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A STOCHASTIC DOMINANCE ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE SUGAR BEET- AND NAVY BEAN- BASED CROP ROTATIONS IN MICHIGAN AgEcon
Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Schwab, Gerald; Harwood, Richard R.; Christenson, Donald; Bricker, Calvin.
Sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.) and navy beans (Phaseoulus vulgaris L.) have been important target crops in the crop rotation systems of many Michigan growers, particularly in the Saginaw Valley and the Thumb region. The recent decline in sugar beet yields combined with the erratic navy bean yields have led to concern about the optimal crop rotation for the East Central region in Michigan. Risk is an important consideration in a farmer's choice of cropping systems. This study uses 20 years of experimental data from the Michigan State University Saginaw Valley Research Farm to determine the risk efficiency of alternative sugar beet- and navy bean- based crop rotations that included corn (Zea mays L.), oats (Avena sativa L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Crop rotation; Cropping system; Risk; Stochastic dominance analysis; First-degree stochastic dominance; Second-degree stochastic dominance.; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11509
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Cereal Marketing and Household Market Participation in Ethiopia: The Case of Teff, Wheat and Rice AgEcon
Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Hoekstra, Dirk.
Teff, wheat and rice are becoming important market oriented crops in Ethiopia. This study aims at analyzing the market participation of farm households, market actors, market channels and determinants of household market participation for these crops. Results are based on analysis of data collected from community and household surveys in three districts in three regional states of the country in 2005. Analysis of descriptive information and econometric analysis are used. About 65 - 77% of households produce these market oriented commodities, on about 27 – 44% of the total cultivated area. About 47 – 60% of the produce of these market oriented commodities is sold. The important market places for producers of these commodities are the district town markets...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52102
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Commercialization of Smallholders: Is Market Participation Enough? AgEcon
Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Jaleta, Moti.
The literature on commercial transformation of smallholders makes little distinction between market orientation (production decision based on market signals) and market participation (sale of output). However, policy implications to enhance commercial transformation of subsistence agriculture drawn from the analysis of the determinants of household market participation alone could be inadequate, if in fact, the determinants of market orientation and market participation are not the same or not consistent with each other. This paper analyzes the determinants of market orientation and market participation in Ethiopia separately and examines if market orientation translates into market participation. Empirical results show that the determinants of market...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Commercialization; Smallholders; Market orientation; Market participation; Marketing; C21; C24; Q12; Q13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96159
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COMMUNITY NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF WOODLOTS IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA AgEcon
Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Pender, John L.; Tesfaye, Girmay.
This paper examines the nature of community management of woodlots and investigates the determinants of collective action and its effectiveness in managing woodlots, based on a survey of 100 villages in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. We find that collective management of woodlots generally functions well in Tigray. Despite limited current benefits received by community members, the woodlots contribute substantially to community wealth, increasing members’ willingness to provide collective effort to manage the woodlots. We find that benefits are greater and problems less on woodlots managed at the village level than those managed at a higher municipality level, and that the average intensity of management is greater on village-managed woodlots. Nevertheless, we...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16117
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Crop-Livestock Interactions in Smallholders’ Market Participation: Evidence from Crop-Livestock Mixed Systems in Ethiopia AgEcon
Jaleta, Moti; Gebremedhin, Berhanu.
Most studies on smallholder market participation decisions analyze crop or livestock market participation separately. However, in mixed crop-livestock farming systems, smallholders’ participation decisions in crop and livestock markets may not be separate as a household’s position in one market may be influenced by its position in the other. Where there is limited income from off-farm and/or non-farm activities, household cash requirements for crop production or household consumption are usually met by selling livestock. Similarly, livestock purchase is usually financed by income from crop sales. However, to what extent the position in one market influences the other is still not well explored in the literature. The aim of this paper is to investigate the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Market participation; Market position; Crop-livestock system; Smallholder; Ethiopia; Farm Management.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96168
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DETERMINANTS OF CEREAL DIVERSITY IN COMMUNITIES AND ON HOUSEHOLD FARMS OF THE NORTHERN ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS AgEcon
Benin, Samuel; Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Smale, Melinda; Pender, John L.; Ehui, Simeon K..
On farm conservation of crop diversity poses obvious policy challenges in terms of the design of appropriate incentive mechanisms and possible trade-offs between conservation and productivity. This paper compares factors explaining the inter-specific diversity (diversity among species) and infra-specific diversity (diversity among varieties within a species) of cereal crops grown in communities and on individual farms in the northern Ethiopian highlands. Using named varieties and ecological indices of spatial diversity (richness, evenness, and inverse dominance), we find that a combination of factors related to the agro-ecology of a community, its access to markets, and the characteristics of its households and farms significantly affect both the inter-...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Household Farms; Communities; Ethiopia; Agrobiodiversity; On Farm Conservation; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16101
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INVESTMENT IN SOIL CONSERVATION IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA: THE ROLE OF LAND TENURE SECURITY AND PUBLIC PROGRAMS AgEcon
Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Swinton, Scott M..
Soil erosion seriously threatens the future agricultural productivity of Ethiopia's highlands. In analyzing the determinants of soil conservation investments there, this study goes beyond the conventional physical factors to examine institutional, social capital and public program effects. The double hurdle statistical analysis from 250 farms in the Tigray region reveals different causal factors for soil conservation adoption versus intensity of use. The determinants of adoption of soil conservation measures vary sharply between stone terraces and soil bunds. Physical propensity toward erosion (e.g., slope, slope shape and soil texture) and land suitability for conservation helped determine conservation investments in all cases. But institutional and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11749
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Price Cointegration Analyses of Food Crop Markets: The case of Wheat and Teff Commodities in Northern Ethiopia AgEcon
Jaleta, Moti; Gebremedhin, Berhanu.
