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Registros recuperados: 37
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A Bilateral Comparison of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: United States and Canada AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
Many public programs promote diets rich in fruits and vegetables based on evidence of the derived health benefits. Still, produce consumption in the United States lags behind other nations, even its most culturally similar neighbor--Canada. This study uses a structural latent variable model to test the role played by quality and health information in explaining observed differences in produce consumption. The Alchian-Allen effect predicts that higher quality, higher absolute margin produce will be exported, suggesting quality may be an important demand factor in importing nations such as Canada. The results show that dietary health information is significant in expanding demands. Quality also promotes fruit consumption in Canada.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Alchian-Allen effect; Fruit and vegetable trade; Health information; Latent variable; MIMIC model; Produce quality; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31217
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A BILATERAL COMPARISON OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION: U.S AND CANADA AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
A structural latent variable model tests the role quality and information play in explaining observed differences in Canadian and U.S. produce consumption (5.0 vs. 3.5 servings/day). Dietary health information is significant in expanding demands. Quality promotes fruit consumption in Canada, consistent with the Alchian-Allen prediction.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21891
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A Bilateral Comparison of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: U.S. and Canada AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
Many public programs promote diets rich in fruits and vegetables based on evidence on the derived health benefits. Sill, produce consumption in the U.S. lags behind other nations, even its most culturally similar neighbor–Canada. This study uses a structural latent variable model to test the role quality and health information play in explaining observed differences in produce consumption. The Alchian-Allen effect predicts that higher quality, higher absolute margin produce will be exported, suggesting that quality may be an important demand factor in importing nations such as Canada. The results show that dietary health information is significant in expanding demands. Quality also promotes fruit consumption in Canada.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Alchian-Allen effect; Fruit and vegetable trade; Health information; Produce quality; Latent variable; MIMIC model; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28538
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Advertising and Retail Promotion of Washington Apples: A Structural Latent Variable Approach to Promotion Evaluation AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Gao, Xiaoming; Patterson, Paul M..
"Commodity promotion" consists of many activities, each designed to contribute to a consumer's product knowledge or influence tastes. However, both knowledge and tastes are unobservable, or latent, variables influencing demand. This paper specifies a dynamic structural model of fresh fruit demand that treats promotion and other socioeconomic variables as "causal" variables influencing these latent variables. Estimating this state-space model using a Kalman filter approach provides estimates of both the system parameters and a latent variable series. The results show that these latent effects contribute positively to apple and other fruit consumption, while reducing banana consumption.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Commodity promotion; Demand system; DYMIMIC; Fresh fruit; Kalman filter; LA/AIDS; Latent variables; Marketing.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28547
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ADVERTISING AND RETAIL PROMOTION OF WASHINGTON APPLES: A STRUCTURAL LATENT VARIABLE APPROACH TO PROMOTION EVALUATION AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Gao, Xiaoming; Patterson, Paul M..
"Commodity promotion" consists of many activities, each designed to contribute to a consumer's product knowledge or influence tastes. However, both knowledge and tastes are unobservable, or latent, variables influencing demand. This paper specifies a dynamic structural model of fresh fruit demand that treats promotion and other socioeconomic variables as "causal" variables influencing these latent variables. Estimating this state-space model using a Kalman filter approach provides estimates of both the system parameters and a latent variable series. The results show that these latent effects contribute positively to apple and other fruit consumption, while reducing banana consumption.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Commodity promotion; Demand system; DYMIMIC; Fresh fruit; Kalman filter; LA/AIDS; Latent variables; Marketing.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15132
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Analysis of the Effects of a Healthy Dining Campaign on Sales of Healthy Menu Items AgEcon
Patterson, Paul M.; Acharya, Ram N.; Schmitz, Troy G.; Foerster, Susan B.; Hill, Esther; Jones, Anita; Bohm, Erica.
