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Registros recuperados: 20
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A Test of the New Variant Famine Hypothesis: Panel Survey Evidence from Zambia AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Chapoto, Antony; Myers, Robert J..
Replaced with revised version of paper 08/04/09.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: HIV/AIDS; Food security; Rural livelihoods; New variant famine hypothesis; Zambia; Africa; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Q12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51485
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Are Staple Foods Becoming More Expensive For Urban Consumers In Eastern And Southern Africa? Trends in Food Prices, Marketing Margins, and Wage Rates in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Donovan, Cynthia; Chapoto, Antony.
The world food and financial crises threaten to undermine the real incomes of urban consumers in eastern and southern Africa. This study investigates patterns in staple food prices, wage rates, and marketing margins for urban consumers in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia between 1993 and 2009. There is high correlation among wage rate series for various government and private sector categories. We find that average formal sector wages rose at a faster rate than retail maize meal and bread prices in urban Kenya and Zambia between the mid-1990s and 2007. Although the 2007/08 food price crisis partially reversed this trend, the quantities of staple foods affordable per daily wage in urban Kenya and Zambia during the 2008/09 marketing season were still...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Africa; Agriculture; Food security; Prices; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Security and Poverty; Labor and Human Capital; Marketing; Q11.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53451
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Demand for Maize Hybrids, Seed Subsidies, and Seed Decisionmakers in Zambia. AgEcon
Smale, Melinda; Mason, Nicole M..
The successful development and diffusion of improved maize seed in Zambia during the 1970s–80s was a major achievement of African agriculture but was predicated on a government commitment to parastatal grain and seed marketing, the provision of services to maize growers, and a pan-territorial pricing scheme that was fiscally unsustainable. Declining maize output when this system was dismantled contributed to the reinstatement in 2002 of subsidies for maize seed and fertilizer through the Fertilizer and Farmer Input Support Programs (FISP). In the meantime, seed liberalization has led to an array of new, improved maize varieties, most of which are hybrids. This analysis explores the determinants of demand for first-generation (F1) hybrid maize seed in...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Zambia; Maize; Seed subsidies; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123555
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Disrupting Demand for Commercial Seed: Input Subsidies in Malawi and Zambia AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob.
Input subsidy programs that provide inorganic fertilizer and improved maize seed to small farmers below market rates are currently receiving a great deal of support as a sustainable strategy to foster an African Green Revolution. In recent years numerous countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania, and Zambia have implemented such programs at substantial cost to government and donor budgets. For example, in 2008 Malawi spent roughly 70% of the Ministry of Agriculture’s budget or just over 16% of the government’s total budget subsidizing fertilizer and seed. In Zambia between 2004 and 2011, an average of 40% of the government’s agricultural sector budget was devoted to fertilizer and maize seed subsidies...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Malawi; Zambia; Seed; Input subsidies; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123554
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HIV/AIDS and Agrarian Livelihoods in Zambia: A Test of the New Variant Famine Hypothesis AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S.; Myers, Robert J..
Since the southern African food crisis of 2001/02, the ‘new-variant famine’ (NVF) hypothesis first proposed by de Waal and Whiteside (2003) has become an important part of the conventional wisdom surrounding the relationship between HIV/AIDS and food crises in the region. The NVF hypothesis suggests that HIV/AIDS is eroding agrarian livelihoods and exacerbating the effects of drought and other shocks on agrarian communities. These concepts have begun to shape the HIV/AIDS mitigation and food security policies and programs of governments and development agencies. To date, however, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to support the NVF hypothesis, and there have been no studies specifically designed to tests its predictions.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Policy; Zambia; Africa; HIV/AIDS; Crop Production/Industries; Health Economics and Policy; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54489
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HIV/AIDS and Agrarian Livelihoods in Zambia: a Test of the New Variant Famine Hypothesis. AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S.; Myers, Robert J..