This paper examines the cointegration of grain market prices in Northern Ethiopia. Results are based on bi-monthly retail price data on wheat and teff collected from six markets in the Tigray region of Northern Ethiopia. The data has 55 observations for each of the two crops in each of the six markets ranging over a period of May 2006 to October 2008. Johansen’s cointegration test reveals that most markets are cointegrated in wheat and teff retail prices. There is an indication that retail prices at Abi-Adi, a town located relatively farther away from the main asphalt road, is less integrated to other markets. This implies that infrastructural development is crucial for spatial market integration through market information transmission and physical...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Price cointegration; Food crop market; Error correction model; Demand and Price Analysis; Marketing; C31; C32; Q13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51049
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RECONCILING FOOD-FOR-WORK OBJECTIVES: RESOURCE CONSERVATION VS. FOOD AID TARGETING IN TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA AgEcon
Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Swinton, Scott M..
Food-for-work (FFW) projects face the challenge of addressing three kinds of objectives: to feed hungry people, to build public works where needed, and to be feasible for prompt project implementation. In the debate over how to target FFW to the poorest of the poor, the last two program objectives are often overlooked. This research examines FFW afforestation and erosion-control programs in central Tigray, Ethiopia, during 1992-95 in order to examine how these sometimes conflicting objectives were reconciled. The study decomposes the factors determining a household's FFW participation into three decision stages. First, at the regional level, project planners choose where to locate a FFW resource conservation project. Second, at the village level, a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11708
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STRATEGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS AgEcon
Pender, John L.; Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Benin, Samuel; Ehui, Simeon K..
This paper investigates the impacts of population growth, market access, agricultural credit and technical assistance programs, land policies, livelihood strategies and other factors on changes in land management, natural resource conditions and human welfare indicators since 1991 in the northern Ethiopian highlands, based on a survey of 198 villages. We find that population growth has contributed significantly to land degradation, poverty and food insecurity in this region. In contrast, better market access and some credit and technical assistance programs were associated with improvement (or less decline) in land quality, wealth and food security; suggesting the possibility of "win-win-win" development outcomes with appropriate interventions. Land...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land degradation; Sustainable agriculture; Population pressure; Ethiopian highlands; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16121
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STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE LAND MANAGEMENT, CROP PRODUCTION, AND HOUSEHOLD INCOME IN THE HIGHLANDS OF TIGRAY, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA AgEcon
Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Pender, John L..
This paper investigates strategies to improve land management, crop production and household income in the northern Ethiopian highlands based upon econometric analysis of household and plot level survey data collected from 500 households. We find that several profitable opportunities exist to improve land management, agricultural production and incomes.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20161
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SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF PRIVATE AND COMMUNAL LANDS IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA AgEcon
Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Swinton, Scott M..
Land degradation in sub-Saharan Africa reduces the land's potential productivity through soil erosion, nutrient depletion, soil moisture stress, deforestation and overgrazing. Efforts to reverse land degradation require an understanding of why it takes place and what factors govern farmers' willingness to invest in land conservation. These factors differ importantly between private and public lands. This study synthesizes results from analyses of the technological and institutional factors determining the adoption of natural resource conservation at both the household and the community levels in the northern Ethiopian region of Tigray. Using 1995-96 data from 250 Tigray farm household interviews, it first examines private land management, focusing on 1)...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11680
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THE DETERMINANTS OF CEREAL CROP DIVERSITY ON FARMS IN THE ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS AgEcon
Benin, Samuel; Smale, Melinda; Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Pender, John L.; Ehui, Simeon K..
On farm conservation of crop diversity entails policy challenges, especially when the diversity of crops maintained on farms has both inter-specific (among crops) and infra-specific (within a crop) components. Survey data is used to compare the determinants of inter- and infra-specific diversity on household farms in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. Physical features of the farm, and household characteristics such as livestock assets and the proportion of adults that are men, have large and significant effects on both the diversity among and within cereal crops grown, varying among crops. Demographic aspects such as age of household head and adult education levels affect only infra-specific diversity of cereals. Though there are no apparent trade-offs...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25833
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THE ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CROP ROTATION SYSTEMS: EVIDENCE FROM THE LITERATURE AgEcon
Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Schwab, Gerald.
Agricultural sustainability requires that the individual farm firm be competitive and profitable while simultaneously enhancing environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the farm firm and agricultural economy depends. The reliance of conventional agriculture systems on purchased inputs external to the firm presents possible challenges to the long-term sustainability of the system. Crop rotation systems are one cropping system alternative that can reduce agriculture's dependence on external inputs through internal nutrient recycling, maintenance of the long-term productivity of the land, and breaking weed and disease cycles. Decision criteria to choose among competing crop rotation systems can include impact on soil quality and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural sustainability; External inputs; Soil quality and fertility; Environmental quality; Crop rotations; Comparative economic analysis; Farm profitability.; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11690
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WOODLOT DEVOLUTION IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA: OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMPOWERMENT, SMALLHOLDER INCOME DIVERSIFICATION, AND SUSTAINABLE LAND MANAGEMENT AgEcon
Jagger, Pamela; Pender, John L.; Gebremedhin, Berhanu.
This paper explores the patterns and determinants of empowerment, income generation, and environmental sustainability under varying degrees of woodlot management in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our analysis is based upon a survey of 120 collectively managed woodlots, devolved to varying degrees, and 66 households that have recently received small plots of community land for tree planting. We find that more devolved woodlot management empowers resource users by providing greater autonomy regarding the management of woodlots, and in particular the ability to make decisions about the harvest of woodlot products. Our economic analysis indicates that grass is by far the most important product being harvested from woodlots. There has been very limited harvesting of higher...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16108
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