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Registros recuperados: 89
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A Bilateral Comparison of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: United States and Canada AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
Many public programs promote diets rich in fruits and vegetables based on evidence of the derived health benefits. Still, produce consumption in the United States lags behind other nations, even its most culturally similar neighbor--Canada. This study uses a structural latent variable model to test the role played by quality and health information in explaining observed differences in produce consumption. The Alchian-Allen effect predicts that higher quality, higher absolute margin produce will be exported, suggesting quality may be an important demand factor in importing nations such as Canada. The results show that dietary health information is significant in expanding demands. Quality also promotes fruit consumption in Canada.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Alchian-Allen effect; Fruit and vegetable trade; Health information; Latent variable; MIMIC model; Produce quality; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31217
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A Bilateral Comparison of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: U.S. and Canada AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
Many public programs promote diets rich in fruits and vegetables based on evidence on the derived health benefits. Sill, produce consumption in the U.S. lags behind other nations, even its most culturally similar neighbor–Canada. This study uses a structural latent variable model to test the role quality and health information play in explaining observed differences in produce consumption. The Alchian-Allen effect predicts that higher quality, higher absolute margin produce will be exported, suggesting that quality may be an important demand factor in importing nations such as Canada. The results show that dietary health information is significant in expanding demands. Quality also promotes fruit consumption in Canada.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Alchian-Allen effect; Fruit and vegetable trade; Health information; Produce quality; Latent variable; MIMIC model; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28538
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A BILATERAL COMPARISON OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION: U.S AND CANADA AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
A structural latent variable model tests the role quality and information play in explaining observed differences in Canadian and U.S. produce consumption (5.0 vs. 3.5 servings/day). Dietary health information is significant in expanding demands. Quality promotes fruit consumption in Canada, consistent with the Alchian-Allen prediction.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21891
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A Nested Logit Model of Strategic Promotion AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J..
Retailers use sales "price promotions" for a number of potential reasons. There is relatively little research, however, on their strategic role among frequently consumed perishable products. Using a two-stage, nested logit model of retail equilibrium, we show that promotion will be most effective (ie. increase store-level sales) if products are highly differentiated, but stores are relatively similar. To test this hypothesis, we an oligopolistic model of promotion rivalry with category-level scanner data from the four largest supermarket retailers in a major U.S. metropolitan market. The results show that promotion has a greater impact on store share than product share, because the elasticity of substitution among stores is larger than the elasticity...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19336
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A Two Stage Model of the Demand For Specialty Crop Insurance AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J..
Proposals for reform of the federal multiple-peril crop insurance program for specialty crops seek to change fees for catastrophic (CAT) insurance from a nominal fifty-dollar per contract registration fee to an actuarially sound premium. Growers argue that this would cause a significant reduction in participation rates, thus impeding the program's goals of eventually obviating the need for ad hoc disaster payments and worsening the actuarial soundness of the program. The key policy issue is, therefore, empirical one - whether the demand for specialty crop insurance is elastic or inelastic. Previous studies of this issue using either grower or county-level field crop data typically treat the participation problem as either a discrete insure / don't insure...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: California; Crop insurance; Discrete/continuous choice; Grapes; Multinomial logit.; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28546
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A TWO-STAGE MODEL OF THE DEMAND FOR SPECIALTY CROP INSURANCE AgEcon
Knox, Lyle; Richards, Timothy J..
Legislators are considering raising catastrophic (CAT 50% coverage) crop insurance premiums. However, estimates of a two-stage coverage-choice and participation model using county-level data from California grape growers show that the demand for CAT insurance is price-elastic, therefore, premium increases will worsen the financial performance of the grape-insurance program.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Discrete / continuous choice; Grapes; Multinomial logit; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21681
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A TWO-STAGE MODEL OF THE DEMAND FOR SPECIALTY CROP INSURANCE AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J..
