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Carbohydrats, N, P and K status of developing rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants grown in the first and second crop seasons in Taiwan Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
C.S. Chen; D.D. Huang; M.C. Shen; D. J. Liu; 陳建山; 黃定鼎; 沈美珍; 劉大江.
[[abstract]]Concentrations of total nonstructural carbohydrates, N, P and K in different plant parts of rice were analyzed at stages of plant development. Differences between crop seasons were also studied to investigate the physiological causes of low yield of the second crop rice. Accumulation of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) in cuims and leaf sheaths was most evident during the period of panicle development. Highest TNC concentration was recorded earlier in the second crop (25 days before heading) than in the first crop (18 days before hea(S)ding) for rices grown in Taichung. It occurred at heading stage in both crops in Taipei area. The first crop rice accumulated significantly higher amount of TNC in culms at panicle emergence than the...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1980
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單雜交玉米臺農1號及其父、母本自交系氮素同化與利用性狀對兩種氮肥用量的反應 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
陳建成; 王強生; 劉大江; C. C. Chen; C. S. Wang; D. J. Liu.
[[abstract]]本試驗以臺農1號及其父、母本自交系為材料,採用氮素用量60與180kg/ha處理,探討基因型與氮肥用量對乾物質與氮素累積及分配的影響,著重吐絲前與吐絲後的比較,並經由氮素利用效率組成因子分析,解釋產量表現的差異。施用重氮肥明顯增加成熟期植株乾物質與子粒產量,收穫指數有提升趨勢,自交系與雜交種之反應相同。雜交品種於吐絲後生成之乾物量佔總乾物量60%以上,並為子粒產量之1.25倍以上,氮肥用量的作用不明顯,顯示具有充份的同化能力因應子粒充實需要,其表現亦頗穩定。臺農l號父本植株吐絲後累積乾物量為子粒重之1.7倍,顯示產量極端受跟於積儲能力,母本之表現則與雜交種相近。低氮肥條件下臺農1號葉片氮素濃度低於父、母本自交系,推測不足以支持高光合作用速率,又父本營養及生殖器官氮素濃度極高,與其積儲強度較弱有關,但雜交種子粒碳氮比值顯著較父、母本為高,顯示三個基因型子粒累積碳素與氮素的相互配合速率應有不同。臺農1號植株每公頃累積氮素量最高可達230kg以上,氮素收穫指數為0.67─0.71,後者不受氮肥用量影響;臺農1號母本植株之氮素收穫指數僅為0.47─0.52,但氮素分配於苞葉與穗軸比率顯著超過父本及雜交種植株,顯示父、母本在碳素及氮素利用方面的差異。臺農1號吐絲後累積氮素量為總含量之60%以上,並與子粒含氮量相近,亦即具有旺盛的氮素同化能力;父、母本自交系吐絲後累積氮素量為總含量之26─51%,且父本之累積量僅為子粒氮含量之41─78%,氮素同化能力可能限制產量表現。玉米氮素利用效率以雜交種最高,主要的影響因子為氮素吸收效率及子粒內單位氮量之對應乾物生成量,氮素吸收效率因氮肥用量增多而降低,可供今後品種選育之參考。 Corn hybrid Tainung 1 and its parential...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1990
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影響碳水化合物自玉米穗軸轉移至子粒因素之研究 - 2.子粒充實期間莖稈與穗軸醣類濃度的變化 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
林淑雰; 劉大江; S. F. Lin; D. J. Liu.
[[abstract]]本試驗以單雜交玉米臺農351號及臺農育365號為材料,兩者具相同母本及不同父本,且後者子粒充實性優於前者;於1986年秋作進行田間試驗,在吐絲後連續針對穗位葉鞘、節間與果穗上位(自穗基算起之80─90%長度)及下位(20─30%)穗軸取樣,分析醣類組成,目的在確定植株供源能力與子粒充實需求間之平衡關係,供為進一步探討影響碳水化合物自玉米穗軸轉移至子粒因素研究之基礎。試驗結果發現臺農351號穗位葉鞘及節間在吐絲後7週內之非構造性碳水化合物濃度均在20%以上,顯示供源充裕,子粒充實後期之蔗糖濃度雖明顯下降,但仍以子粒充實性較差之臺農351號的濃度較高,亦即不為導致基因型間子粒充實差異的原因。穗軸組織在吐絲後初期具極高之葡萄糖及澱粉濃度,但於吐絲後二週起即維持穩定之低濃度,與子粒進入有效充實期相配合;上位穗軸之蔗糖與非構造性碳水化合物濃度在子粒充實中、後期高於下位穗軸,並以臺農351號顯著高於臺農育365號,證明光台物質可順利轉移至上位穗軸,且葉片供源能力充裕,並非限制子粒充實之因子;試驗結果建議玉米基因型間及果穗上、下位間碳水化合物自穗軸轉移至子粒之機制可能不同。本文為系列報告之第二篇,將利用相同材料比較各部位子粒之醣代謝作用,以探討影響玉米子粒充實之生理及生化因子。 Corn hybrids Tainung 351 (TNG 351) and Tainung Yu 365 (TNGY 365) were used as experimental material. The two hybrids have the same maternal inbred but different paternal inbred. The latter hybrid was superior to...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1990
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影響碳水化合物自玉米穗軸轉移至子粒因素之研究-1﹒果穗上位與下位子粒之充實特性 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
林淑雰; 劉清; 劉大江; S. F. Lin; C. Liu; D. J. Liu.
