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Registros recuperados: 16
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A farm level assessment of a novel drought tolerant forage:Tedera (Bituminaria bituminosa C.H.Stirt var. albomarginata). AgEcon
Finlayson, John D.; Real, Daniel; Nordblom, Thomas L.; Revell, Clinton; Ewing, Michael A.; Kingwell, Ross S..
Tedera (Bituminaria bituminosa C.H.Stirt var. albomarginata) is a drought tolerant perennial legume originating in the Canary Islands. This study evaluates the potential role and value of tedera in dryland mixed crop and sheep production systems in southern Australia. Regional variants of the bio-economic model MIDAS are used to assess tedera in farming systems at two locations. The analysis considers the quantity and quality of feed produced by tedera, the ability of other forages to complement or substitute for tedera and its impact on meat versus wool-producing sheep flocks. The results indicate that tedera offers the potential to increase farm profits by up to 26% and be grown on ~28% of a low rainfall mixed enterprise farm. On a high rainfall mixed...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Tedera; Drought tolerant; Forage; Legume; Mediterranean-type climate; Autumn feed gap; Bio-economic modelling; Whole farm modelling; Technology evaluation; MIDAS; Model of dryland agricultural system.; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124297
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A financial analysis of the effect of the mix of crop and sheep enterprises on the risk profile of dryland farms in south-eastern Australia AgEcon
Hutchings, Timothy R.; Nordblom, Thomas L..
This study analyses the financial risk faced by representative mixed-enterprise farm businesses in four regions of south-eastern Australia. It uses discrete stochastic programming to optimise the ten-year cash flow margins produced by these farms operating three different farming systems. Monte Carlo analysis is used to produce a risk profile for each scenario, derived from multiple runs of this optimised model, randomised for commodity prices and decadal growing season rainfall since 1920. This analysis shows that the performance of the enterprise mixes at each site is characterised more by the level of variability of possible outcomes than by the mean values of financial outputs. It demonstrates that relying on mean values for climate and prices...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm Management.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101405
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A financial analysis of the effect of the mix of crop and sheep enterprises on the risk profile of dryland farms in south-eastern Australia AgEcon
Hutchings, Timothy R.; Nordblom, Thomas L..
This study analyses the financial risk faced by representative mixed-enterprise farm businesses in four regions of south-eastern Australia. It uses discrete stochastic programming to optimise the ten-year cash flow margins produced by these farms, operating three alternative farming systems. Monte Carlo simulation analysis is used to produce a risk profile for each scenario, derived from multiple runs of this optimised model, randomised for commodity prices and decadal growing season rainfall since 1920. This analysis shows that the performance of the enterprise mixes at each site is characterised more by the level of variability of outcomes than by the mean values of financial outputs. It demonstrates that relying on mean values for climate and prices...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Farm management; Financial risk; Climate risk; Price risk; Variability; Farm Management.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120908
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Derivation of supply curves for catchment water effluents meeting specific salinity concentration targets in 2050: linking farm and catchment level models or “Footprints on future salt / water planes” AgEcon
Nordblom, Thomas L.; Bathgate, Andrew D.; Young, Robert A..
The salt burden in a stream reflects the blend of salty and fresh flows from different soil areas in its catchment. Depending not only on long-run rainfall, water yields from a soil are also determined by land cover: lowest if the area is forested and greatest if cleared. Water yields under agro-forestry, lucerne pasture, perennial grass pasture, and annual pasture or cropping options span the range of water yields between the extremes of forested and cleared lands. This study explores quantitative approaches for connecting the hydrologic and economic consequences of farm-level decisions on land cover (productive land uses) to the costs of attaining different catchment level targets of water volumes and salt reaching downstream users; environmental,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Salinity; Targets; Opportunity cost; Concentration; Dilution; Effluent; Externality; Supply; Demand; Policy; Water quality; New technology; New markets; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57929
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Developing Environmental Service Policy for Salinity and Water: Experiments with Regulations and Markets Linking Watersheds with Downstream Water Users AgEcon
Nordblom, Thomas L.; Reeson, Andrew; Whitten, Stuart M.; Finlayson, John D.; Kelly, Jason A.; Hume, Iain H..
