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Registros recuperados: 38
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A Cross-Country Analysis of Household Response to Adult Mortality in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV/AIDS Mitigation and Rural Development Policies AgEcon
Mather, David; Donovan, Cynthia; Jayne, Thomas S.; Weber, Michael T.; Chapoto, Antony; Mazhangara, Edward; Mghenyi, Elliot W.; Bailey, Linda; Yoo, Kyeongwon; Yamano, Takashi.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Downloads November 2008 - July 2007: 6.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11322
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A Cross-Country Analysis of Household Responses to Adult Mortality in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications For HIV/AIDS Mitigation And Rural Development Policies. AgEcon
Mather, David; Donovan, Cynthia; Jayne, Thomas S.; Weber, Michael T.; Chapoto, Antony; Mazhangara, Edward; Bailey, Linda; Yoo, Kyeongwon; Yamano, Takashi; Mghenyi, Elliot W..
This paper summarizes and synthesizes across the results of a set of country studies on the effects of prime-age adult mortality on rural households in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, and Zambia. Each study is based on large representative rural household surveys. These findings have implications for the design of efforts to mitigate some of the most important effects of rural adult mortality, and for key development policies and priorities.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Sub-Saharan Africa; Mortality; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Health Economics and Policy; Downloads July 2008 - July 2009: 21; I11.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54571
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A Test of the New Variant Famine Hypothesis: Panel Survey Evidence from Zambia AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Chapoto, Antony; Myers, Robert J..
Replaced with revised version of paper 08/04/09.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Food security; Rural livelihoods; New variant famine hypothesis; Zambia; Africa; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Q12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51485
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Are Staple Foods Becoming More Expensive For Urban Consumers In Eastern And Southern Africa? Trends in Food Prices, Marketing Margins, and Wage Rates in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Donovan, Cynthia; Chapoto, Antony.
The world food and financial crises threaten to undermine the real incomes of urban consumers in eastern and southern Africa. This study investigates patterns in staple food prices, wage rates, and marketing margins for urban consumers in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia between 1993 and 2009. There is high correlation among wage rate series for various government and private sector categories. We find that average formal sector wages rose at a faster rate than retail maize meal and bread prices in urban Kenya and Zambia between the mid-1990s and 2007. Although the 2007/08 food price crisis partially reversed this trend, the quantities of staple foods affordable per daily wage in urban Kenya and Zambia during the 2008/09 marketing season were still...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Africa; Agriculture; Food security; Prices; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Security and Poverty; Labor and Human Capital; Marketing; Q11.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53451
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Assessment of Alternative Maize Trade and Market Policy Interventions in Zambia AgEcon
Govereh, Jones; Jayne, Thomas S.; Chapoto, Antony.
The economic reforms in maize marketing and trade policies implemented during the 1990s have been highly controversial, and there remains a lack of solid empirical investigation on the impacts of these reforms on national food security, price stability and rural income growth. This study aims to provide a detailed evidence-based analysis of the impacts of maize marketing and trade policies on smallholder agricultural production growth, access to food by consumers, and other important national policy objectives. These insights from Zambia can hopefully move forward the continuing debate in the region on how maize marketing and trade policies should be structured in the future.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Policy; Zambia; Africa; Maize; Trade; Crop Production/Industries; Marketing; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54492
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Characteristics Associated with Prime-Age Mortality in Eastern and Southern Africa: Evidence from Zambia and Kenya AgEcon
Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S.; Kirimi, Lilian; Kadiyala, Suneetha.
Campaigns to prevent the spread of HIV require accurate knowledge of the characteristics of those most likely to contract the disease. Studies conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa during the 1980s generally found a positive correlation between socioeconomic characteristics such as education, income, and wealth and subsequent contraction of HIV. As the disease has progressed, the relationship between socioeconomic status and HIV contraction may have changed, although there is little evidence to support this. An emerging strand of the literature on the AIDS epidemic in Africa posits that poverty is increasingly associated with the spread of the disease. However, this conclusion is somewhat contentious, as other recent studies find mixed evidence of a poverty-AIDS...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Africa; Hiv/aids; Food security; Zambia; Kenya; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Q10.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56782
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Characteristics of Individuals Afflicted by AIDS-related Mortality in Zambia AgEcon
Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S..
Studies conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa during the 1980s generally found a positive correlation between socioeconomic characteristics such as education, income, and wealth and subsequent contraction of HIV. However, as the disease has progressed, the relationship between socioeconomic status and HIV contraction may have changed in many areas of Sub Saharan Africa, although there is little hard evidence to support this. This paper seeks to determine the ex ante socioeconomic characteristics of individuals who die between the ages of 15 to 59 years of age, using nationally representative panel data on 18,821 individuals surveyed in 2001 and 2004 in rural Zambia. The findings from this study will help policy-makers and development agencies better...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; HIV/AIDS; Socioeconomic status; Zambia; Health Economics and Policy; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54472
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Dynamic Pathways into and out of Poverty: A Case of Small Holder Farmers in Zambia AgEcon
Banda, Diana J.; Hamukwala, Priscilla; Haggblade, Steven; Chapoto, Antony.
