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Registros recuperados: 11
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Contribution of Wheat Diversity to Total Factor Productivity in China AgEcon
Jin, Songqing; Meng, Erika C.H.; Hu, Ruifa; Rozelle, Scott; Huang, Jikun.
The impact of wheat diversity on the productivity of wheat in China is examined using total factor productivity (TFP) and an instrumental variable approach. TFP in seven key wheat-producing provinces in China shows significant, though variable, growth for all provinces during the period 1982-1995. Analysis of the causes of TFP growth tests alternative taxonomies of wheat diversity (named varieties and morphological groups) and three measures of diversity. The analysis shows significant effects of diversity on TFP with results consistent across taxonomies and measures of diversity. Further decomposition of the estimation results confirms the relative magnitude of impact of wheat diversity on TFP growth.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural productivity; China; Crop diversity; Diversity index; Total factor productivity; Wheat; Crop Production/Industries; Production Economics.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46555
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ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS IN CHINA AgEcon
Huang, Jikun; Hu, Ruifa; van Meijl, Hans; van Tongeren, Frank W..
China has made a major investment in biotechnology research. Genetically modified (GM) cotton is widely adopted and the list of GM technologies in trials is impressive. At the same time there is an active debate on when China should commercialize its GM food crops. The overall goal of this paper is to provide an economy-wide assessment of these issues under various scenarios. Based on a unique data from empirical micro-level study and field trial in China and a modified GTAP model, our results indicate that the development of biotechnology has an important impact on China's production, trade and welfare. Welfare gains far outweigh the public biotechnology research expenditures. Most gains occur inside China. Policy makers should put less weight on...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Economic impacts; Biotechnology; Genetically modified crops; China; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; C68; D58; F13; O33; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25883
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Effects of Inclusive Village Level Public Agricultural Extension Service: Policy Reform Experiment in Western China AgEcon
Hu, Ruifa; Cai, Yaqing; Chen, Kevin Z.; Cui, Ynogwei; Huang, Jikun.
The top down public agricultural extension system in China and its early reforms during the 1990’s has left millions of farmers without access to extension services. An inclusive agricultural extension system was introduced in 2005 to better meet the diverse technology needs of small farmers. Three key features of the experiment are 1) inclusion of all farmers as target beneficiaries, 2) effective identification of farmers’ technology needs, and 3) establishment of an accountability system to provide better agricultural advisory services to small farmers. This paper describes design of the reform initiative and examines its effect on small farmers’ access to extension services. Based on the data randomly collected from 950 farmers in six counties from...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural Extension; Farmers’ Technology Needs; An Accountability System; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51902
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Impact of Plant Breeders Rights on Technology Availability in China AgEcon
Hu, Ruifa; Huang, Jie; Pray, Carl E.; Huang, Jikun.
There has been considerable debate but little empirical analysis among academics, policy makers, and civil society about whether intellectual property rights would induce private research in developing countries. China passed its plant variety protection act (PVPA) in 1997 which allowed us to do some initial testing of this proposition. We used a unique data set on the seed price, area planted, morphological characteristics, and institutional sources of all the important varieties of rice in three provinces of China to estimate the impact of PVPA on seed prices and area planted to a variety. We found that protected varieties have higher prices than unprotected varieties, but that they are grown on smaller area, which means less seed is sold. Our data...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25549
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Maize in China: Production Systems, Constraints, and Research Priorities AgEcon
Meng, Erika C.H.; Hu, Ruifa; Shi, Xiaohua; Zhang, Shihuang.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7648
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Privatization, Public R&D Policy, and Private R&D Investment in China's Agriculture AgEcon
Hu, Ruifa; Liang, Qin; Pray, Carl E.; Huang, Jikun; Jin, Yanhong H..