1. Consistent with the New Variant Famine (NVF) hypothesis, the negative impact of drought on crop output and output per hectare is further exacerbated where HIV prevalence rates are relatively high, particularly in the low- and medium rainfall zones of the country (agro-ecological regions I and II). 2. HIV prevalence rates and AIDS-related mortality rates in Zambia are highest in the lowest rainfall and most drought-prone zone of the country (agro-ecological region I). 3. Only for districts in agro-ecological region I do we find evidence of a robust negative effect of HIV/AIDS on agrarian livelihood indicators. Relatively stable food production zones and/or areas with relatively low HIV prevalence rates appear to be less vulnerable to the adverse effects...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Zambia; HIV/AIDS; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; Q20.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54629
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Mountains of Maize, Persistent Poverty AgEcon
Jayne, Thomas S.; Mason, Nicole M.; Burke, William J.; Shipekesa, Arthur M.; Chapoto, Antony; Kabaghe, Chance.
The past two years are a tribute to Zambian farmers; they have responded admirably to government efforts to promote maize production. But ironically, rural poverty remains stubbornly high despite the fact that the government has spent over 2% of the nation’s gross domestic product in supporting maize production and subsidizing inputs for farmers. Why is it that maize production has increased so impressively without making a serious dent in rural poverty? And what are the lessons for the new government?
Tipo: Technical Report Palavras-chave: Maize; Poverty; Zambia; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118476
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Patterns and Trends in Food Staples Markets in Eastern and Southern Africa: Toward the Identification of Priority Investments and Strategies for Developing Markets and Promoting Smallholder Productivity Growth AgEcon
Jayne, Thomas S.; Mason, Nicole M.; Myers, Robert J.; Ferris, John N.; Mather, David; Beaver, Margaret; Lenski, Natalie; Chapoto, Antony; Boughton, Duncan.
Accurate information on farmer and consumer behavior is the foundation for Identifying public investments and policies that can effectively promote national food security and income growth objectives. This report synthesizes recent findings on smallholder crop marketing behavior and urban consumption patterns in Eastern and Southern Africa, and their implications for public sector investments and policies to promote smallholder incomes and national food security.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Africa; Smallholder markets; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Crop Production/Industries; International Development; Marketing; Q14; Q13; Q12; Q11.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/62148
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Security of Widows’ Access to Land in the Era of HIV/AIDS: Panel Survey Evidence from Zambia AgEcon
Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S.; Mason, Nicole M..
1. The percentage of households that are headed by widows in rural Zambia increased from 9.4 % to 12.3% between 2001 and 2004. 2. Within 1 to 3 years after the death of their husbands, widow-headed households, on average, controlled 35 percent less land than what they had prior to their husband’s death. 3. To some extent, older widows are protected against loss of land compared to younger widows. 4. Women in relatively wealthy households are particularly vulnerable to losing land after the death of their husbands. 5. Widows whose family has kinship ties to the village authorities are less likely to face a severe decline in landholding size after the death of their husbands. 6. Widows in patrilineal and matrilineal villages are equally likely to lose their...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Zambia; HIV/AIDS; Land; Health Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Q20.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54628
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Security of Widows’ Access to Land in the Era of HIV/AIDS: Panel Survey Evidence from Zambia AgEcon
Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S.; Mason, Nicole M..
Beyond the obvious catastrophic effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on mortality, demographic changes, and the suffering of individuals and their families, we are still only learning about the complex longer-term effects of the pandemic on poverty and vulnerability. For example, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has substantially increased the number of widow-headed households in Africa. A huge number of conceptual and qualitative studies highlight gender inequalities in property rights, and the difficulties that widows and their dependents face in retaining access to land after the death of their husbands. HIV/AIDS has undoubtedly exacerbated such problems. However, there remains limited quantitative evidence using representative survey data on the extent to which...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; HIV/AIDS; Zambia; Land; Health Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54478
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Security of Widows’ Access to Land in the Era of HIV/AIDS: Panel Survey Evidence from Zambia (revised version) AgEcon
Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S.; Mason, Nicole M..