The study surveyed 127 households from Central, Eastern, Luapula, Northern, and Southern Provinces of Zambia. The primary objective was to explore life-trajectory patterns and key drivers of welfare change. Households were classified based on long term poverty dynamics i.e., how they perceived their welfare compared to that of their parents with the major focus being on households that were better off (BO) than both the parents (parents of head and spouse) and those that were worse off (WO) than both parents were. Poverty was mainly defined from the communities' own perspectives and entailed exploring reasons perceived by participants for decline or improvement in people’s well-being in their communities. The hypotheses that factors such as household...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Zambia; Poverty; Small Holder Farmers; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113649
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Effects of Maize Marketing and Trade Policy on Price Unpredictability in Zambia AgEcon
Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S..
As events in the 2008/09 season have amply demonstrated, instability in staple food market remains a major problem in Zambia. A rise in world food price levels and instability, which is projected to occur in the near future according to several international institutes, will make it all more important for developing countries to consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternative approaches for buffering their domestic food systems from potential high volatility in world markets. These findings suggest that promoting more “rules based” approaches to...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Zambia; Maize; Trade; Price; Crop Production/Industries; Marketing; Q11.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54499
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Emerging Structural Maize Deficits in Eastern and Southern Africa: Implications for National Agricultural Strategies AgEcon
Jayne, Thomas S.; Chapoto, Antony.
This note summarizes analysis of trends in net maize exports over the 1960-2005 period and examines whether these trends are being reflected in changing maize price levels in the region. The implications are highlighted of the findings for countries’ agricultural development strategies.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Zambia maize; Crop Production/Industries; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54620
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Factors Affecting Poverty Dynamics in Rural Zambia. AgEcon
Chapoto, Antony; Banda, Diana J.; Haggblade, Steven; Hamukwala, Priscilla.
Rural poverty rates in Zambia have remained very high, at 80%, over the past decade and a half, whilst urban poverty rates have declined, from 49% in 1991 to 34% in 2006. Redressing this high rural poverty rate remains a government priority in the National Development Programs. However, solutions have proven elusive. Solid empirically based information on dynamics that have improved the welfare of small-scale farm households in Zambia, combined with an agenda for disseminating this information in public discourse, offer prospects for generating a more transparent and pro-poor policy orientation. Using longitudinal data collected from 4,286 households which participated in three nationwide surveys conducted over seven years, in 2001, 2004, and 2008, we...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty Dynamics; Zambia; Rural poverty; Africa; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/109888
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Factors Contributing to Zambia’s 2010 Maize Bumper Harvest AgEcon
Burke, William J.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Chapoto, Antony.
Key Points • Zambia’s maize crop grew by 48% between the 2009 and 2010 harvests, leading to the largest crop recorded in recent history. • Yield growth accounted for 59% of the maize production growth between 2009 and 2010. Expansion of area planted to maize explains an additional 23%, while the remaining 18% can be attributed to a rise in the ratio of harvested to planted land. • Favourable weather conditions contributed 47% of the maize yield growth between 2009 and 2010, whilst, 25% came from increased fertilizer use from both the private and public sectors, and 23% from area expansion. The remaining 5% can be attributed to hybrid seed use and improved management. • Due to favorable weather conditions in both 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons, maize...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97034
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Factors Contributing to Zambia's 2010 Maize Bumper Harvest AgEcon
Burke, William J.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Chapoto, Antony.
Zambia’s maize crop grew by roughly 48% between the 2009 and 2010 harvests, leading to the largest crop recorded in recent history. The 2009 maize harvest was also very good, making the 48% rise in 2010 even more remarkable. The forces driving that increase, however, remain widely debated. Many in government and media have attributed the recent production increase to the government’s fertilizer subsidy program as well as to the state’s recent efforts to raise maize prices through the operations of the Food Reserve Agency. Others have argued that the bumper harvest is partially due to the adoption of conservation farming techniques by farmers. Still others attribute the maize production growth mainly to favorable weather. Unfortunately, none of these claims...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97036
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Fostering Agricultural Market Development in Zambia. AgEcon
Tembo, Gelson; Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S.; Weber, Michael T..
The availability, access and affordability of food is a highly politicized issue throughout the world. In much of southern Africa, there is a widespread view that governments are responsible for ensuring that their populations have reliable access to food. Zambia, like most countries in Southern Africa, is vigorously pursuing continued direct public sector involvement and protectionist measures in the maize marketing sector. Since 1995, the Food Reserve Agency (FRA) and more recently, subsidies through the Fertilizer Support Program (FSP), have been the major instruments of government policy. While in some respects current operations undertaken by the government are similar to those adopted at independence, there are some noteworthy changes. Specifically,...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Zambia; Food security; Agriculture; Market development; Marketing; Q13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54501
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HIV/AIDS and Agrarian Livelihoods in Zambia: A Test of the New Variant Famine Hypothesis AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S.; Myers, Robert J..
