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Acquisition de données complémentaires aux dénombrements, avec les techniques de cytométrie en flux, fluorescence totale ou spectrale. Etat d’avancement et premiers résultats. Action Indice Composition. Livrable n° A III. Rapport final, 23 septembre 2014 ArchiMer
Artigas, Luis Felipe; Didry, Morgane; Barthelemy, Vanille; Bonato, Simon; Broutin, Mathias; Lizon, Fabrice; Lefebvre, Alain.
The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) refers to phytoplankton as one of the biological quality elements that should be regularly monitored and evaluated thanks to three ecological indices: biomass, abundance and composition. The first two have already been defined, but the third one has not yet been proposed in the English Channel-Atlantic zone. The construction of a composition indice must consider the diversity of all the phytoplankton. As the microscopic counts concern only the micro-phytoplankton, it is necessary to use additional information which concerns the nano- and pico-phytoplankton, of great importance when estimating the phytoplankton diversity. These components of the phytoplankton can be measured by different complementary...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Manche Orientale; Groupes phytoplanctoniques; Cytométrie en Flux de type Scanning; Fluorimétrie spectrale; Analyses pigmentaires; Eastern English Channel; Phytoplankton groups; Scanning Flow Cytometry; Spectral fluorescence; Pigments analysis.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00361/47259/47224.pdf
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Atmospherically-promoted photosynthetic activity in a well-mixed ecosystem: Significance of wet deposition events of nitrogen compounds ArchiMer
Boulart, C; Flament, Pierre; Gentilhomme, V; Deboudt, K; Migon, C; Lizon, F; Schapira, M; Lefebvre, Alain.
Wet atmospheric deposition of dissolved N, P and Si species is studied in well-mixed coastal ecosystem to evaluate its potential to stimulate photosynthetic activities in nutrient-depleted conditions. Our results show that, during spring, seawater is greatly depleted in major nutrients: Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN), Dissolved Inorganic Phosphorus (DIP) and Silicic acid (Si), in parallel with an increase of phytoplanktonic biomass. In spring (March-May) and summer (June-September), wet atmospheric deposition is the predominant source (> 60%, relative to riverine contribution) for nitrates and ammonium inputs to this N-limited coastal ecosystem. During winter (October-February), riverine inputs of DIN predominate (> 80%) and are annually the most...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Strait of Dover; Nutrient cycles; River plumes; Atmospheric deposition; Coastal zone; Primary production.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/publication-2007.pdf
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Autécologie et éthologie de l' Annélide Polychète Polydora ciliata (Johnston, 1928). Synthèse bibliographique ArchiMer
Cheramy, Julien; Lefebvre, Alain.
The annelid polychaete Polydora ciliata (Johnston, 1828) regulary colonizes the shores of Picardie (France), covering the musse! band of mud and causing their death by asphyxia. This report is a preliminary study which aim is to settle a program of supervision and prevention against this colonization. This report is a bibliographie review about the bentho-pelagic !ife cycle of Polydora ciliata.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Annélide; Polydora ciliata; Moules; Picardie; Cycle bentho-pélagique; Annelids; Polydora ciliata; Mussels; Picardie; Review; Bentho-pelagic life cycle.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00439/55046/56482.pdf
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Avis de l’Ifremer sur le projet d’arrêté préfectoral portant ouverture sanitaire temporaire de la zone à éclipse n° 62.10 en Baie de Canche / Hardelot-Le Touquet pour le groupe 2. ArchiMer
Lefebvre, Alain; Verin, Francoise.
Avis de l’Ifremer concernant le projet d’arrêté préfectoral portant ouverture sanitaire temporaire de la zone à éclipse n°62.10 Baie de Canche / Hardelot-Le Touquet pour le groupe 2. La zone 62.10 est identifiée comme zone de production dont l’exploitation est soumise à autorisation préalable et sous conditions particulières (zone à éclipse) par arrêté préfectoral portant classement de salubrité des zones de production et de reparcage de coquillages vivants du département du Pas-de-Calais en date du 8 février 2018. Cette zone est non classée. Le suivi des zones à exploitation occasionnelle (dites à éclipses) doit suivre les règles applicables au classement et au suivi de certaines zones de production conchylicoles de l’instruction technique...