The view that widows and their dependents face greater livelihood risks in the era of HIV/AIDS is indeed supported by nationally-representative survey results from Zambia. Efforts to safeguard widows’ rights to land through land tenure innovations involving community authorities may be an important component of social protection, poverty alleviation, and HIV/AIDS mitigation strategies. Several of the findings reported show the influence of local traditional authorities in affecting the extent to which widows are able to retain land. Increased government commitment to ensure security of widows’ access to land is another approach, but initial evaluations of government efforts provide mixed evidence (see Izumi, 2006). Government decrees appear to have little...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Policy; HIV/AIDS; Land; Zambia.; Africa; Health Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54484
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Staple Food Consumption Patterns in Urban Zambia: Results from the 2007/2008 Urban Consumption Survey AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Jayne, Thomas S..
• The Zambia Urban Consumption Survey, a survey of 1,865 urban households in Lusaka, Kitwe, Mansa, and Kasama, was conducted in August 2007 and February 2008 by the Central Statistical Office in collaboration with the Zambia Food Security Research Project. • Survey results indicate that in Lusaka and Kitwe, wheat has overtaken maize as the most important staple in terms of urban consumer expenditures. Maize is no longer the dominant staple food in urban Zambia, except among the poor. This finding is consistent with broader regional trends toward declining dependence on maize for urban staple food needs. • Hammer-milling services are readily available to the vast majority of urban households and in most cases their cheapest maize meal option is to obtain...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Zambia; Food security; Consumption; Household; Urban; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Q19.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56810
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Staple Food Consumption Patterns in Urban Zambia: Results from the 2007/2008 Urban Consumption Survey AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Jayne, Thomas S..
After two decades of de-urbanization, Zambia is again becoming increasingly urban. While the urban share of the population fell to 35% in 2000 due primarily to the decline of the copper industry, over half of Zambia’s people will be residing in urban areas by 2040. Given this urbanization trajectory, to be effective, policies to promote smallholder agriculture and improved urban food marketing system performance in Zambia will need to take into consideration the demand patterns of urban food consumers. Urban consumption patterns will increasingly determine the opportunities available to small-scale farmers. Accurate information on urban consumer preferences can also help identify key leverage points and investment priorities to improve the performance of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Food security; Africa; Zambia; Consumption urban; Staple foods; Survey; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Q19.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56803
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The 2011 Surplus in Smallholder Maize Production in Zambia: Drivers, Beneficiaries, & Implications for Agricultural & Poverty Reduction Policies AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Burke, William J.; Shipekesa, Arthur M.; Jayne, Thomas S..
In 2011, Zambia recorded its second consecutive record-breaking maize harvest, and aggregate maize production levels in 2011 were more than double the average level from 2006 to 2008. The expansion in maize production over the period corresponds with the scaling up of the Government of the Republic of Zambia's (GRZ) two flagship agricultural sector programmes. These are: (i) maize purchases at pan-territorial, above-market prices through the Food Reserve Agency (FRA); and (ii) subsidized fertilizer distribution through the Fertilizer Support Programme and its successor, the Farmer Input Support Programme (FSP/FISP). More than 90% of GRZ funding for Poverty Reduction Programmes is devoted to the FRA and FSP/FISP, yet there has been no major reduction in...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Maize; Zambia; Poverty; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118477
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The Effects of the Food Reserve Agency on Maize Market Prices in Zambia AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Myers, Robert J..
This policy synthesis estimates the effects of the Zambia Food Reserve Agency’s (FRA) activities on maize market prices in the country. The FRA, a government parastatal strategic food reserve/maize marketing board, buys maize at a pan-territorial price that typically exceeds wholesale market prices in major maize producing areas. It then exports the maize or sells it domestically at prices determined by tender, at auction, or administratively. In deficit production years, the Agency often imports maize and sells it to select large-scale millers at below-market prices.
Tipo: Technical Report Palavras-chave: Zambia; Maize; Food Security; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120766
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The Effects of the Food Reserve Agency on Maize Market Prices in Zambia. AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Myers, Robert J..
