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A Neglected Interdependency in Liability Theory AgEcon
Dharmapala, Dhammika; Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Schwartz, Warren.
The standard economic model of bilateral precaution concludes that (in the absence of uncertainty, misperception, or error) all negligence-based liability rules induce socially optimal behavior by both injurers and victims. This paper generalizes the standard model to consider situations in which one party's precaution affects not only expected accident loss, but also directly affects the other party's effort or cost of taking precaution. If the injurer's care affects the victim's precaution costs (but not vice versa), most of the standard results continue to hold (except for strict liability with a defense of contributory negligence). If the victims precaution affects the injurers costs of care (but not vice versa), only strict liability with a defense of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Law and economics; Tort laws; Risk and Uncertainty; K13; K00.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10626
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Economic Uncertainties in Valuing Reductions in Children's Environmental Health Risks AgEcon
Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Adamowicz, Wiktor L..
The recognition that environmental hazards can affect children differently and more severely than adults has provoked growing concern in industrialized nations about the impact of environmental pollution on children's health. In this paper, commissioned by the OECD, we are charged with examining "economic uncertainties" associated with valuing the benefits of environmental policies that reduce risk to children's health. We examine two sources of uncertainty in benefits estimation: forecasting uncertainty and modeling uncertainty. We explore how these sources of uncertainty affect the use of standard economic and non-economic approaches to the valuation of health benefits. These include willingness-to-pay measures, cost-of-illness and human-capital...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Willingness to pay; QALY; Children; Social welfare function; Health valuation; Environmental health; Household behavior; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q51; I18; I1; J17; D13; D6; D63; D64.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10722
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Eliciting Information on Uncertainty from Heterogeneous Expert Panels: Attributing U.S. Foodborne Pathogen Illness to Food Consumption AgEcon
Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Fischbeck, Paul S.; Krupnick, Alan J.; McWilliams, Michael.
Decision analysts are frequently called on to help inform decision-makers in situations where there is considerable uncertainty. In such situations, expert elicitation of parameter values is frequently used to supplement more conventional research. This paper develops a formal protocol for expert elicitation with large, heterogeneous expert panels. We use formal survey methods to take advantage of variation in individual expert uncertainty and heterogeneity among experts as a means of quantifying and comparing sources of uncertainty about parameters of interest. We illustrate use of this protocol with an expert elicitation on the distribution of U.S. foodborne illness from each of 11 major foodborne pathogens to the consumption of one of 11 categories of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food safety; Expert elicitation; Risk analysis; Food attribution; Foodborne pathogen; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10444
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Emerging Issues in Food Safety AgEcon
Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Hooker, Neal H..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94704
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IDENTIFYING THE MOST SIGNIFICANT MICROBIOLOGICAL FOODBORNE RISKS TO PUBLIC HEALTH: A NEW RISK-RANKING MODEL AgEcon
Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Taylor, Michael R.; Morris, Joe; Krupnick, Alan J.; Batz, Michael B..
This paper presents a decision-analytic model for ranking the social burden of foodborne illness. The availability a consistent, transparent model allowing use of alternative ranking criteria and data assumptions will facilitate discussions between agencies committed to different criteria. By use of multiple criteria, the model highlights overlooked food safety problems.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20291
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Knowing Which Foods Are Making Us Sick AgEcon
Hoffmann, Sandra A..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; D18; I18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94705
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Multilateral Trade Agreements and Market-Based Environmental Policies AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn; Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Yoshino, Yutaka.
We review the legal provisions of the WTO regime that have important implications for national, market-based environmental policies. We evaluate those provisions for their effects on a member country's ability and incentives to design economically efficient environmental policies. International trade institutions do not recognize the polluter pays principle, posing some challenges for unilateral policies addressing cross-border pollutants and leakage. Nor do they recognize the economic equivalence of emission tax and permit regimes, leading to different potential constraints on policy design and leaving some environmental policies open to influence by protectionist motives. As many legality issues have yet to be disputed and resolved, opportunities exist...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Trade; Environment; WTO; GATT; Market-based policies; Environmental Economics and Policy; F1; Q38.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10758
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Poverty and Employment in Timber-Dependent Counties AgEcon
Berck, Peter; Costello, Christopher; Fortmann, Louise; Hoffmann, Sandra A..
One of the most controversial aspects of federal and state policies aimed at protecting old-growth ecosystems has been the potential impact of job losses on local economies. A fundamental question for historically timber-dependent communities is whether these policies will result in local economic stagnation and enduring pockets of poverty. In this paper, we examine the long-run impact of changes in timber-related employment on other types of employment and participation in major federal poverty programs. We use monthly, multi-county time series data to estimate a vector autoregressive model of the experience of northern California counties during the 1980s and 1990s. We find that employment base multiplier effects of timber employment on other types of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Forest policy; Poverty; Employment; Time series; Food Security and Poverty; Q23; O15; R11; R15.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10831
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Poverty program participation and employment in timber-dependent counties AgEcon
Berck, Peter; Costello, Christopher; Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Fortmann, Louise.
This paper uses cointegrated time-series methods to evaluate the effect of timber employment on participation in a major poverty program-Aid to Families with Dependent Children-Unemployed Parent (AFDC-UP). The study is conducted for major timber-producing counties in California. It is shown that a two-sector structural model can be solved to produce an error-correction model. An error-correction model is estimated with time series on state and county AFDC-UP caseload, state employment, county nontimber employment, and county timber employment. Utilizing tests on the cointegrating space, it is shown that there is no long-run relationship between poverty and timber employment in 10 of the 11 counties studied.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Afdc; Economic conditions; Employment; Poverty; Timber; Time-series analysis; Food Security and Poverty; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43913
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Redesigning Food Safety: Using Risk Analysis to Build a Better Food Safety System AgEcon
Taylor, Michael R.; Hoffmann, Sandra A..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10784
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Torts and the Protection of "Legally Recognized" Interests AgEcon
Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Hanemann, W. Michael.
The law of torts plays an important role in completing the legal property rights system by defining the extent to which property is protected from harm. It does this by defining the kinds of interests that will be recognized and protected from harm by the courts, the duty of care owed these recognized interests by others, and the manner in which they will be protected through monetary compensation, restitution, or injunction. Together, these three elements of torts define a right in the "bundle of rights" that constitute property. In this paper, we develop a systematic approach to formalizing the nature of the property rights protected by tort law. We use this approach to reexamine the literature on compensation for nonpecuniary damages. This reexamination...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Torts; Property rights; Liability; Compensation; Damages; Insurance; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; D31; D63; K0; K13.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10472
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Torts and the Protection of "Legally Recognized Interests" AgEcon
Hoffmann, Sandra A.; Hanemann, W. Michael.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Public Economics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7200
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U.S. Food Safety Policy Enters a New Era AgEcon
Hoffmann, Sandra A..
In late 2010, Congress passed the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), the most comprehensive reforms to Federal food safety laws since 1938. The farm-to-fork, preventive approach embodied in the Act reflects an established scientific/managerial consensus on how to improve food safety systems. Economic research on similar food safety initiatives by industry and government can help guide implementation of the FSMA.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120793
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