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A Larger Slice or a Larger Pie? An Empirical Investigation of Bargaining Power in the Distribution Channel AgEcon
Draganska, Michaela; Klapper, Daniel; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
This research aims to provide insights into the determinants of channel profitability and the relative power in the channel by considering consumer demand and the interactions between manufacturers and retailers in an equilibrium model. In a departure from the standard empirical channel literature, which assumes that manufacturers set wholesale prices unilaterally, we explicitly model the negotiations between manufacturers and retailers. To this end, we formulate a Nash bargaining game to determine wholesale prices and thus how margins are split in the channel. Equilibrium margins are thus a function of demand primitives and of retailer and manufacturer bargaining power. Bargaining power is itself a function of exogenous retail and manufacturer...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis; Industrial Organization; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6054
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An empirical investigation of the welfare effects of banning wholesale price discrimination AgEcon
Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
3rd revision CUDARE Working Paper 1017R3 October 2008, 2nd revision CUDARE Working Paper 1017R2 August 2008, 1st revision CUDARE Working Paper 1017R February 2007, CUDARE Working Paper 1017 August 2006.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Economic theory does not provide sharp predictions on the welfare effects of banning wholesale price discrimination: if downstream costs differences exist then discrimination shifts production inefficiently; Towards high cost retailers; So a ban increases welfare; If differences in price elasticity of demand across retailers exist; Discrimination may increase welfare if more market is covered; So a ban reduces welfare. Using retail prices and quantities of coffee brands sold by German retailers; I estimate a model of demand and supply and separate cost and demand differences. Simulating a ban on wholesale price discrimination has positive welfare effects in this market; And less if downstream cost differences shrink; Or with less competition.; Consumer/Household Economics; L13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120491
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Are Consumers Color Blind?: an empirical investigation of a traffic light advisory for sustainable seafood AgEcon
Hallstein, Eric; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
This paper empirically investigates consumer response to a traffic light advisory for environmentally sustainable seafood, which was implemented in the seafood department of a regional supermarket chain in the United States. Green meant 'best choice'; yellow meant 'proceed with caution'; red meant 'worst choice'. Using a unique product-level panel scanner data set capturing sales information for 2 treatment stores and 8 nearby control stores, we apply a difference-in-differences identification strategy to estimate the impact of color-coded labels on consumers' purchases. We find that the advisory leads to no significant difference in total seafood sales. Green sales significantly increase an average of 29% per week; yellow sales significantly decrease an...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Sustainable seafood; Fisheries crisis; FishWise; Traffic light advisory; Mercury; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120535
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Arm's-Length Transactions as a Source of Incomplete Cross-Border Transmission: the Case of Autos AgEcon
Hellerstein, Rebecca; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
A growing share of international trade occurs through intra-firm transactions, transactions between domestic and foreign subsidiaries of a multinational firm. The difficulties associated with writing and enforcing a vertical contract compound when a product must cross a national border, and may explain the high rate of multinational trade across such borders. We show that this common crossborder organization of the firm may have implications for the well-documented incomplete transmission of shocks across such borders. We present new evidence of a positive relationship between an industry's share of multinational trade and its rate of exchange-rate pass-through to prices. We then develop a structural econometric model with both manufacturers and retailers...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Cross-border transmission: Multinationals; Arm's-length transactions; Real exchange rates; Exchange-rate pass-through; Vertical contracts; Autos; International Relations/Trade; F14; F3; F4.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7196
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BUYER POWER THROUGH PRODUCER'S DIFFERENTIATION AgEcon
Chambolle, Claire; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
This paper shows that retailers may choose to offer products differentiated in quality to consumers, not to relax downstream competition, but to improve their buyer power in the negotiation with their supplier. We consider a simple vertical industry where two producers sell products differentiated in quality to two retailers who operate in separated markets. In the game, first retailers choose which product to carry, then each retailer and her chosen producer bargain over the terms of a two-part tariff contract and retailers finally choose the quantities. When upstream production costs are convex, the share of the total profits going to the retailer would be higher if they choose to differentiate. We thus isolate the wish to differentiate as "only" due to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Buyer Power; Product line; Differentiation; Marketing; L13; L42.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6866
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Can Information Costs Affect Consumer Choice?—Nutritional Labels in a Supermarket Experiment— AgEcon
Kiesel, Kristin; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
This paper investigates whether information costs under currently regulated nutritional labeling prevent consumers from making healthier food choices. We implement five nutritional shelf label treatments in a market-level experiment. These labels reduce information costs by highlighting and summarizing information available on the Nutritional Facts Panel. Following a difference-in-differences and synthetic control method approach, we analyze weekly store-level scanner data for microwave popcorn purchases from treatment and control stores. Our results suggest that consumer purchases are affected by information costs. Implemented low calorie and no trans fat labels increase sales. In contrast, implemented low fat labels decrease sales, suggesting that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Nutritional labeling; Information cost; Scanner data; Market-level experiment; Difference-in-differences; Synthetic control method; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; C93; D01; D18; D83; L51.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116433
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Consumer and Market Responses to Mad-Cow Disease AgEcon
Schlenker, Wolfram; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
We examine how consumers and financial markets in the United States react to two health warnings about mad cow disease: The first discovery of an infected cow in December 2003 as well as health warnings about the potential effects aired in the highly-watched Oprah- Winfrey show seven years earlier. Using a unique UPC-level scanner data set, we find a pronounced and significant reduction in beef sales following the first discovered infection. This effect slowly dissipates over the next three months. Interestingly, no significant impact can be detected in the diary files of the Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) that has a much smaller sampling frame. However, futures prices show a comparable drop in prices to the scanner data. Contracts with longer maturity...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food safety; Mad cow diseases; Consumer expenditure survey; Scanner data; Futures prices; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Livestock Production/Industries; D12; Q18; M31.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7164