Recent proposals to reform the federal Multiple-Peril Crop Insurance Program for specialty crops raised concerns that a higher cost for catastrophic-level coverage would significantly reduce program participation. This study estimates the demand for three levels of insurance coverage (50%, 65%, 75%) using aggregate data from grape production in 11 California counties from 1986-96. A discrete/continuous econometric model of the choice of coverage level and the amount of insurance finds that the price-elasticity of demand for 50% coverage is elastic, suggesting that premium increases may indeed reduce participation significantly. Such increases may also cause a significant reallocation of growers among coverage levels.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30828
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ADVERTISING AND RETAIL PROMOTION OF WASHINGTON APPLES: A STRUCTURAL LATENT VARIABLE APPROACH TO PROMOTION EVALUATION AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Gao, Xiaoming; Patterson, Paul M..
"Commodity promotion" consists of many activities, each designed to contribute to a consumer's product knowledge or influence tastes. However, both knowledge and tastes are unobservable, or latent, variables influencing demand. This paper specifies a dynamic structural model of fresh fruit demand that treats promotion and other socioeconomic variables as "causal" variables influencing these latent variables. Estimating this state-space model using a Kalman filter approach provides estimates of both the system parameters and a latent variable series. The results show that these latent effects contribute positively to apple and other fruit consumption, while reducing banana consumption.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Commodity promotion; Demand system; DYMIMIC; Fresh fruit; Kalman filter; LA/AIDS; Latent variables; Marketing.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15132
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Advertising and Retail Promotion of Washington Apples: A Structural Latent Variable Approach to Promotion Evaluation AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Gao, Xiaoming; Patterson, Paul M..
"Commodity promotion" consists of many activities, each designed to contribute to a consumer's product knowledge or influence tastes. However, both knowledge and tastes are unobservable, or latent, variables influencing demand. This paper specifies a dynamic structural model of fresh fruit demand that treats promotion and other socioeconomic variables as "causal" variables influencing these latent variables. Estimating this state-space model using a Kalman filter approach provides estimates of both the system parameters and a latent variable series. The results show that these latent effects contribute positively to apple and other fruit consumption, while reducing banana consumption.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Commodity promotion; Demand system; DYMIMIC; Fresh fruit; Kalman filter; LA/AIDS; Latent variables; Marketing.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28547
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AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES AND RISK MANAGEMENT:IMPACT ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE AgEcon
Manfredo, Mark R.; Richards, Timothy J.; McDermott, Scott.
Agricultural cooperatives, like all agribusinesses, operate in an inherently risky environment. Many risk management tools exist, but agricultural cooperatives have been slow to adopt sophisticated risk management practices. Using simulation methods, this paper presents insight into how both traditional and innovative risk management practices effect the distribution of key financial variables for agricultural cooperatives.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/22217
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CAUSES OF RETAIL PRICE FIXITY: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M..
Existing empirical studies do not provide a unifying explanation for retail price fixity. However, economic hysteresis, or the persistence of an economic phenomenon after its initial cause has disappeared, offers a general explanation. Estimates of an empirical model of retail-price hysteresis using store-level scanner data support our hypothesis.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19841
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Commodity Price Pass-Through in Differentiated Retail Food Markets AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Allender, William J.; Pofahl, Geoffrey M..
Prices for nearly all basic commodity rose at unprecedented rates throughout early 2008, only to fall nearly as fast as financial markets and global economies began to collapse. Rising food prices in 2008 led to concerns that commodity price spikes would lead to more general food inflation, but by early 2009 interest focused more on the seeming inability of food prices to fall back down with commodity prices. This study provides an empirical investigation into the pass-through of commodity prices to retail prices for two different types of food products: potatoes and fluid milk. The results show that pass-through depends on the nature of the food in question, but is generally consistent with theoretical models of pricing by sellers of multiple,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Commodity prices; Conduct; Industrial organization; Inflation; Market power; Nested logit; Pass-through; Random parameters model; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Industrial Organization; C35; D12; D43; L13; L41; Q13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61187
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COMMODITY R&D AND PROMOTION AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Padilla, Luis.
Considerable evidence exists of high returns to public and private investment in commodity research and development programs. This study investigates the potential returns to product research, development, and marketing in a dynamic commodity-market model. Theoretical hypotheses derived from the solution to this model are tested in an empirical example of Washington apples. Estimation results show that, despite significant spillovers to research and promotion expenditure in this industry, there is nonetheless considerable latitude to increase annual sales.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Advertising; Commodity; Innovation; Optimal control; Poisson model; Research and development; Marketing; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; L15; M37; Q13; Q16.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15083
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COMMODITY R&D, PATENTING, AND PROMOTION AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Padilla, Luis.