Although so-called "“Heart Healthy”" menu items exist, restaurateurs rarely promote them and consumers seem to avoid them. Still, concerns over obesity and poor nutrition have become priority policy issues. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a social marketing campaign in promoting the sale of healthy menu items.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Marketing.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19892
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CAUSES OF RETAIL PRICE FIXITY: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
Existing empirical studies do not provide a unifying explanation for retail price fixity. However, economic hysteresis, or the persistence of an economic phenomenon after its initial cause has disappeared, offers a general explanation. Estimates of an empirical model of retail-price hysteresis using store-level scanner data support our hypothesis.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19841
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DYNAMIC COMPLEMENTARITY IN EXPORT PROMOTION: THE MARKET ACCESS PROGRAM IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
To justify public subsidies for export promotion, export markets must fail to provide incentives for exporters to recognize the benefits of spillover or long-term benefits of promotion. This paper tests for these failures in dynamic dual model for horticultural export supply. Results show significant spillovers and dynamic effects.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20851
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DYNAMIC COMPLEMENTARITY IN EXPORT PROMOTION: THE MARKET ACCESS PROGRAM IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
Government-supported promotion in foreign markets may justified when market failures exist, such as spillover externalities, where promotion of one commodity positively influences exports of another, or when market uncertainties cause planning horizons to be shorter than the persistent effects of promotion. A dynamic model of U.S. apple, almond, grape, and wine export supply is developed to test for these market failures. Promotion is viewed as an investment in establishing and maintaining a product’'s image. Evidence supporting the existence of each market failure is found. Exporters and program administrators may fail to account for them in export promotion planning.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31198
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EVALUATING THE POTENTIAL FOR LOCAL FOOD PRODUCTS IN HISPANIC MARKETS AgEcon
Martinez, Samuel Cardona; Patterson, Paul M..
Evaluations on the effectiveness of state and origin branding programs remain relatively scant and generally have not focused on specific target populations, including the fastest growing group-Hispanic consumers. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the Arizona Grown brand and the nascent Mexico Selected Quality brand in differentiating and promoting food products in Hispanic markets. It was found that Hispanic consumers tend to view these food product brands as nearly identical in perceived quality. Furthermore, they are willing to pay nearly equal premiums for products branded as such. These consumers saw no value in country of origin information alone.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Marketing.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20372
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Fast Food, Addiction, and Market Power AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M.; Hamilton, Stephen F..
Many attribute the rise in obesity since the early 1980's to the overconsumption of fast food. A dynamic model of a different-product industry equilibrium shows that a firm with market power will price below marginal cost in a steady-state equilibrium. A spatial hedonic pricing model is used to test whether fast food firms set prices in order to exploit their inherent addictiveness. The results show that firms price products dense in addictive nutrients below marginal cost, but price products high in nonaddictive nutrients higher than would be the case in perfect competition.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Addiction; Brand loyalty; Fast food; Generalized method of moments; Hedonic pricing; Nutrients; Shadow values; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7077
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Firm-Level Competition in Price and Variety AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
Consumer product manufacturers often compete in dynamic, multi-firm oligopolies using multiple strategic tools. While existing empirical models of strategic interaction typically consider only parts of the more general problem, this paper presents a more comprehensive alternative. Marketing decision are dynamically optimal, consistent with optimal consumer choice, and responsive to rival decisions. Using a single-market case study that consists of five years of four-weekly data on ready-to-eat cereal sales, prices, and new brand introductions, we test several hypotheses regarding the nature of strategic interaction among several rival manufacturers. We find that cereal manufacturers price and introduce new brands cooperatively in the same period, but...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Cereal; Differentiated products; Dynamics; Oligopoly; Product line rivalry; Strategic interaction; Demand and Price Analysis; D43; L13; L66; M31; Q13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43788
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HEALTH, FOOD SAFETY AND MEAT DEMAND AgEcon
Flake, Oliver L.; Patterson, Paul M..
For nearly two decades, the U.S. beef industry has faced a long term structural change, which has resulted in consumers shifting from beef to chicken. This shift has occurred due to consumer concerns on cholesterol consumption. More recently, this industry has confronted new challenges on the safety of beef, due to the potential presence of biological contaminants. This study incorporates a measure on food safety with a measure on health information in a meat demand system. Beef safety information is found to have a modest impact on beef demand, but is dominated by health information.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Meat demand; Health; Food safety; LA/AIDS; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21648
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Impact of Depreciating Exchange Rate on U.S. Produce Trade AgEcon
Acharya, Ram N.; Patterson, Paul M..
