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Registros recuperados: 11
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Comparison of the properties of scutched flax and flax tow for composite material reinforcement ArchiMer
Martin, Nicolas; Davies, Peter; Baley, Christophe.
The industrial production of flax fibers yields two fibrous products: scutched fibers are valuable for their length, fineness and cleanness, while tows are entangled, impure and are low-priced. There is a need for technical data to compare these two kinds of fibers beyond the difference of appearance, and to assess their potential as composite material reinforcements. In this work, we have compared the properties of scutched flax and flax tows from the same batch. The morphology was first assessed by measuring the length, cleanness and fineness of fiber bundles. The tensile properties of single fibers and of unidirectionally reinforced epoxy composites were then measured. The results show that the morphology of flax tows is different from but close to the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Flax fibers; Scutching; Flax by-products; Composite materials.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00203/31403/41240.pdf
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Data Descriptor: Stable isotopes in the atmospheric marine boundary layer water vapour over the Atlantic Ocean, 2012-2015 ArchiMer
Benetti, Marion; Steen-larsen, Hans Christian; Reverdin, Gilles; Sveinbjornsdottir, Arny Erla; Aloisi, Giovanni; Berkelhammer, Max B.; Bourles, Bernard; Bourras, Denis; De Coetlogon, Gaelle; Cosgrove, Ann; Faber, Anne-katrine; Grelet, Jacques; Hansen, Steffen Bo; Johnson, Rod; Legoff, Herve; Martin, Nicolas; Peters, Andrew J.; Popp, Trevor James; Reynaud, Thierry; Winther, Malte.
The water vapour isotopic composition ( (H2O)-H-1-O-16, (H2O)-O-18 and (HHO)-H-1-H-2-O-16) of the Atlantic marine boundary layer has been measured from 5 research vessels between 2012 and 2015. Using laser spectroscopy analysers, measurements have been carried out continuously on samples collected 10-20 meter above sea level. All the datasets have been carefully calibrated against the international VSMOW-SLAP scale following the same protocol to build a homogeneous dataset covering the Atlantic Ocean between 4 degrees S to 63 degrees N. In addition, standard meteorological variables have been measured continuously, including sea surface temperatures using calibrated Thermo-Salinograph for most cruises. All calibrated observations are provided with...
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Ano: 2017 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00371/48195/48312.pdf
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Errors in SMOS Sea Surface Salinity and their dependency on a priori wind speed ArchiMer
Yin, Xiaobin; Boutin, Jacqueline; Martin, Nicolas; Spurgeon, Paul; Vergely, Jean-luc; Gaillard, Fabienne.
The wind speed (WS) provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is used to initialize the retrieval process of WS and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) obtained by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. This process compensates for the lack of onboard instrument providing a measure of ocean surface WS independent of the L-band radiometer measurements. The SMOS-retrieved WS in the center of the swath (± 300 km) is adjusted regarding to its a priori estimate. The quality of the SMOS-retrieved SSS (SSSSMOS) is better at the center of the swath than at the edge of the swatch because the larger number of brightness temperature measurements available at the center of the swath reduces the effects of noise and because the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: SMOS; SSMIS; ECMWF; Wind speed; Salinity.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00158/26970/25261.pdf
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Evaluation of the potential of three non-woven flax fiber reinforcements: Spunlaced, needlepunched and paper process mats ArchiMer
Martin, Nicolas; Davies, Peter; Baley, Christophe.