Over the last decade, governments in eastern and southern Africa have become increasingly involved in grain marketing via strategic reserves and marketing boards. Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Zambia all have one or both of these entities, and their level of involvement in grain marketing has generally increased in recent years. Yet, to date, relatively little is known about how the resurgent activities of strategic grain reserves and marketing boards are affecting market prices. This paper estimates the effects of the Zambia Food Reserve Agency’s (FRA) activities on maize market prices in the country.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Zambia; Food Security; Maize; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120771
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Trends in Agricultural and Rural Development Indicators in Zambia. AgEcon
Jayne, Thomas S.; Govereh, Jones; Chilonda, Pius; Mason, Nicole M.; Chapoto, Antony; Haantuba, Hyde H..
Effective agricultural and food security policies in Africa need to be based on a solid empirical foundation. In Zambia, it is widely perceived that poverty rates are increasing, agricultural growth is stagnant, and real food prices are higher as food production declines. This study examines these trends and finds that all of these perceptions are wrong. Rural poverty rates have declined substantially in rural Zambia since the early 1990s, although they are still unacceptably high. Real staple food prices for consumers have declined by 20% over the past decade, thanks to major reductions in maize milling and retailing margins. And there is evidence of impressive production growth for some crops that are becoming increasingly important sources of income and...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Policy; Development; Indicators; Zambia.; Africa; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54483
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Who Gained and Who Lost from Zambia's 2010 Maize Marketing Policies? AgEcon
Nkonde, Chewe; Mason, Nicole M.; Sitko, Nicholas J.; Jayne, Thomas S..
Zambia's record-breaking maize harvest of nearly 2.8 million metric tons (MT) in 2010 is a major achievement and a testimony to what input subsidies, output price incentives, and favorable weather can do to elicit a major supply response. Maize-growing smallholders harvested more than in previous years and so have more to eat. Public markets are currently well stocked with maize grain, to the benefit of urban consumers and maize-buying rural households. Farmers who were able to sell their crop to the Food Reserve Agency (FRA) at K65,000 per 50-kg bag, a price well above market levels, have clearly benefited from the bumper crop and FRA‟s involvement in maize marketing. The FRA‟s high buy price and purchase of nearly 900,000 MT of maize are also likely to...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Marketing; Agricultural policy; Zambia; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Marketing.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99610
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Zambian Smallholder Behavioral Responses To Food Reserve Agency Activities AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Myers, Robert J..
More than two decades after the initiation of agricultural market reforms in eastern and southern Africa (ESA), governments in the region are increasingly using parastatal grain marketing boards (GMBs) and/or strategic grain reserves (SGRs) to directly influence the prices faced by farmers and consumers (Jayne, Chapoto, and Govereh 2007). In Zambia, the government through the Food Reserve Agency, an SGR/GMB, purchased nearly 400,000 MT of maize from smallholders in 2006/07 and 2007/08, or more than 50% of the maize marketed by this group.
Tipo: Technical Report Palavras-chave: Zambia; Smallholder; Food Security; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120764
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Zambian Smallholder Behavioral Responses To Food Reserve Agency Activities AgEcon
Mason, Nicole M.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Myers, Robert J..
More than two decades after the initiation of agricultural market reforms in eastern and southern Africa (ESA), governments in the region are increasingly using parastatal grain marketing boards (GMBs) and/or strategic grain reserves (SGRs) to directly influence the prices faced by farmers and consumers. In Zambia, for example, the government through the Food Reserve Agency, a SGR/GMB, purchased nearly 400,000 metric tons (MT) of maize from smallholders in 2006/07 and 2007/08, or more than 50% of the maize marketed by this group. This marked a sharp increase in the level of FRA purchases: between its establishment in 1996 and the 2005/06 marketing year, FRA’s annual maize purchases only once exceeded 100,000 MT. Then in 2010/11, the FRA purchased more than...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Zambia; Food Security Smallholder; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120768
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