This study examines the impact of depreciating exchange rate on U.S. fresh produce trade. The short run analysis does not support J-curve hypothesis but the overall results are consistent with the modified version of the hypothesis that devaluation would initially deteriorate the trade balance but improve it in the long run.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19492
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MODELING FRESH TOMATO MARKETING MARGINS: ECONOMETRICS AND NEURAL NETWORKS AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M.; van Ispelen, Pieter.
This study compares two methods of estimating a reduced form model of fresh tomato marketing margins: an econometric and an artificial neural network (ANN) approach. Model performance is evaluated by comparing out-of-sample forecasts for the period of January 1992 to December 1994. Parameter estimates using the econometric model fail to reject a dynamic, imperfectly competitive, uncertain relative price spread margin specification, but misspecification tests reject both linearity and log-linearity. This nonlinearity suggests that an inherently nonlinear method, such as a neural network, may be of some value. The neural network is able to forecast with approximately half the mean square error of the econometric model, but both are equally adept at...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Marketing.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31525
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Native American Obesity: An Economic Model of the "Thrifty Gene" Theory AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
Native American obesity and the associated health conditions are generally thought to result in part from a genetic predisposition to overeating fats and carbohydrates, called the "thrifty gene." Although coined by nutritional scientists, this study maintains the origin of the thrifty gene lies in economics. Apparently harmful overconsumption and addiction constitute economically rational behavior if the increment to current utility from adding to one's stock of "consumption capital" is greater than the present value of utility lost in the future due to ill health and the costs of withdrawal. Tests of these conditions for such "rational addiction" are conducted using two-stage household production approach. The results obtained by estimating this model in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Type II diabetes; Household production; Native Americans; Demand estimation; Shadow values.; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28544
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NATIVE AMERICAN OBESITY: AN ECONOMIC MODEL OF THE THRIFTY GENE THEORY AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
Native American obesity and the associated health conditions are generally thought to result in part from a genetic predisposition to overeating fats and carbohydrates, called the "thrifty gene." Although coined by nutritional scientists, this study maintains the origin of the thrifty gene lies in economics. Apparently harmful overconsumption and addiction constitute economically rational behavior if the increment to current utility from adding to one's stock of "consumption capital" is greater than the present value of utility lost in the future due to ill health and the costs of withdrawal. Tests of these conditions for such "rational addiction" are conducted using two-stage household production approach. The results obtained by estimating this model...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Health Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36208
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NEW VARIETIES AND THE RETURNS TO COMMODITY PROMOTION: THE CASE OF FUJI APPLES AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
The Fuji apple variety is relatively new in the U.S. As a new product, questions concern the relative impact of consumer learning by experience, by variety-specific promotion, or by generic apple promotion. A two-stage (LES/LAIDS) model incorporating both types of promotion is used to estimate the effect of generic and variety specific promotion, as well as consumer experience, on the demand for Fuji apples. Estimates show each to have a positive impact, and also show new or speciality apple varieties to be relatively price inelastic, but income elastic. Grower returns to promotion are calculated with an equilibrium displacement model of price changes and producer surplus. Changes in producer surplus provide a base-scenario benefit: cost ratio of 6.33:1.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; Marketing.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31339
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NEW VARIETIES AND THE RETURNS TO COMMODITY PROMOTION: WASHINGTON FUJI APPLES AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
The Fugi apple variety is relatively new in the U.S. As a new product, questions concern the relative impact of consumer learning by experience, by variety-specific promotion, or by generic apple promotion. Estimates show each to have a positive impact. Changes in producer surplus provide a base-scenario benefit-cost ratio of 11.98.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Marketing.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20784
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New Varieties and the Returns to Commodity Promotion: Washington Fuji Apples AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
The Fuji apple variety is relatively new in the U.S. As a new product, questions concern the relative impact of consumer learning by experience, by variety-specific promotion, or by generic apple promotion. A two-stage (LES/LAIDS) model incorporating both types of promotion is used to estimate the effect of generic and variety specific promotion, as well as consumer experience, on the demand for Fuji apples. Estimates show each to have a positive impact, and also show new or specialty apple varieties to be relatively price inelastic, but income elastic. Grower returns to promotion are calculated with an equilibrium displacement model of price changes and producer surplus. Changes in producer surplus provide a base-scenario benefit:cost ratio of 14.73....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Apple demand; Experience; LAIDS; New products; Producer surplus; Promotion; Varieties.; Marketing.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28541
Registros recuperados: 37
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