This paper presents results from an experimental study of three types of non-woven preforms (needlepunched, spunlaced and mat manufactured using a paper-making process) intended as composite reinforcement. These are potentially very attractive for transport applications. First, the influence of processing on elementary fiber tensile properties is shown to be limited. Then the preforms are evaluated in polypropylene matrix composites and mechanical properties are determined. The structure of non-woven reinforcements is strongly dependent on the manufacturing route. By varying the fiber content it is shown that the most efficient reinforcement for flax fibers is the mat produced by paper processing. The new spunlaced reinforced composites are shown to have...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Flax fibers; Non-wovens; Composite materials; Polypropylene.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00307/41798/41241.pdf
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Green Edge ice camp campaigns: understanding the processes controlling the under-ice Arctic phytoplankton spring bloom ArchiMer
Massicotte, Philippe; Amiraux, Rémi; Amyot, Marie-pier; Archambault, Philippe; Ardyna, Mathieu; Arnaud, Laurent; Artigue, Lise; Aubry, Cyril; Ayotte, Pierre; Bécu, Guislain; Bélanger, Simon; Benner, Ronald; Bittig, Henry C; Bricaud, Annick; Brossier, Eric; Bruyant, Flavienne; Chauvaud, Laurent; Christiansen-stowe, Debra; Claustre, Hervé; Cornet-barthaux, Véronique; Coupel, Pierre; Cox, Christine; Delaforge, Aurélie; Dezutter, Thibault; Dimier, Céline; Dominé, Florent; Dufour, Francis; Dufresne, Christiane; Dumont, Dany; Ehn, Jens; Else, Brent; Ferland, Joannie; Forget, Marie-hélène; Fortier, Louis; Gali, Marti; Galindo, Virginie; Gallinari, Morgane; Garcia, Nicole; Gerikas-ribeiro, Catherine; Gourdal, Margaux; Gourvil, Priscilla; Goyens, Clemence; Grondin, Pierre-luc; Guillot, Pascal; Guilmette, Caroline; Houssais, Marie-noëlle; Joux, Fabien; Lacour, Léo; Lacour, Thomas; Lafond, Augustin; Lagunas, José; Lalande, Catherine; Laliberté, Julien; Lambert-girard, Simon; Larivière, Jade; Lavaud, Johann; Lebaron, Anita; Leblanc, Karine; Le Gall, Florence; Legras, Justine; Lemire, Mélanie; Levasseur, Maurice; Leymarie, Edouard; Leynaert, Aude; Lopes Dos Santos, Adriana; Lourenço, Antonio; Mah, David; Marec, Claudie; Marie, Dominique; Martin, Nicolas; Marty, Constance; Marty, Sabine; Massé, Guillaume; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Matthes, Lisa; Moriceau, Brivaela; Muller, Pierre-emmanuel; Mundy, Christopher-john; Neukermans, Griet; Oziel, Laurent; Panagiotopoulos, Christos; Pangazi, Jean-jacques; Picard, Ghislain; Picheral, Marc; Pinczon Du Sel, France; Pogorzelec, Nicole; Probert, Ian; Queguiner, Bernard; Raimbault, Patrick; Ras, Joséphine; Rehm, Eric; Reimer, Erin; Rontani, Jean-françois; Rysgaard, Soren; Saint-béat, Blanche; Sampei, Makoto; Sansoulet, Julie; Schmidt, Sabine; Sempere, Richard; Sevigny, Caroline; Shen, Yuan; Tragin, Margot; Tremblay, Jean-eric; Vaulot, Daniel; Verin, Gauthier; Vivier, Frédéric; Vladoiu, Anda; Whitehead, Jeremy; Babin, Marcel.
The Green Edge initiative was developed to investigate the processes controlling the primary productivity and the fate of organic matter produced during the Arctic phytoplankton spring bloom (PSB) and to determine its role in the ecosystem. Two field campaigns were conducted in 2015 and 2016 at an ice camp located on landfast sea ice southeast of Qikiqtarjuaq Island in Baffin Bay (67.4797N, 63.7895W). During both expeditions, a large suite of physical, chemical and biological variables was measured beneath a consolidated sea ice cover from the surface to the bottom at 360 m depth to better understand the factors driving the PSB. Key variables such as temperature, salinity, radiance, irradiance, nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll-a concentration,...
Tipo: Text
Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00598/71000/69266.pdf
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Influence of the degree of retting of flax fibers on the tensile properties of single fibers and short fiber/polypropylene composites ArchiMer
Martin, Nicolas; Mouret, Nicolas; Davies, Peter; Baley, Christophe.
The flax quality required for composite applications is not yet well established. Retting is one of the steps that are not well defined for these applications, and is a critical parameter during flax production. In this study, the influence of the degree of retting of flax on the properties of short flax fiber/polypropylene composites has been assessed. First, the degree of retting of gradually retted flax was measured by both qualitative and quantitative experimental techniques. In addition, water sorption studies were performed. Furthermore, tensile tests were carried out on both single fiber and injected composite materials. The microstructure of the composites was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography. Single fiber and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Flax fibers; Dew-retting; Composite materials; Polypropylene; Injection molding.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00160/27076/25475.pdf
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Recommended flax fibre density values for composite property predictions ArchiMer
Le Gall, Maelenn; Davies, Peter; Martin, Nicolas; Baley, Christophe.