Since the southern African food crisis of 2001/02, the ‘new-variant famine’ (NVF) hypothesis first proposed by de Waal and Whiteside (2003) has become an important part of the conventional wisdom surrounding the relationship between HIV/AIDS and food crises in the region. The NVF hypothesis suggests that HIV/AIDS is eroding agrarian livelihoods and exacerbating the effects of drought and other shocks on agrarian communities. These concepts have begun to shape the HIV/AIDS mitigation and food security policies and programs of governments and development agencies. To date, however, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to support the NVF hypothesis, and there have been no studies specifically designed to tests its predictions.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Policy; Zambia; Africa; HIV/AIDS; Crop Production/Industries; Health Economics and Policy; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54489
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HIV/AIDS and Agrarian Livelihoods in Zambia: a Test of the New Variant Famine Hypothesis. AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S.; Myers, Robert J..
1. Consistent with the New Variant Famine (NVF) hypothesis, the negative impact of drought on crop output and output per hectare is further exacerbated where HIV prevalence rates are relatively high, particularly in the low- and medium rainfall zones of the country (agro-ecological regions I and II). 2. HIV prevalence rates and AIDS-related mortality rates in Zambia are highest in the lowest rainfall and most drought-prone zone of the country (agro-ecological region I). 3. Only for districts in agro-ecological region I do we find evidence of a robust negative effect of HIV/AIDS on agrarian livelihood indicators. Relatively stable food production zones and/or areas with relatively low HIV prevalence rates appear to be less vulnerable to the adverse effects...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Zambia; HIV/AIDS; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; Q20.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54629
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Impact of HIV/AIDS-related Adult Mortality on Rural Households' Welfare in Zambia AgEcon
Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S..
This study estimates the impacts of prime-age (PA) adult morbidity and mortality on crop production and cropping patterns, household size, livestock and non-farm income in Zambia using nationally representative rural farm household longitudinal survey data. The findings provide important information to assist policy makers, donors, and development planners in designing interventions to mitigate the impacts of the AIDS on vulnerable households.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Zambia; HIV/AIDS mortality; Health Economics and Policy; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54616
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Impact of HIV/AIDS-Related Deaths on Rural Farm Households' Welfare in Zambia: Implications for Poverty Reduction Strategies AgEcon
Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S..
Using comprehensive rural farm household longitudinal data from Zambia, this paper measures the impacts of prime-age (PA) adult morbidity and mortality on crop production and cropping patterns, household size, livestock and non-farm income. The paper adopts and extends the counterfactual (difference-in-difference) approach by controlling for initial (pre-death) household conditions that may influence the severity of the impacts of adult mortality. In particular, the study controls for initial poverty status, landholding size, effective dependency ratios, and the gender and position of the deceased person. Moreover, the possibility that PA death in the household is endogenous is taken into account by conceptualizing the measurement of effects of...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; HIV/AIDS; Prime-age mortality; Endogeneity; Rural livelihoods; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54473
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Marketing Policy Options for Consumer Price Mitigation Actions in the 2008/09 Maize Marketing Season in Zambia. AgEcon
Chapoto, Antony; Haggblade, Steven; Shawa, Julius J.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Weber, Michael T..
1) Maize prices are rising rapidly in 2008 and are fast approaching import parity levels. 2) Maize traders, millers and farmers all agree that Zambia will likely require imports by early 2009 in order to avoid domestic maize supply shortages. 3) Official food balance sheets appear to have underestimated the demand for maize this year. They may also have slightly overestimated the size of the 2007/08 maize crop. Hence the slow government recognition of the need for maize imports. 4) As of late September 2008, neither the Government of Zambia (GRZ) nor the private sector have arranged to import maize from South Africa. Trade sources suggest informal imports from Tanzania are helping to relieve the likely shortfall. 5) Zambian policy makers face a delicate...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Zambia; Maize; Marketing; Crop Production/Industries; Q20.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54638
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Mountains of Maize, Persistent Poverty AgEcon
Jayne, Thomas S.; Mason, Nicole M.; Burke, William J.; Shipekesa, Arthur M.; Chapoto, Antony; Kabaghe, Chance.
The past two years are a tribute to Zambian farmers; they have responded admirably to government efforts to promote maize production. But ironically, rural poverty remains stubbornly high despite the fact that the government has spent over 2% of the nation’s gross domestic product in supporting maize production and subsidizing inputs for farmers. Why is it that maize production has increased so impressively without making a serious dent in rural poverty? And what are the lessons for the new government?
Tipo: Technical Report Palavras-chave: Maize; Poverty; Zambia; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118476
Registros recuperados: 38
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