1960s, convincing empirical evidence showed that labour without know-how and entrepreneurial skills (human capital) limit the potential of the other production factors. Today, labour and skills are usually simultaneously addressed when talking of human capital. In development economics, and more recently in...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Farm Management; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93010
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Market Integration of Household Plots in Ukraine - The Impact of Social Capital AgEcon
Wolz, Axel; Fritzsch, Jana; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Nedoborovskyy, Andriy.
Following the two rounds of land reform in Ukraine since independence, household plot farmers emerged as the major suppliers to agricultural production. But they form a very heterogeneous group. Not all of them are equally successful, economically, and integrated to markets. In general, a varying adoption of production factors is identified as being of influence. In this paper, we argue that social capital is an additional factor contributing to higher agricultural incomes. We tested our thesis using primary evidence from a survey in Ukraine among 255 household plot farmers in 2006. Based on 24 social capital indicators we deduced four separate index variables linking the social capital dimension of form, i.e. structural and cognitive, with the social...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Production factors; Social capital; Ukraine; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43842
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Non-Farm Diversification Decisions of Rural Households in Macedonia AgEcon
Mollers, Judith; Heidhues, Franz; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
The non-farm sector is crucial to rural households in transition economies since it offers employment, reduces urban migration and can contribute to poverty reduction, economic growth and a more equal income distribution. This study on diversification decisions and rural incomes reviews evidence from a household survey in Macedonia. It looks at non-farm diversification dynamics and analyses income portfolios and driving forces of diversification decisions. The results confirm that non-farm employment and diversified income portfolios are outstanding features of rural households in Macedonia, where unfavourable economic conditions and insufficient farm incomes have driven farm households to open up income sources in the non-farm sector. Further adaptations...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Diversification strategies; Non-farm employment; Rural development; Macedonia; Consumer/Household Economics; D1; O18; Q12.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25402
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Non-farm income diversification of rural farm households in Central and Southeastern Europe: an application of fuzzy set theory AgEcon
Fritzsch, Jana; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Mollers, Judith.
A fuzzy logic model for quantifying farm households’ potential for non-farm income diversification is developed and applied to 1,077 farm households in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. About three quarters of households have a diversification potential, but not all households use it. An analysis of diversification potential and diversification behaviour shows that there are seven household types in the sample. Not all development options, i.e. farm development, farm exit, or starting non-farm employment, are equally suitable for all households thus fine targeting of policy measures according to the household type could be important for policy makers.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural development; Non-farm rural employment diversification; Fuzzy logic; Transition countries; Community/Rural/Urban Development; C65; D33; J24; Q12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95321
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Outreach of credit institutes and households' access constraints to formal credit in Northern Vietnam AgEcon
Dufhues, Thomas; Buchenrieder, Gertrud.
Most policy and research interest regarding rural credit markets revolves around the perception that poor households in developing countries lack access to credit, which is believed to have negative consequences for household welfare. An important feature of the rural credit market is that access to credit is easier for some groups than for others. The Vietnamese government supplied credit on preferential terms, particularly to rural households, through state-owned financial intermediaries. The share of the informal sector was thus considerably reduced from 78% (1992/93) of all outstanding loans to 54% (1997/98) in favor of the formal sector. However, there is evidence from other developing countries that credit constraints persist despite the expansion of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8535
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