Density is one of the fundamental properties of fibres which reinforce polymer matrix composites, and is used both to estimate composite weight and to evaluate fibre content for property predictions. For traditional composites, reinforced by glass or carbon fibres, unique density values are well known for a particular fibre grade and provide reliable fibre content estimations and composite property predictions. However, this is not the case for natural fibres. This paper first reviews published density values for flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) fibres and describes the limitations of techniques used to measure fibre density. Significant variations in published densities are found, which can be related to the measurement method. New data quantify the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Density; Flax; Archimedes; Pycnometer; Volume fraction; Tensile modulus.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00427/53875/55082.pdf
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Sea surface freshening inferred from SMOS and ARGO salinity: impact of rain ArchiMer
Boutin, Jacqueline; Martin, Nicolas; Reverdin, Gilles; Yin, Xiaoming; Gaillard, Fabienne.
The sea surface salinity (SSS) measured from space by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has recently been revisited by the European Space Agency first campaign reprocessing. We show that, with respect to the previous version, biases close to land and ice greatly decrease. The accuracy of SMOS SSS averaged over 10 days, 100 x 100 km(2) in the open ocean and estimated by comparison to ARGO (Array for Real-Time Geostrophic Oceanography) SSS is on the order of 0.3-0.4 in tropical and subtropical regions and 0.5 in a cold region. The averaged negative SSS bias (-0.1) observed in the tropical Pacific Ocean between 5 degrees N and 15 degrees N, relatively to other regions, is suppressed when SMOS observations concomitant with rain events, as...
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Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00139/25073/23161.pdf
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Sea surface salinity under rain cells: SMOS satellite and in situ drifters observations ArchiMer
Boutin, Jacqueline; Martin, Nicolas; Reverdin, Gilles; Morisset, S.; Yin, X.; Centurioni, L.; Reul, Nicolas.
We study the signature of rainfall on S1cm, the sea surface salinity retrieved from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission first by comparing SMOS S1cm with ARGO sea surface salinity measured at about 5 m depth in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and in the Southern Pacific Convergence Zone; second by investigating spatial variability of SMOS S1cm related to rainfall. The resulting estimated S1cm decrease associated with rainfall occurring within less than 1 h from the salinity measurement is close to −0.2 pss (mm h−1) −1. We estimate that rain induced roughness and atmospheric effects are responsible for no more than 20% of this value. We also study the signature of rainfall on sea surface salinity measured by surface...
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Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00206/31735/30139.pdf
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SMOS salinity in the subtropical north Atlantic salinity maximum: 1. Comparison with Aquarius and in situ salinity ArchiMer
Hernandez, Olga; Boutin, Jacqueline; Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas; Reverdin, Gilles; Martin, Nicolas; Gaillard, Fabienne; Reul, Nicolas; Vergely, J. L..
Sea surface salinity (SSS) measured from space by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is validated in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. 39 transects of ships of opportunity equipped with thermosalinographs (TSG) crossed that region from 2010 to 2012, providing a large database of ground truth SSS. SMOS SSS is also compared to Aquarius SSS. Large seasonal biases remain in SMOS and Aquarius SSS. In order to look at the capability of satellite SSS to monitor spatial variability, especially at scales less than 300 km (not monitored with the Argo network), we first apply a monthly bias correction derived from satellite SSS and In Situ Analysis System (ISAS) SSS differences averaged over the studied region. Ship SSS averaged over 25 km is...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: SMOS; Salinity; Remote sensing; Subtropical North Atlantic.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00210/32150/34082.pdf
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Validation of Salinity Data from Surface Drifters ArchiMer
Reverdin, Gilles; Morisset, S.; Boutin, Jacqueline; Martin, Nicolas; Sena-martins, M.; Gaillard, Fabienne; Blouch, P.; Rolland, J.; Font, J.; Salvador, J.; Fernandez, Pili; Stammer, D..
Salinity measurements from 119 surface drifters in 2007-12 were assessed; 80% [Surface Velocity Program with a barometer with a salinity sensor (SVP-BS)] and 75% [SVP with salinity (SVP-S)] of the salinity data were found to be usable, after editing out some spikes. Sudden salinity jumps are found in drifter salinity records that are not always associated with temperature jumps, in particular in the wet tropics. A method is proposed to decide whether and how to correct those jumps, and the uncertainty in the correction applied. Northeast of South America, in a region influenced by the Amazon plume and fresh coastal water, drifter salinity is very variable, but a comparison with data from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite suggests that this...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Surface observations; Surface layer; Data quality control; Buoy observations.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00190/30095/28748.pdf
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