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Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00499/61081/64538.pdf
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Bilan 2003 du réseau REPAMO - Réseau national de surveillance zoosanitaire des mollusques marins ArchiMer
Arzul, Isabelle; Garcia, Celine; Joly, Jean-pierre; Miossec, Laurence; Chollet, Bruno; Robert, Maeva; Cuvelier, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Alain; Le Gagneur, Eric; Kopp, Joel; Mouillard, Gilbert; Gerla, Daniel; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Raguenes, Pierre; Le Gal, Dominique; Langlade, Aime; Bedier, Edouard; Nourry, Max; Martin, Jean-louis; Fillon, Alain.
The REPAMO network (network ofmollusc pathology), created in 1986, ensures the survey of shellfish health status along French coasts according? to European Directives 91/67/EEC and 95/70/EEC. The aims of the network are 1 - to prevent the introduction and spread of exotic pathogens, 2-to study the means to decrease the impact of pathogens already present and to survey their evolution. In 2003, the REPAMO network focused on the survey oflisted diseases (bonamiosis and marteiliosis) in two areas under agreement process (Banc de Granville and zone X) and on the study of abnormal morlalities. Number of reported abnormal morlalities has increased in 2003. This rise can be partly explained by the recent network restructuring, but also by the summer heatwave and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Réseau; Surveillance; Pathologie; Mollusques; Coquillages; Etat de santé; Network; Surveillance; Pathology; Molluscs; Shellfish; Health status.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00086/19699/17340.pdf
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Bilan 2004 du réseau REPAMO - Réseau national de surveillance zoosanitaire des mollusques marins ArchiMer
Garcia, Celine; Arzul, Isabelle; Chollet, Bruno; Francois, Cyrille; Goubet, Anne; Joly, Jean-pierre; Miossec, Laurence; Robert, Maeva; Cuvelier, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Alain; Le Gagneur, Eric; Ropert, Michel; Mouillard, Gilbert; Gerla, Daniel; Le Gal, Dominique; Rocher, Gregory; Langlade, Aime; Bedier, Edouard; Nourry, Max; Martin, Jean-louis; Costantini, Louis; Masson, Jean-claude; Martin, Anne-genevieve.
Created in 1986, the REPAMO network (Network of mollusc pathology), is a national zoosanitary surveillance network of shellfish health status along the French coasts. Its activities are in keeping with two European Directives, 91 /67/EEC and 95/70/EC and are a patt of the institutional tasks ofIfremer. The aims of the network are to prevent the introduction and spread of exotic pathogens and to survey the evolution of notifiable pathogens already present in France. The network focused on the survey of listed diseases (bonamiosis and marteiliosis of flat oyster) in two areas under agreement process (Banc de Granville and zone X). In 2004, no sample couId be analysed to these two areas because of the difficulty to obtain flat oysters (sparse oyster beds,...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Réseau; Surveillance; Pathologie; Mollusques; Coquillages; Etat de santé; Network; Surveillance; Pathology; Molluscs; Shellfish; Health status.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00086/19702/17343.pdf
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Bilan 2005 du réseau REPAMO - Réseau national de surveillance zoosanitaire des mollusques marins ArchiMer
Garcia, Celine; Arzul, Isabelle; Chollet, Bruno; Ferrand, Sylvie; Francois, Cyrille; Joly, Jean-pierre; Miossec, Laurence; Robert, Maeva; Cuvelier, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Alain; Le Gagneur, Eric; Ropert, Michel; Mouillard, Gilbert; Gerla, Daniel; Le Gal, Dominique; Rocher, Gregory; Langlade, Aime; Bedier, Edouard; Nourry, Max; Martin, Jean-louis; Chabirand, Jean-michel; Fillon, Alain; Robert, Stephane; Courtois, Olivier; D'Amico, Florence; Rumebe, Myriam; Pichot, Yves; Le Gall, Patrik.
