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Registros recuperados: 42
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Adoption of Technology, Management Practices, and Production Systems in U.S. Milk Production AgEcon
Khanal, Aditya R.; Gillespie, Jeffrey M.; MacDonald, James M..
We examine U.S. dairy farmer adopter characteristics and adoption rates of eleven technologies. Excepting grazing, technologies were generally adopted complementarily. Four were used on higher percentages of farms in 2005 than 2000. The interaction of farm size with adoption suggests greater percentages of milk being produced under each, excepting grazing.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Technically Complementary; Technology; Management Practices; Production System; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56496
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AGRIBUSINESS CONCENTRATION, COMPETITION AND NAFTA AgEcon
MacDonald, James M..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16883
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Agricultural Contracting Update, 2005 AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
More than half of all transactions for U.S. agricultural products are still conducted through spot market exchanges, in which commodities are bought and sold in open market transactions for immediate delivery. But a growing share of U.S. farm production is produced and sold under agricultural contracts. Such contracts between farmers and their buyers are reached prior to harvest (or before the completion stage for livestock) and govern the terms under which products are transferred from the farm. The shift of production to contracting coincides with shifts of production to larger farms. Contracts are far more likely to be used on large farms than on small ones. Marketing and production contracts covered 41 percent of the value of U.S. agricultural...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Production contracts; Marketing contracts; Farm structure; Farm size; Contracting; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; ARMS; Risk analysis; Marketing; Production Economics; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58639
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Agricultural Contracting Update: Contracts in 2003 AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
Marketing and production contracts covered 39 percent of the value of U.S. agricultural production in 2003, up from 36 percent in 2001 and a substantial increase over estimated values of 28 percent for 1991 and 11 percent in 1969. Large farms are far more likely to contract than small farms; in fact, contracts cover over half of the value of production from farms with at least $1 million in sales. Although use of both production and marketing contracts has grown over time, growth is more rapid for production contracts, which are largely used for livestock.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Contracts; Contracting; Marketing contracts; Production contracts; Vertical integration; Vertical coordination; Market structure; Risk analysis; Price signals; Industrial Organization; Marketing.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33903
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Agricultural Contracting Update: Contracts in 2008 AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
Marketing and production contracts covered 39 percent of the value of U.S. agricultural production in 2008, up from 36 percent in 2001, and a substantial increase over 28 percent in 1991 and 11 percent in 1969. However, aggregate contract use has stabilized in recent years and no longer suggests a strong trend. Contracts between farmers and their buyers are reached prior to harvest (or before the completion stage for livestock)and govern the terms under which products are transferred from the farm. Contracts are far more likely to be used on large farms than on small farms, and they form one element in a package of risk management tools available to farmers. Production contracts are used widely in livestock production, while marketing contracts are...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Production contracts; Marketing contracts; Farm structure; Farm size; Farm income; Contracting; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; ARMS; Risk analysis; Agribusiness; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101279
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America's Diverse Family Farms 2007 Edition AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; Banker, David E.; Korb, Penelope J.; O'Donoghue, Erik J.; MacDonald, James M..
American farms encompass a wide range of sizes, ownership structures, and business types, but most farms are still family farms. Family farms account for 98 percent of farms and 85 percent of production. Although most farms are small and own most of the farmland, production has shifted to very large farms. Farms with sales of $1 million or more make up less than 2 percent of all farms, but they account for 48 percent of farm product sales. Most of these million-dollar farms are family farms. Because small-farm households rely on off-farm work for most of their income, general economic policies, such as tax or economic development policy, can be as important to them as traditional farm policy.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Family farms; Farm program payments; Farm production; Farm household income; Commodity payments; Direct payments; Government payments; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; Contracting; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59029
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America's Diverse Family Farms: 2010 Edition AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; Banker, David E.; MacDonald, James M..
American farms vary widely in size and other characteristics, but farming is still an industry of family businesses. Ninety-eight percent of farms are family farms, and they account for 82 percent of farm production. Small family farms make up most of the U.S. farm count and hold the majority of farm assets, but they produce a modest share of U.S. farm output. In contrast, large-scale family farms and nonfamily farms—only 12 percent of all farms—account for 84 percent of farm production. Small farms are less profitable than large-scale farms, on average, and the households operating them tend to rely on off-farm income for their livelihood. Because small-farm households receive most of their income from off-farm work, general economic policies—such as tax...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Family farms; Farm businesses; Farm financial performance; Farm-operator household income; Farm operators; Farm structure; Farm type; Government payments; Limited-resource farms; Small farms; ERS; USDA; Agribusiness; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96653
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America's Diverse Family Farms: Assorted Sizes, Types, and Situations AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; MacDonald, James M..
This report describes a farm typology developed by the Economic Research Service (ERS), which categorizes farms into more homogeneous groups than classifications based on sales volume alone, producing a more effective policy development tool. The typology is used to describe U.S. farm structure.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Farm Management.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33767
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America's Diverse Family Farms: Structure and Finances AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; MacDonald, James M.; Banker, David E..
American farms vary widely in size and other characteristics, but farming is still an industry of family businesses. Ninety-eight percent of farms are family farms, and they account for 86 percent of farm production. Very small farms are growing in number, and small family farms continue to own most farmland. But production is shifting toward very large family farms. Because small-farm households receive most of their income from off-farm work, general economic policies—such as tax policy or economic development policy—can be as important to them as traditional farm policy.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS); Family farms; Farm businesses; Farm financial performance; Farm-operator household income; Farm operators; Farm structure; Farm type; Multiple-operator farms; Multiple-generation farms; Small farms; ERS; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59406
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At What Rate Do Farmers Substitute Manure For Commercial Fertilizers? AgEcon
O'Donoghue, Erik J.; MacDonald, James M.; Nehring, Richard F..