Shortfalls in water supplies are perhaps the greatest practical NRM policy concern in Australia today, looming larger in many minds than the great international debates on greenhouse gasses, climate change and biodiversity. Because forest land cover uses more water than any other, wide expansion of upstream tree plantations can significantly reduce water yields upon which downstream urban, agricultural and wetlands depend. We consider the economic efficiency and equity (profitability and distributional) consequences of upstream land use change. The ‘environmental services’ of concern in our study are the mean annual quantities and qualities (volumes and salt concentrations) of water flowing from upper parts of a catchment to the downstream interests...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Experimental economics; Land use; Rival water uses; MBI; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6249
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Disposition of precipitation: Supply and Demand for Water Use by New Tree Plantations AgEcon
Nordblom, Thomas L.; Finlayson, John D.; Hume, Iain H..
As the greatest rainwater users among all vegetative land covers, tree plantations have been employed strategically to mitigate salinity and water-logging problems. However, large-scale commercial tree plantations in high rainfall areas reduce fresh water inflows to river systems supporting downstream communities, agricultural industries and wetland environmental assets. A bio-economic model was used to estimate economic demand for water by future upstream plantations in a sub-catchment (the 2.8 million ha Macquarie valley in NSW) of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Given four tree-product values, impacts were simulated under two settings: without and with the requirement that permanent water entitlements be purchased from downstream entitlement...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; Forest; Environmental services; Catchment; Water sources; Interception; Entitlement; Supply; Demand; Market; Economic surplus; Evapo-transpiration; Urban water; Irrigation; Wetlands..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101225
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Downstream benefits vs upstream costs of land use change for water-yield and salt-load targets in the Macquarie Catchment, NSW AgEcon
Nordblom, Thomas L.; Hume, Iain H.; Finlayson, John D.; Kelly, Jason A.; Welsh, Rob; Hean, Robyn L..
The net present value (NPV) of downstream economic benefits of changes in water-yield (W) and salt-load (S) of mean annual river flow received by a lower catchment from an upper catchment are described as a 3-dimensional (NPV,W, S) surface, where dNPV/dW > 0 and dNPV/d(S/W) < 0. Upstream changes in land use (i.e. forest clearing or forest establishment, which result in higher or lower water-yields, respectively) are driven by economic consequences for land owners. This paper defines conditions under which costs of strategic upstream land use changes could be exceeded by compensations afforded by downstream benefits from altered water-yields and/or lower salt loads. The paper presents methods, and preliminary calculations for an example river,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Policy markets upstream downstream water; Salinity Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10355
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Economics of managing acid soils in dryland mixed cropping systems: comparing gross margins with whole-farm analysis derived using a business process model AgEcon
Hutchings, Timothy R.; Nordblom, Thomas L.; Li, Guangdi; Conyers, Mark.
A 12-year experiment designed to show the benefits of applying lime to acid soils when growing annual pasture, perennial pasture, and annual crops in rotations with annual or perennial pastures, provides the context for comparing methods of economic analysis. In this study enterprise gross margins are compared with whole-farm cumulative monthly cash flows derived using a business process model. The current study gave gross margins comparable with those of a recently published study based on the first 12 years of the same field experiment at Book Book near Wagga Wagga in southern NSW (Li et al., 2010). Both gross margin analyses indicated positive results for all treatments. However, because key fixed and capital cost items were not taken into account in...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59088
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Experiments with regulations & markets linking upstream tree plantations with downstream water users AgEcon
Nordblom, Thomas L.; Reeson, Andrew; Finlayson, John D.; Hume, Iain H.; Whitten, Stuart M.; Kelly, Jason A..
Land-use change in upper catchments impact downstream water flows. As trees use large amounts of water the expansion of upstream plantations can substantially reduce water availability to downstream users. There can also be impacts on downstream salinity due to reduced dilution flows. In some jurisdictions afforestation requires the purchase of water rights from downstream holders, while in others it does not, effectively handing the water rights to the upstream landholders. We consider the economic efficiency and equity (profitability and distributional) consequences of upstream land use change in the presence of a water market under alternate property rights regimes and different salinity scenarios.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Experimental-economics; Tree-plantations; Environmental-services; Urban; Irrigation; Stock & domestic; Water use; Land use.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47945
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Farm and catchment scale effects of managing dry-land salinity with pastoral and woody perennials AgEcon
Finlayson, John D.; Bathgate, Andrew D.; Hoque, Ziaul; Nordblom, Thomas L.; Theiveyanathan, Tivi; Crosbie, Russell; Mitchell, David.
