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Changements adaptatifs induits par la pêche chez les populations halieutiques ArchiMer
Marty, Lise.
Fishing is an important source of mortality in harvested populations and therefore may induce adaptive responses. These responses affect life-history traits in particular, which have consequences for stocks’ dynamics, and thus can alter the demographic direct effect of fishing (i.e. the reduction in stock’s biomass). Fishing-induced adaptive changes depend, non-exclusively, on two processes: evolution and phenotypic plasticity. These two components are observed at the phenotypic level because functional genes coding for the traits undergoing adaptive changes have not yet been identified. These two origins are confounded in individual phenotypes, and the impact of adaptive changes in the long run remains therefore unclear: evolutionary changes are expected...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: : Pêche; Évolution adaptative; Plasticité phénotypique; Norme de réaction; Dérive génétique; Érosion génétique; Age et taille à maturation; Croissance; Survie; Trade-offs; Densité-dépendance; Gadidées de mer du nord; Fishing; Adaptive evolution; Phenotypic plasticity; Reaction norm; Genetic drift; Genetic erosion; Age and size at maturation; Growth; Survival; Trade-offs; Density-dependence; North sea Gadoids.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00079/19013/16591.pdf
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Fisheries-induced neutral and adaptive evolution in exploited fish populations and consequences for their adaptive potential ArchiMer
Marty, Lise; Dieckmann, Ulf; Ernande, Bruno.
Fishing may induce neutral and adaptive evolution affecting life-history traits, and molecular evidence has shown that neutral genetic diversity has declined in some exploited populations. Here we theoretically study the interplay between neutral and adaptive evolution caused by fishing. An individual-based eco-genetic model is devised that includes neutral and functional loci in a realistic ecological setting. In line with theoretical expectations, we find that fishing induces evolution towards slow growth, early maturation at small size, and higher reproductive investment. We show, first, that the choice of genetic model (based on either quantitative genetics or gametic inheritance) influences the evolutionary recovery of traits after fishing ceases....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Eco-genetic model; Effective population size; Fisheries-induced evolution; Genetic drift; Genetic erosion; Genetic markers; Life-history traits; Natural selection and contemporary evolution.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00228/33964/33473.pdf
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Impact of Environmental Covariation in Growth and Mortality on Evolving Maturation Reaction Norms ArchiMer
Marty, Lise; Dieckmann, Ulf; Rochet, Marie-joelle; Ernande, Bruno.
Maturation age and size have important fitness consequences through their effects on survival probabilities and body sizes. The evolution of maturation reaction norms in response to environmental covariation in growth and mortality is therefore a key subject of life-history theory. The eco-evolutionary model we present and analyze here incorporates critical features that earlier studies of evolving maturation reaction norms have often neglected: the trade-off between growth and reproduction, source-sink population structure, and population regulation through density-dependent growth and fecundity. We report the following findings. First, the evolutionarily optimal age at maturation can be decomposed into the sum of a density-dependent and a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Phenotypic plasticity; Growth-reproduction trade-off; Source-sink population structure; Density dependence; Selection gradient.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00035/14607/11988.pdf
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Temporal trends in age and size at maturation of four North Sea gadid species: cod, haddock, whiting and Norway pout ArchiMer
Marty, Lise; Rochet, Marie-joelle; Ernande, Bruno.
Younger ages and smaller sizes at maturation have been observed in commercial fish stocks over the last century. We establish that age and length at 50% proportion mature (i.e. the proportion of mature individuals in a population or the probability that an individual is mature) decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s in North Sea cod Gadus morhua, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus and whiting Merlangius merlangus, but not in Norway pout Trisopterus esmarkii. The potential contributions of demography, phenotypic plasticity and evolution to these trends were assessed. First, maturation trends were extricated from demographic effects and growth-dependent plasticity by estimating probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs). PMRN midpoints have significantly...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Probabilistic maturation reaction norm; Demography; Phenotypic plasticity; Fisheries-induced evolution; Life-history strategy; Maturity; Growth; Reproductive investment.
Ano: 2014 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00180/29152/27559.pdf
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