Created in 1992, the REPAMO network (Network of mollusc pathology), is a national zoosanitary surveillance network of shellfish health status along the French coasts. Ils activities are in keeping with two European Directives, 91167/EEC and 95170/EC and are a part of the institutional tasks of Ifremer. The aims of the network are to prevent the introduction and spread of exotic pathogens and to sm'vey the evolution of notifiable pathogens already present in France. The network focused on the survey of listed diseases (bonamiosis and marteiliosis of flat oyster) in two areas under agreement process (Granville bed and zone X). In 2005, only samples of the Granville bed could be analysed due to the difflculty to obtain flat oysters (sparse oyster beds, beds...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Réseau; Surveillance; Pathologie; Mollusques; Coquillages; Etat de santé; Network; Surveillance; Pathology; Molluscs; Shellfish; Health status.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00086/19704/17346.pdf
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Bilan d’une surveillance à haute fréquence en zone côtière sous influence anthropique (Boulogne-sur-Mer). Opérations et actions scientifiques pour l’année 2018 ArchiMer
Lefebvre, Alain; Grassi, Kelly; Caillault, Emilie.
Installée dans la rade de Boulogne-sur-Mer et inaugurée le 25 novembre 2004, la station MARELCarnot mesure, toutes les 20 minutes, la salinité, la température de l’eau et de l’air, la fluorescence, la turbidité, la concentration en oxygène dissous, le pourcentage de saturation en oxygène, le P.A.R., l’humidité relative, la direction et la vitesse du vent, la hauteur d’eau et toutes les 12 heures, la concentration en nitrate, en phosphate et en silicium. Ce rapport vise à présenter les principaux éléments utiles à l’utilisateur des données afin de pouvoir adapter son étude en fonction de la disponibilité des données, de leur qualité et, bien entendu, de son objectif. Les résultats des paramètres température, salinité, turbidité, concentration et saturation...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Manche orientale; Boulogne-sur-Mer; Haute fréquence temporelle; MAREL; Hydrologie; Fluorescence..
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00590/70203/68230.pdf
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Campagne RNOSED 1998 - Analyse de la contamination des sédiments du littoral Nord / Pas-de-Calais / Picardie ArchiMer
Desombre, Julie; Lefebvre, Alain; Bucas, Karenn.
The National Network of Observation (RNO) of the IFREMER is a monitoring network of the quality of the marine environment. This report is interested in the results of series of measurement from the RNO sediment of 1998 and relates to the analysis of the contamination of the coastal sediments from the Belgian coastal zone to Fécamp. Measurements relate to heavy metals and the organic compounds the such Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (HAP), Polychlorobiphényles (PCB) and pesticides (DDT, Lindane). A statistical processing is carried out starting from the standardized metal contents and of the organic rough contents in order to highlight possible regroupings of intake points per level of pollution. The origins of the contamination given thanks to an inventory of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Sédiment; RNO; Normalisation; Contaminants; Apports anthropiques; Sediment; RNO; Standardization; Contaminants; Anthropic fluxes.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00167/27821/26014.pdf
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CHARM : Atlas des Habitats des Ressources Marines de la Manche Orientale ArchiMer
Carpentier, Andre; Coppin, Franck; Dauvin, Jean-claude; Desroy, Nicolas; Dewarumez, Jean-marie; Eastwood, Paul D.; Ernande, Bruno; Harrop, Stuart; Kemp, Zarine; Koubbi, Philippe; Williams, Nigel Leader; Lefebvre, Alain; Lemoine, Michel; Loots, Christophe; S. Martin, Corinne; Meaden, Geoff J.; Ryan, Nick; Tan, Lei; Vaz, Sandrine; Walkey, Mike.