Dry land salinisation is a significant cause of land and water degradation in Australia. Changing land use from annual to perennial crops has been widely proposed as a means to reduce land degradation and increase the productivity of saline land. However, in many areas annual crops are financially more attractive than perennial crops. Increases in perennial crops might also reduce local stream flows with adverse effects on in-stream values. As such salinity control is likely to involve significant tradeoffs between public and private costs and benefits. This paper considers the impact of planting differing areas of pastoral and woody perennials on farm profitability (P), and water (W) and salt (S) exports from the Little River catchment in New South Wales...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bio-economic modelling; Linear programming; Farm systems; Catchments; Dryland salinity; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10409
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Impact of ICARDA Research on Australian Agriculture AgEcon
Brennan, John P.; Aw-Hassan, Aden; Quade, Kathryn J.; Nordblom, Thomas L..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28012
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Impacts of risk aversion on whole-farm management in Syria AgEcon
Pannell, David J.; Nordblom, Thomas L..
This article reports on a study of the impact of risk on farm management practices in northern Syria, focusing particularly on how these are affected by risk aversion and farm size. The study is based on production data from an eight‐year field trial and on prices from market surveys. A large linear programming model is built, representing the eight years as observations from a discrete probability distribution. Risk aversion is modelled by inclusion of a utility function with constant relative risk aversion, represented using the DEMP/UEP approach.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Farm Management; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117232
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Mathematical optimisation of drainage and economic land use for target water and salt yields AgEcon
Nordblom, Thomas L.; Hume, Iain H.; Bathgate, Andrew D.; Reynolds, Michael.
Land managers in upper catchments are being asked to make expensive changes in land use, such as by planting trees, to attain environmental service targets, including reduced salt loads in rivers, to meet needs of downstream towns, farms and natural habitats. End-of-valley targets for salt loads have sometimes been set without a quantitative model of cause and effect regarding impacts on water yields, economic efficiency or distribution of costs and benefits among stakeholders. This paper presents a method for calculating a ‘menu’ of technically feasible options for changes from current to future mean water yields and salt loads from upstream catchments having local groundwater flow systems, and the land-use changes to attain each of these options at...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Discounting; Landuse; NPV; Opportunity-cost; Salinity; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116973
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Minimising costs of environmental service provision: water-yield, salt-load and biodiversity targets with new tree planting in Simmons Creek Catchment, NSW, a dryland farming/grazing area. AgEcon
Nordblom, Thomas L.; Hume, Iain H.; Cresswell, Hamish; Glover, Mark; Hean, Robyn L.; Finlayson, John D.; Wang, Enli.
Although dryland farming and grazing have been practiced for over 130 years in the 17,000 ha Simmons Creek catchment without surface salinity problems, the area has been identified as a significant source of salt seepage to Billabong Creek in the NSW Murray catchment. Groundwater movement and salinity levels are spatially heterogenous at Simmons Creek. Groundwater of the upper catchment is relatively fresh and seemingly unconnected with the highly saline groundwater of the lower catchment. However, fresh surface water does flow from the upper to the lower catchment. This spatial diversity provokes the question of where high-water-use forest habitats might be placed to achieve different combinations of environmental services (greater water yield, lower...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Optimisation; Opportunity costs; Forest-habitat; Environmental services; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10357
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Tribes, State, and Technology Adoption in Arid Land Management, Syria AgEcon
Rae, Jonathan; Arab, Georges; Nordblom, Thomas L.; Jani, K.; Gintzburger, Gustave.
Arid shrub-lands in Syria and elsewhere in West Asia and North Africa are widely thought degraded. Characteristic of these areas is a preponderance of unpalatable shrubs or a lack of overall ground cover with a rise in the associated risks of soil erosion. Migrating pastoralists have been the scapegoats for this condition of the range. State steppe interventions of the last forty years have reflected this with programs to supplant customary systems with structures and institutions promoting western grazing systems and technologies. Principal amongst the latter has been shrub technology, particularly Atriplex species, for use in land rehabilitation and as a fodder reserve. This paper deconstructs state steppe policy in Syria by examining the overlap and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50049
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Whole Truth in Herbicide Labelling AgEcon
Nordblom, Thomas L.; Medd, Richard W..
The 1999 National Competition Policy Review of Ag & Vet Chemical legislation recommended, inter alia, that registrants no longer be required to prove ‘APPROPRIATE’ levels of efficacy of their products but only that the claims on product labels be ‘TRUE’. ‘Appropriate’ efficacy standards amount to market regulation, limiting economic competition from formulations with lower efficacies. Cheaper formulations with lower efficacies are excluded from the marketplace by such standards. Unanswered is the question of what ‘TRUTH’ on a label means in practical terms. Flexibility in dose rates and guidance with usage information is not always well-stated on herbicide labels. There is considerable evidence that efficacy of herbicide varies with dose and with...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123711
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