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Arbuskuläre Mykorrhizapilze als Bioindikatoren in Schweizer Landwirtschaftsböden Organic Eprints
Oehl, Fritz; Jansa, Jan; Ineichen, Kurt; Mäder, Paul; van der Heijden, Marcel.
Die meisten Nutz- und Wildpflanzen bilden eine Symbiose mit einer speziellen Gruppe von Bodenpilzen, den Arbuskulären Mykorrhizapilzen (AM-Pilze). AM-Pilze übernehmen in allen von Pflanzen besiedelten Ökosystemen wichtige Funktionen. Sie bilden ein engmaschiges Pilzfadengeflecht im Boden und geben lebensnotwendige Nährstoffe aus dem Boden an die Pflanzen weiter und schützen diese gegen Stress und Trockenheit. Sie reduzieren Nährstoffverluste aus dem Boden und können durch Lebendverbauung Erosion vermindern und somit die Stabilität on Ökosystemen erhöhen. AM-Pilze scheinen als Bioindikatoren besonders geeignet zu sein, da diese Pilzgruppe mit bisher bekannten 230 Arten überschaubar klein ist und sowohl häufige als auch seltene Arten enthält. In der Schweiz...
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Indicators and other value-laden measures; Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/21813/1/oehl-etal-2011-agrarforschungSchweiz-2-0708-p304-311.pdf
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Bioackerbau fördert Bodenbiodiversität: Artenvielfalt von nützlichen Mykorrhizapilzen in landwirtschaftlichen Böden Organic Eprints
van der Heijden, Marcel G.A; Verbruggen, Erik; Zihlmann, Urs; Oehl, Fritz.
The effects of organic and conventional arable farming on the species richness of beneficial soil fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) was assessed in 26 arable fields on sandy soil in the Netherlands and in 2 arable fields on a loamy soil in Switzerland. Organically managed fields contained on average 42% more mycorrhizal fungal species than their conventional counterparts. This study shows that organic arable farming has a positive impact on the species richness of these beneficial soil fungi
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/17550/2/Heijden%2Dv.d._17550.pdf
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Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in arable soils are not necessarily low in diversity Organic Eprints
Hijri, Isabelle; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Oehl, Fritz; Ineichen, Kurt; Mäder, Paul; Wiemken, Andres; Redecker, Dirk.
Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in five agricultural field sites of different management intensities were studied. Variable regions of the ribosomal RNA genes were used to detect and identify AMF directly within colonized roots. Roots from a continuous maize monoculture showed low AMF diversity, in agreement with previous reports on molecular diversity of AMF in agricultural soils. In contrast, a substantially higher diversity of AMF was found throughout the long term `DOK' field experiment, where organic and conventional agricultural practices have been compared side by side since 1978. In this experiment, a 7-year crop rotation is performed under lower levels of inorganic fertilizer input and chemical pest control. These results are in...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology; Soil quality.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/13462/1/hijri%2Detal%2D2006%2Dmolecular_ecology%2Dvol15%2D2277%2D89.pdf
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Distinct sporulation dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities from different agroecosystems in long-term microcosms Organic Eprints
Oehl, Fritz; Sieverding, Ewald; Ineichen, Kurt; Mäder, Paul; Wiemken, Andres; Boller, Thomas.
The aim of this study was to investigate sporulation dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities from agroecosystems differing in land use intensity in long-term experimental microcosms. These were set up with characteristic grassland plants (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, Plantago lanceolata), and inoculated with soils from several grasslands and arable lands subjected to crop rotation or continuous monocropping. The microcosms were maintained under ambient light and temperature conditions over 3 years. A novel, localized sampling scheme was applied for attaining exclusively the newly formed spores at bimonthly intervals. Overall, 39 AMF species were detected by morphological spore identification. Some species were recovered from all...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/26382/1/Oehl_etal_2009_AEE134.pdf
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Impact of conservation tillage and organic farming on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Organic Eprints
Säle, Verena; Aguilera, Paula; Laczko, Endre; Mäder, Paul; Berner, Alfred; Zihlmann, Urs; van der Heijden, Marcel G.A.; Oehl, Fritz.
Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are strongly affected by land use intensity and soil type. The impact of tillage practices on AMF communities is still poorly understood, especially in organic farming systems. Our objective was to investigate the impact of soil cultivation on AMF communities in organically managed clay soils of a long-term field experiment located in the Sissle valley (Frick, Switzerland) where two different tillage (reduced and conventional mouldboard plough tillage) and two different types of fertilization (farmyard manure & slurry, or slurry only) have been applied since 2002. In addition, a permanent grassland and two conventionally managed croplands situated in the neighborhood of the experiment were analyzed as...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil tillage; Soil.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/30696/1/saele-etal-2015-SoilBiolBiochemistry-Vol84-p38-52.pdf
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Impact of land use intensity on the species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agroecosystems of central Europe Organic Eprints
Oehl, Fritz; Sieverding, Ewald; Ineichen, Kurt; Mäder, Paul; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres.
The impact of land use intensity on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was investigated at eight sites in the “three-country corner” of France, Germany, and Switzerland. Three sites were low-input, species-rich grasslands. Two sites represented low- to moderate-input farming with a 7-year crop rotation, and three sites represented high-input continuous maize monocropping. Representative soil samples were taken, and the AMF spores present were morphologically identified and counted. The same soil samples also served as inocula for “AMF trap cultures” with Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium pratense, and Lolium perenne. These trap cultures were established in pots in a greenhouse, and AMF root colonization and spore formation were monitored over...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/26750/1/Oehl_et_al_2003_AEM.pdf
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Kinetics of microbial phosphorus uptake in cultivated soils Organic Eprints
Oehl, Fritz; Oberson, Astrid; Probst, Mirijam; Fliessbach, Andreas; Roth, Hans-Rudolf; Frossard, Emmanuel.
Knowledge about the role of microorganisms in P cycling at conditions of constant soil respiration rates and constant size of microbially bound P is lacking. To study the kinetics of microbial P uptake and cycling under such conditions, soils differing in biological activity were 33PO4 labelled by introducing a carrier-free tracer solution and incubated for 56 days. The 33PO4 incorporation into the fraction of microbial P releasable by chloroform treatment (Pchl) was assessed and the isotopic composition [=specific activity (SA); SA=33PO4/31PO4] of Pchl and soil solution P compared. Soils were taken from a 20-year-old field experiment including a nonfertilised control (NON), a minerally fertilised conventional (MIN) and two organic farming systems...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil biology; Soil quality.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://orgprints.org/2934/1/oehl%2Det%2Dal%2D2000%2Dmicrobial%2Dphosphorus.pdf
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Langzeitversuch Burgrain: Ertrag und Qualität von biologisch und integriert angebauten Ackerkulturen im Vergleich Organic Eprints
Zihlmann, Urs; Tschachtli, Ruedi; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; van der Heijden, Marcel; Oehl, Fritz.
The effect of integrated and organic farming on crop yield as well as on environmental and economic performance was investigated in a large scale field experiment near Lucerne (Switzerland), which was running for 18 years. Crop yield in organically managed fields was, depending on crop species, between 3% and 36% lower compared to conventionally managed fields. Only slight variations in crop quality were observed between the farming systems, probably as a result of the high nitrogen mineralization potential of the soils in this experiment. Our results show that organic farming on fertile soils provides good yields and is – under the given Swiss agricultural policy – economically beneficial.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/17594/3/Oehl_17594.pdf
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Welche landwirtschaftlichen Anbausysteme fördern das Bodenleben? Organic Eprints
Fliessbach, Andreas; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Oehl, Fritz; Pfiffner, Lukas; Hartmann, Martin; Widmer, Franco.
In einem weltweit einmaligen Langzeit-Feldexperiment in der Nähe von Basel werden seit 1978 biologische und konventionelle Anbauweisen in einer 7-jährigen Fruchtfolge miteinander verglichen. Die Landbausysteme wirken sich unterschiedlich auf das Bodenleben aus. Vor allem die biologischen Verfahren fördern die Menge, die Aktivität und die Diversität von Bodenlebewesen. Mit der Entwicklung neuer Methoden sind weitere Erkenntnisgewinne möglich geworden.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil quality; Crop combinations and interactions; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/29308/1/fliessbach-etal-2015-hotspot-32-biodiversitaet-p8-9.pdf
Registros recuperados: 9
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