INTRODUCTION: The Dover Strait (Figure 1) connects the North Sea to the English Channel. Here, northern France and South-East England are at their closest. This narrow corridor, one of the world's busiest straits for maritime shipping, is a key economic area for numerous activities, such as leisure and tourism, international ports and shipping, plus the exploitation of living or abiotic marine resources. This area is a significant resource for fisheries because many commercial fish species are abundant there, but also because of the presence of nursery and spawning areas and migratory routes linked to specific environmental characteristics. The vulnerability of these resources, which are subjected to strong anthropogenic pressures, has brought together...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Survey; Landings; Larvae; Eastern channel; Benthos; Fish; Sig; Policy analysis; Species protection; Habita protection; Protected areas; Marine biodiversity conservation.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2005/rapport-2350.pdf
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Comparaison des résultats obtenus avec différentes techniques d’évaluation du phytoplancton antérieurement à 2013. Action 3. Indice Composition. Livrable n° A II. Rapport final, 13 novembre 2014. ArchiMer
Artigas, Luis Felipe; Didry, Morgane; Lampert, Luis; Broutin, Mathias; Bonato, Simon; Lizon, Fabrice; Lefebvre, Alain.
L'élément de qualité phytoplancton doit être évalué dans le cadre de la Directive Cadre sur L’Eau grâce à trois indices : biomasse, abondance et composition. Les deux premiers indices, biomasse et abondance, ont déjà été définis. L’indice composition a quant à lui fait l'objet d'une proposition précise en Méditerranée, mais pas en Manche - Atlantique. Les travaux antérieurs montrent que la construction d'un indice de composition doit tenir compte de la diversité de l'ensemble du phytoplancton. Or, les comptages microscopiques ne concernent en général que le micro-phytoplancton. Il est donc nécessaire de prendre en compte des informations supplémentaires qui tiennent compte du nano- et du picophytoplancton, dont l'importance dans la diversité du...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Manche Orientale; Groupes phytoplanctoniques; Cytométrie en Flux de type Scanning; Fluorimétrie spectrale; Analyse CHEMTAX; Projet DYMAPHY.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00361/47258/47223.pdf
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Comprendre la structure et la dynamique du phytoplancton en réponse aux forçages naturels et anthropiques, et contribuer au développement des outils d’analyses automatisées. Vers un Système Intégré d’Observation. ArchiMer
Lefebvre, Alain.
Les écosystèmes marins sont soumis à des pressions d’origine anthropique très importantes depuis ces dernières décennies. Parmi ces pressions, les apports excessifs de nutriments vont impacter directement le phytoplancton et indirectement d’autres niveaux trophiques compromettant ainsi les biens et services écosystèmiques. On parle alors d’eutrophisation, phénomène répandu à l’échelle mondiale. La Manche orientale et la baie sud de la mer du Nord ne font pas exception. La partie française de cette zone est marquée par des proliférations massives de la Prymnésiophycée, Phaeocystis globosa, qui aboutiront au développement d’une mousse abondante et nauséabonde sur le littoral comme à des dysfonctionnements au sein des habitats benthique et pélagique. C’est...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Manche; Baie sud de la mer du Nord; Eutrophisation; Habitat pélagique; Phytoplancton; Abondance; Diversité; Hydrologie; Climat; Observation; Surveillance; Écologie numérique; Modélisation; Haute fréquence; Systèmes automatisés; Stations instrumentées; Ferry Box..
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00360/47103/47027.pdf
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Contributions des mesures automatisées à haute fréquence de type FerryBox pour les programmes thématiques Eutrophisation et Habitats Pélagiques de la DCSMM. Campagnes 2018 ArchiMer
Lefebvre, Alain; Devreker, David.
Dans le cadre du programme de surveillance des descripteurs DCSMM 1HP et 5, un suivi saisonnier des paramètres physico-chimiques et biologiques liés à ces descripteurs a été mis en place à l’échelle des SRM Manche Mer du Nord et Mer Celtique en 2018. Ce suivi implique les campagnes halieutiques optimisées IBTS et CGFS ainsi que 2 campagnes dédiées DCSMM déployées par le CNRS dont la stratégie d’échantillonnage pour le D5 et D1HP a été proposée dans un précédent rapport. Parmi les outils déployés lors de ces campagnes saisonnières, les outils de mesures Hautes Fréquences automatisés de type FerryBox ont été proposés comme complément aux méthodes conventionnelles Basses Fréquences dont les données alimentent les indicateurs DCSMM. L’utilisation de ces outils...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Analyse spectrale; AOA; CFGS; Chlorophylle-a; DCSMM; ECOPEL; FBdataM; FerryBox; IBTS; Manche; Mesures Automatisées Hautes Fréquences; Paramètres physico-chimiques; UHMM..