There is considerable evidence of high returns to public investments in agricultural R&D, but because intellectual property in agriculture is considered a public good, little R&D investment by growers themselves. This study investigates the potential for growers to increase commodity sales through product research, development, patenting and promotion in a dynamic commodity-market model. Theoretical hypotheses derived from the solution to this model are tested in an empirical example from Washington apples. Estimation results show that, despite significant spillovers to research and promotion expenditure, growers can improve the effectiveness of generic commodity promotion by funding R&D programs as well.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20497
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Comparative Statics Effects for Supermarket Oligopoly with Applications to Sales Taxes and Slotting Allowances AgEcon
Hamilton, Stephen F.; Richards, Timothy J..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9744
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Consumer Impact of Animal Welfare Regulation in the California Poultry Industry AgEcon
Allender, William J.; Richards, Timothy J..
This study examines the consumer welfare impact of animal welfare legislation mandating cage-free egg production in California. We estimate California egg consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for cage-free eggs using household-level purchase data and compare the implied premium to higher production costs when calculating the potential change in consumer surplus. Our findings suggest that larger households and/or households with limited means are most likely to be affected. Furthermore, the implied welfare loss for consumers is approximately $106 million. Although consumers value cage-free eggs, higher production costs result in a net welfare loss to consumers. One implication of this finding is that a clear labeling practice may be a more efficient way to...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Animal welfare regulation; California poultry; Egg prices; Egg supply; Hen housing; Mixed logit; Willingness to pay; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97856
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Consumer Risk Reduction Behavior of New Brand Purchase AgEcon
Yonezawa, Koichi; Richards, Timothy J..
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123642
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Cooperative Mergers and Acquisitions: The Role of Capital Constraints AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Manfredo, Mark R..
Several explanations for merger activity exist for publicly traded firms, but none consider the unique aspects of cooperatives. This study develops a test for the hypothesis that cooperative consolidation occurs primarily in response to capital constraints associated with a lack of access to external equity capital. An empirical model estimates the shadow value of long-term investment capital within a multinomial logit model of transaction choice in a panel data set of the 100 largest U.S. cooperatives. The results substantially confirm the capital-constraint hypothesis. Thus, the primary implication is that internal growth may be a more viable alternative to consolidation if new forms of cooperative financing are developed.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Capital structure; Cooperative; Discrete choice; Joint ventures; Mergers; Multinomial logit; Strategic alliances; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30718
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Cooperative Risk Management: Rationale and Effectiveness AgEcon
Manfredo, Mark R.; Richards, Timothy J..
Agricultural cooperatives tend to be riskier than investor-oriented firms, both in a business and financial sense. However, cooperative managers are often reluctant to actively manage risk. Although the “risk management irrelevance proposition” suggests that cooperative managers should be unable to add shareholder value through risk management activities, this study argues that there are several reasons why this is not likely to be the case for cooperatives. Several empirical examples are provided through numerical simulation of pro-forma financial statements from representative agricultural cooperatives. Using mean variance, expected utility and value-at-risk metrics, the results of these simulations show that various risk management strategies can...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cooperative; Expected utility; Futures; Option; Risk management; Value at risk.; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28540
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Cost and Efficiency in Alberta Dairy Production AgEcon
Richards, Timothy J.; Jeffrey, Scott R..
This study investigates the relationships between farm size, milk yield, cost of production, and technical efficiency in the Alberta dairy industry. Estimates of a stochastic production frontier are obtained with two alternative methods; an iterative "average frontier: (AF) procedure and a maximum-likelihood composed error (CE) term method. An index of technical efficiency is calculated for every herd in the sample, with the AF method resulting in an average efficiency ratio of 85 percent, and the CE method producing an average efficiency ratio of 83 percent. Regressions of production cost on milk output, herd size, and efficiency are used to test for the effects of size economies, yield economies, and technical efficiency on production cost. These results...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24094
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