Private R&D is a major source of innovation and productivity growth in agriculture worldwide. This paper examines trends and determinants of agricultural R&D in China. Results show that while the public sector monopolized agricultural research until recently, private agricultural R&D has grown rapidly since 2000, driven largely by agribusiness privatization. Public-sector R&D investments in basic research also encouraged private R&D research, but public investments in technology development crowded out private R&D investment. China’s private R&D investment would grow more rapidly if the government shifted public resources from technology development to basic research.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; China; Private R&D; Privatization; Public R&D; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117213
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SMALL HOLDERS, TRANSGENIC VARIETIES, AND PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY: THE CASE OF COTTON FARMERS IN CHINA AgEcon
Huang, Jikun; Hu, Ruifa; Rozelle, Scott; Qiao, Fangbin; Pray, Carl E..
The overall goal of this study is to measure the effect of the impact that genetically modified cotton varieties have had on the production efficiency of small holders in farming communities in China. We also find that the adoption of Bt cotton varieties leads to a significant decrease in the use of pesticides. Hence, we demonstrate that Bt cotton appears to be an agricultural technology that improves both production efficiency and the environment. In terms of policies, our findings suggest that the government should investigate whether or not they should make additional investments to spread Bt to other cotton regions and to other crops.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farm Management; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11995
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THE CREATION AND SPREAD OF TECHNOLOGY AND TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY IN CHINA'S AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Jin, Songqing; Huang, Jikun; Hu, Ruifa; Rozelle, Scott.
The study’s overall goal is to create a framework for assessing the trends of China'’s national and international investment in agricultural research and to measure its impact on total factor productivity. The main methodological contribution is to provide more convincing measures of crop-specific technologies from China'’s national research program and of those imported from the international agricultural research system. Our results find that from 1980-95, China’'s total factor productivity for rice, wheat and maize grew rapidly and new technology accounts for most of the productivity growth.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11981
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Transgenic varieties and productivity of smallholder cotton farmers in China AgEcon
Huang, Jikun; Hu, Ruifa; Rozelle, Scott; Qiao, Fangbin; Pray, Carl E..
Genetically modified cotton varieties have greater production efficiency for smallholders in farming communities in China. We also find that the adoption of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton varieties leads to a significant decrease in the use of pesticides. Hence, we demonstrate that Bt cotton appears to be an agricultural technology that improves both production efficiency and the environment. In terms of policies, our findings suggest that the government should investigate whether or not they should make additional investments to spread Bt to other cotton regions and to other crops.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118621
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Using Ecological Indices and Economics to Explain Diversity in a Wheat Crop: Examples from Australia and China AgEcon
Smale, Melinda; Meng, Erika C.H.; Brennan, John P.; Hu, Ruifa.
Spatial diversity indicators may serve policymakers as they seek to manage crop genetic diversity and externalities associated with diffusion of some genetically modified crops. This paper adapts ecological indices of spatial diversity to area distributions of modern wheat varieties in contrasting production systems of Australia and China. The variation in three concepts of spatial diversity—richness, abundance, and evenness—is explained using Zellner’s seemingly unrelated regression (SUR). Determinants of wheat diversity differ by concept, but include variety traits other than yield potential, environmental factors, and policies affecting the supply of varieties, research spill-ins, and market liberalization.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123732
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Using Economics to Explain Spatial Diversity in a Wheat Crop: Examples from Australia and China AgEcon
Smale, Melinda; Meng, Erika C.H.; Brennan, John P.; Hu, Ruifa.
Spatial diversity indicators may serve an important function for policymakers as they seek to manage crop genetic diversity and potential externalities associated with diffusion of some types of genetically improved crops. This paper adapts spatial diversity indices employed by ecologists in the study of species diversity to area distributions of modern wheat varieties in contrasting production systems of Australia and China. The variation in three interrelated concepts of diversity "richness, abundance, and evenness" is explained by factors related to the demand and supply of varieties, agroecology, and policies using the econometric method of Zellner's seemingly unrelated regression (SUR). Results suggest that in addition to expected yield and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7697
Registros recuperados: 11
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