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00594/70594/68780.pdf
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Croissance de la coque (Cerastoderma edule) en baie de Somme : Morphométrie et Marquage ArchiMer
Bellamy, Elise; Lefebvre, Alain; Mahe, Kelig; De Rafelis, Marc.
The bay of Somme is the first French field of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) with a production amounting to 3000 tons per year on average. In order to improve the stock management, it is necessary to increase our knowledge of this species. This study is looking at the growth of the common cockle. First, was carried out a morphometric analysis of the two left and right valves, which has revealed a perfect symmetry of the shell and has allowed us to establish strong correlations among the morphometric parameters. Then, a chemical marking study has been realized with calcein and manganese in order to obtain the exact growth. Calcein marking has showed a fluorescent stria only for an half hour immersion time at 150 mg.L-1. Likewise, the manganese marking has...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Coque; Cerastoderma edule; Croissance; Baie de Somme; Marquage; Calcéine; Manganèse; Fluorescence; Cathodoluminescence; Cockle; Cerastoderma edule; Growth; Bay of Somme; Marker; Calcein; Manganese; Fluorescence; Cathodoluminescence.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00007/11815/8542.pdf
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DTW-Approach for uncorrelated multivariate time series imputation ArchiMer
Phan, Thi-thu-hong; Poisson Caillault, Emilie; Bigand, Andre; Lefebvre, Alain.
Missing data are inevitable in almost domains of applied sciences. Data analysis with missing values can lead to a loss of efficiency and unreliable results, especially for large missing sub-sequence(s). Some well-known methods for multivariate time series imputation require high correlations between series or their features. In this paper, we propose an approach based on the shape-behaviour relation in low/un-correlated multivariate time series under an assumption of recurrent data. This method involves two main steps. Firstly, we find the most similar sub-sequence to the sub-sequence before (resp.after) a gap based on the shape-features extraction and Dynamic Time Warping algorithms. Secondly, we fill in the gap by the next (resp.previous) sub-sequence...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Imputation; Uncorrelated multivariate time series; Missing data; Dynamic Time Warping; Similarity measures.
Ano: 2017 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00429/54082/55378.pdf
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Dynamic Time Warping-based imputation for univariate time series data ArchiMer
Phan, Thi-thu-hong; Poisson Caillault, Émilie Poisson; Lefebvre, Alain; Bigand, André.
Time series with missing values occur in almost any domain of applied sciences. Ignoring missing values can lead to a loss of efficiency and unreliable results, especially for large missing sub-sequence(s). This paper proposes an approach to fill in large gap(s) within time series data under the assumption of effective information. To obtain the imputation of missing values, we find the most similar sub-sequence to the sub-sequence before (resp. after) the missing values, then complete the gap by the next (resp. previous) sub-sequence of the most similar one. Dynamic Time Warping algorithm is applied to compare sub-sequences, and combined with the shape-feature extraction algorithm for reducing insignificant solutions. Eight well-known and real-world data...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Imputation; Missing data; Univariate time series; DTW; Similarity.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00396/50696/51387.pdf
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Estimation des apports continentaux élements nutritifs vers la zone côtière du détroit du Pas-De-Calais, Manche Orientale ArchiMer
Hebert, Cyril; Lefebvre, Alain; Bucas, Karenn.