Water quality has implications for the health of our ecosystem and the welfare of our population. Agriculture is one of the major contributors of non-point source pollution that contaminates our nation's water supplies. Understanding how farmers substitute manure for commercial fertilizers allows us to better understand the level of nitrogen that enters the soil and can seep into our waterways. In this paper, we explore the factors that help determine farmers' substitution rates between the two types of fertilizers. Location, crop type, and time all could play important roles. We analyze USDA farm level survey data for both crop and livestock farms covering the years 1996 to 2002 to create substitution rate estimates used on corn, soybean, and wheat...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm Management.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19252
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Bacterial Foodborne Disease: Medical Costs and Productivity Losses AgEcon
Buzby, Jean C.; Roberts, Tanya; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; MacDonald, James M..
Microbial pathogens in food cause an estimated 6.5-33 million cases of human illness and up to 9,000 deaths in the United States each year. Over 40 different foodborne microbial pathogens, including fungi, viruses, parasites, and bacteria, are believed to cause human illnesses. For six bacterial pathogens, the costs of human illness are estimated to be $9.3-$12.9 billion annually. Of these costs, $2.9-$6.7 billion are attributed to foodborne bacteria. These estimates were developed to provide analytical support for USDA's Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems rule for meat and poultry. (Note that the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is not included in this report.) To estimate medical costs and productivity losses, ERS uses four severity...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Cost-of-illness; Foodborne pathogens; Lost productivity; Medical costs; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33991
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CONCENTRATION IN AGRIBUSINESS AgEcon
MacDonald, James M..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33421
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CONSOLIDATION IN U.S. MEATPACKING AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Ollinger, Michael; Nelson, Kenneth E.; Handy, Charles R..
Meatpacking consolidated rapidly in the last two decades: slaughter plants became much larger, and concentration increased as smaller firms left the industry. We use establishment-based data from the U.S. Census Bureau to describe consolidation and to identify the roles of scale economies and technological change in driving consolidation. Through the 1970's, larger plants paid higher wages, generating a pecuniary scale diseconomy that largely offset the cost advantages that technological scale economies offered large plants. The larger plants' wage premium disappeared in the 1980's, and technological change created larger and more extensive technological scale economies. As a result, large plants realized growing cost advantages over smaller plants, and...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Concentration; Consolidation; Meatpacking; Scale economies; Structural change; Industrial Organization; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34021
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Contracting Expands for Field Crops AgEcon
MacDonald, James M..
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121248
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Contracts, Markets, and Prices: Organizing the Production and Use of Agricultural Commodities AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Perry, Janet E.; Ahearn, Mary Clare; Banker, David E.; Chambers, William; Dimitri, Carolyn; Key, Nigel D.; Nelson, Kenneth E.; Southard, Leland W..
Production and marketing contracts govern 36 percent of the value of U.S. agricultural production, up from 12 percent in 1969. Contracts are now the primary method of handling sales of many livestock commodities, including milk, hogs, and broilers, and of major crops such as sugar beets, fruit, and processing tomatoes. Use of contracts is closely related to farm size; farms with $1 million or more in sales have nearly half their production under contract. For producers, contracting can reduce income risks of price and production variability, ensure market access, and provide higher returns for differentiated farm products. For processors and other buyers, vertical coordination through contracting is a way to ensure the flow of products and to obtain...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Marketing; Production Economics.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34013
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Do the Poor Pay More for Food? Item Selection and Price Differences Affect Low-Income Household Food Costs AgEcon
Kaufman, Phillip R.; MacDonald, James M.; Lutz, Steve M.; Smallwood, David M..
Low-income households may face higher food prices for three reasons: (1) on average, low-income households may spend less in supermarkets--which typically offer the lowest prices and greatest range of brands, package sizes, and quality choices; (2) low-income households are less likely to live in suburban locations where food prices are typically lower; and (3) supermarkets in low-income neighborhoods may charge higher prices than those in nearby higher income neighborhoods. Despite the prevailing higher prices, surveys of household food expenditures show that low-income households typically spend less than other households, on a per unit basis, for the foods they buy. Low-income households may realize lower costs by selecting more economical foods and...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34065
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Duration in Production Contracts AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term contracts. Some contract terms appear to act as substitutes or complements to duration.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21112
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Food, Agriculture, and Antitrust: Looking at the Recent Past (PowerPoint) AgEcon
MacDonald, James M..
Presented to USDA Economists Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Antitrust; Agriculture; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56161
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Food Procurement by USDA's Farm Service Agency AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Handy, Charles R.; Plato, Gerald E..
USDA's Farm Service Agency (FSA) purchases food products for distribution through several of the Department's food assistance programs. This report describes FSA purchase methods and compares them to procurement strategies used by other Federal agencies and by private sector firms. It summarizes the principal policy issues faced by FSA in designing procurement strategies. And it uses a detailed statistical analysis to compare FSA prices to those realized in the private sector, and to identify the separate effects of agricultural commodity prices, seasonality, client location, purchase volumes, product characteristics, and competition on FSA product prices.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Procurement; Auctions; Food assistance; Competition; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33925
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Growing Farm Size and the Distribution of Farm Payments AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Hoppe, Robert A.; Banker, David E..
Crop production is shifting to much larger farms. Since government commodity payments reflect production volumes for program commodities, payments are also shifting to larger farms. In turn, the operators of very large farms have substantially higher household incomes than other farm households, and as a result government commodity payments are also shifting to much higher-income households. Since the changes in farm structure appear to be ongoing, commodity payments will likely, under current policies, continue to shift to higher income households. This brief uses 2003 Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) data to detail the shifts.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Farm structure; Commodity programs; Farm payments; Farm household income; Farm income; Farm program payments; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34089
Registros recuperados: 42
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