[[abstract]]本試驗以單雜交玉米臺農351號及臺農育365號為材料,兩者具相同母本及不同父本,且後者子粒充實性優於前者;於1986及1987年秋作進行田間試驗,在吐絲後連續針對果穗上位(自穗基算起之80─90%長度)及下位(20─30%)子粒取樣,以Richards函數法計算子粒充實性狀表現,目的在確定基因型間子粒充實度的差異,供為進一步探討影響碳水化合物自玉米穗軸轉移至子粒因素研究之基礎。試驗結果證實臺農育365號上、下位子粒之水分含量及乾物重於子粒發育初期開始即較臺農351號為高;上位子粒最高充實速率並無基因型間差異,但臺農育365號子粒到達最高充實速率之時間及有效充實期之發生均較早,持續期間較長,亦即在充實前期即具有差異,為導致粒重較高的原因,下位子粒也有相同表現。本文為系列報告之第一篇,將利用相同材料繼續由供源能力及子粒各部位之醣代謝作用探討影響玉米子粒充實之生理及生化因子。 Corn hybrids Tainung 351 (TNG 351) and Tainung Yu 365 (TNGY 365) were used as experimental material. The two hybrids have the same maternal inbred but different paternal inbred. The latter hybrid was superior to the former in kernel-filling characters. Field experiments were conducted in the fall crop season of 1986 and 1987 to study the pattern of dry matter...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1990
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栽培密度及氮肥用量對玉米青刈產量之影響 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
陳建成; 王強生; 劉大江; C. C. Chen; C. S. Wang; D. J. Liu.
[[abstract]]本試驗以臺農1號及臺農351號王米品種為材料,於秋作栽培時比較種植密度及氮肥用量對青刈產量及植株總營養消化率(TDN)的影響,並探討秋裡作密植短期栽培生產青刈玉米的可能性。秋作試驗行距為75cm而株距為14、18與25cm時,密植可提高青刈產量,吐絲後36日之鮮重已達高峰,但乾物重仍持續增加;品種間差異不顯著,唯臺農351號有全株鮮重表現超越臺農1號而穗鮮重卻低於臺農1號的趨勢,推測臺農351號果穗發育較慢,且植株生長屬後期優勢型。氮肥試驗係以臺農1號為材料,施以60及180kg N/ha處理,顯示明顯之氮肥增產效應。秋裡作晚植栽培試驗顯示,於10月中旬播種接,105日之鮮重亦可達50t/ha,但含水量過高,乾物產量低,11月上旬播種後112日之鮮重與乾物產量均低;晚植栽培未發現密度處理對青刈產量之正面效應,乾物產量並有因密植而降低的趨勢,由於植株發育因低溫影響而極度緩慢,且可能延緩水分含量降低速率,因此欲於裡作栽培青刈玉米,除應考慮品種及栽培方法外,亦應注重與環境因子之可能交感作用。本試驗中玉米之總營養消化率隨收穫期延後而提高,為穗部與全株乾物比率提高所致,不受品種、栽培密度與氮肥用量之顯著影響,最高可達73%左右。就產量而言,在秋作如以高密度及重氮肥栽培,臺農1號與臺農351號可用為青刈品種,但本試驗結果尚不能肯定在裡作生產青刈飼料之價值及可行性。 Maize hybrids Tainung 1 and Tainung 351 were cultivated in the fall crop to study the effects of planting density and N-fertilization on the silage yield and total...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1990
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玉米對溫度與光週期之生長反應 Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute
王強生; 王碧玉; 劉大江; C.S. Wang; P.Y. Wang; D. J. Liu.
[[abstract]]以玉米單雜交品種臺農351號與其母本TA80-2598及父本TA80-1410為材料,於生長箱中五種光期與溫度組合條件下栽培,並於3、7、9及12月室外盆栽,探討溫度與光期對葉原體分化速率、葉齡及生育日數的影響。高溫(33/25 °C)狀況較長光期(14 hr)之玉米雄穗分化始期葉齡較短光期(12 hr)處理為高,但對葉原體數目並無影響,最終葉數則因品種(系)而有異;較長光期又使母本自出土至幼穗分化始期、抽穗及開花之日數延長,唯對父本及雜交種之作用不明顯或有縮短的趨勢。同一光期(12 hr)而溫度由23/15 °C或18/10 °C時,雄穗分化始期葉齡及葉原體數目減小,最終葉數相近,出葉速率亦呈降低趨向,而植株發育至雄穗分化始期所需日數漸增;比較33/25與28/20 °C溫度處理結果,母本及雜交種植株自出土至抽穗、開花與吐絲所需日數差異並不明顯,或反以前者為高,可能為品種特性或過高之溫度並不能顯示溫度累積效應,此一推論可由室外盆栽試驗7月(較高溫)及9月(較低溫)播種處理之類似結果得到佐證。田間與生長箱高溫狀況下,玉米植株在雄穗分化始期(葉齡為10)以前之出葉速率多高於分化始期以後之出葉速率,顯示營養生長期與生殖生長期具有不同的生育特性,對環境因子的反應也具有程度上的差異。室外試驗與生長箱試驗結果相互吻合,並認為臺中地區栽培玉米之生長受溫度的影響較光期為大;於7至9月間播種時,植株葉數多,出葉速率快,營養生長量充足而生育期不致太長,應為適宜之栽培時期。 The single-cross corn Tainung 351 and its paternal inbred TA80-1410 and maternal inbred TA80-2598 were used to study...
Palavras-chave: [[classification]]6.
Ano: 1988
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