Le littoral Nord/Pas-de-Calais - Picardie montre de nombreux signes de dysfonctionnement de l'écosystème reliés (à tort ou à raison ?) à l'activité humaine le long des côtes. Ces signes extérieurs sont le plus souvent identifiés comme un envahissement par certaines espèces, tant animales que végétales. Parmi ces espèces envahissantes, Phaeocystis sp. (algue phytoplanctonique) montre une prolifération régulièrement observée. Son cycle de vie semble, au moins en partie, fortement dépendant de la disponibilité des éléments nutritifs. Cette étude vise donc à quantifier les apports continentaux en éléments nutritifs des principaux fleuves côtiers du Pas-de-Calais. Ces estimations de flux, hebdomadaires, ont été calculées à l'aide de jaugeages (estimation des...
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Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00083/19379/16973.pdf
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Étude sanitaire de la zone 62.06 « Audresselles-Ambleteuse ». Département du Pas-de-Calais ArchiMer
Verin, Francoise; Devreker, David; Lefebvre, Alain.
La zone de production 62.06 « Audresselles Ambleteuse » est classée B pour le groupe 3 des coquillages filtreurs (moules). La zone comprend plusieurs gisements naturels de moules situés sur les communes d’Audresselles et d’Ambleteuse ainsi qu’une concession de moules à plat située sur la commune d’Ambleteuse. La zone est actuellement suivie à fréquence mensuelle sur deux points de prélèvements situés l’un au sud sur la commune d’Ambleteuse, l’autre au nord sur la commune d’Ambleteuse. Suite aux contraintes liées au dépassement du seuil d’alerte sanitaire sur l’un ou l’autre de ces points mais qui affectent la zone en totalité, la Direction Départementale des Territoires et de la Mer du Pas-de-Calais (DDTM62) a demandé la réalisation d’une étude sanitaire...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Etude sanitaire; Contamination bactériologique des coquillages; Classement sanitaire des zones de production; Moules; Audresselles; Ambleteuse; Département du Pas-de-Calais.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00440/55138/56614.pdf
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Etude sanitaire de la zone 62.07 "Wimereux" - Département du Pas-de-Calais ArchiMer
Verin, Francoise; Devreker, David; Lefebvre, Alain.
La zone de production 62.07 « Wimereux » est classée B pour le groupe 3 des coquillages filtreurs (moules). La zone comprend plusieurs gisements naturels de moules situés sur la commune de Wimereux ainsi qu’une concession de moules à plat. La zone est actuellement suivie à fréquence mensuelle sur deux points de prélèvements situés l’un au sud, l’autre au nord de la commune. Suite aux contraintes liées au dépassement du seuil d’alerte sanitaire sur l’un ou l’autre de ces points mais qui affectent la zone en totalité, la Direction Départementale des Territoires et de la Mer du Pas-de-Calais (DDTM62) a demandé la réalisation d’une étude sanitaire permettant le découpage de la zone de production de coquillages de « Wimereux » en deux zones distinctes. Cette...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Etude sanitaire; Contamination bactériologique des coquillages; Classement sanitaire des zones de production; Moules; Wimereux; Département du Pas-de-Calais.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00378/48874/49310.pdf
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Eutrophication: A new wine in an old bottle? ArchiMer
Le Moal, Morgane; Gascuel-odoux, Chantal; Menesguen, Alain; Souchon, Yves; Etrillard, Claire; Levain, Alix; Moatar, Florentina; Pannard, Alexandrine; Souchu, Philippe; Lefebvre, Alain; Pinay, Gilles.
Eutrophication is one of the most common causes of water quality impairment of inland and marine waters. Its best-known manifestations are toxic cyanobacteria blooms in lakes and waterways and proliferations of green macro algae in coastal areas. The term eutrophication is used by both the scientific community and public policy-makers, and therefore has a myriad of definitions. The introduction by the public authorities of regulations to limit eutrophication is a source of tension and debate on the activities identified as contributing or having contributed decisively to these phenomena. Debates on the identification of the driving factors and risk levels of eutrophication, seeking to guide public policies, have led the ministries in charge of the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Eutrophication; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Algae bloom; Land-sea continuum; Diffuse pollution.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00456/56734/58551.pdf
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