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Effect of Sales on Brand Loyalty AgEcon
Huang, Rui; Perloff, Jeffrey M.; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
Although many theoretical industrial organization models are based on the existence of a critical mass of exogenously "brand loyal" consumers, we find little empirical evidence supporting these assumptions in the orange juice retail market. There are very few loyal consumers. More importantly, the frequency with which stores conduct sales affects the share of loyal types so that loyalty is endogenous rather than exogenous. Households’ demographics have statistically significant but economically minor effects on switching behavior. Switching across frozen and refrigerated states is very common, leading to more complicated substitution patterns and less loyalty than one observes looking at each state separately.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Loyalty; Sales; Industrial Organization; Marketing.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25062
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Empirical evidence on the role of non linear wholesale pricing and vertical restraints on cost pass-through AgEcon
Bonnet, Céline; Dubois, Pierre; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
How a cost shock is passed through into final consumer prices may relate to nominal price stickiness and rigidities, the existence of non adjustable cost components, strategic mark-up adjustments, or other contract terms along the supply distribution chain. This paper presents a simple framework to assess the potential role of non linear pricing contracts and vertical restraints such as resale price maintenance or wholesale price discrimination in the supply chain in explaining the degree of pass-through from upstream cost shocks in the ground coffee category to downstream retail prices. We do so in the German coffee market where both upstream and downstream firms make pricing decisions allowing for non linear pricing and vertical restraints. Using...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Non Linear Pricing; Multiple Manufacturers and Retailers; Ground Coffee; Pass-Through; Resale Price Maintenance; Wholesale Price Discrimination; Consumer/Household Economics; C13; L13; L41.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120534
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Expert Opinion and the Demand for Experience Goods: An Experimental Approach AgEcon
Hilger, James; Rafert, Greg; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
There exist two significant obstacles to analyzing the effect of expert opinion on consumer demand for experience goods: (1) the relationship between good reviews and high product demand may be spurious and driven by high product quality, and (2) even if expert opinion increases consumer demand, it is unclear whether it does so by providing quality information or by alerting consumers to the existence of a particular product. We utilize an experimental approach in a retail grocery chain in which we display expert opinion information for a group of randomly selected wines to overcome these obstacles. We find that although there is no overall consumer response to expert opinion provision, a subset of highly reviewed wines experienced an increase in demand....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Marketing.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6055
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Got Organic Milk? Consumer Valuations of Milk Labels after the Implementation of the USDA Organic Seal AgEcon
Kiesel, Kristin; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
This paper investigates consumer reactions to changes in information provision regarding organic production. Quantitative analyses focus on the actual implementation of mandatory labeling guidelines under the National Organic Program. The unique nature of the fluid milk market in combination with these regulatory changes allows us to place a value on information sets under different labeling regimes. Hedonic price functions provide an initial reference point for analyses of individual responses. A random utility discrete choice model serves as the primary econometric specification and allows consideration of consumer preference heterogeneity along observable household demographics. Our results indicate that the USDA organic seal increases the probability...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7187
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Identification of Supply Models of Retailer and Manufacturer Oligopoly Pricing AgEcon
Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto; Hellerstein, Rebecca.
This note outlines conditions under which we can identify a vertical supply model of multiple retailers' and manufacturers' oligopoly-pricing behavior. This is an important question particularly when the researcher believes, contrary to the traditional assumption followed in the empirical literature, that retailers may not be neutral pass-through intermediaries. We show that a data-set of an industry's product prices, quantities, and input prices over time is sufficient to identify the vertical model of retailers' and manufacturers' oligopoly-pricing behavior given nonlinear demand, for homogeneous-products industries, and given multi-product firms, for differentiated-products industries.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Identification; Vertical relationships; Oligopoly models of multiple manufacturers and retailers.; Demand and Price Analysis; Industrial Organization; L13; L22.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25052
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Learning, Forgetting, and Sales AgEcon
Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto; Villas-Boas, J. Miguel.
Sellers of almost any product or service rarely keep their prices constant through time, and frequently offer price discounts or sales. This paper investigates an explanation of sales as a way for uninformed consumers to be willing to experience the product, and learn about its fit, and where informed consumers may forget about (or change) their preferences. We investigate the role of the rate of forgetting on the timing between sales, and of the rate of learning and menu costs on the length of a sale. We also investigate the effect of a seller carrying multiple products on the pattern of sales. Using price series from supermarket categories, and given the assumed simplified preference structure, we obtain empirical estimates of the rates of learning and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7153
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Outsourcing and pass-through AgEcon
Hellerstein, Rebecca; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
Revised October 2008 Revised on December, 2009 Revised on February 26, 2010
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Exchange-rate pass-through; Intra-firm trade; Vertical contracts; Outsourcing; Financial Economics; Industrial Organization; F14; F3; F4.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120490
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Patterns of Pass-through of Commodity Price Shocks to Retail Prices AgEcon
Berck, Peter; Leibtag, Ephraim S.; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto; Solis, Alex.
Commodity prices have been rising at unprecedented rates over the last two years. The primary objective of this paper is to assess if and how firms pass through upstream cost increases to final good prices. First, we investigate what happens to the shelf prices (the regular prices) of goods that contain significant amounts of a commodity whose price has changed. The objective is to document patterns of price rigidity depending on the share of the commodity in the final good that is sold to consumers. For example, given an abnormal commodity price change in wheat, what happens to the shelf regular price of bread, wheat cereals, and other goods that contain wheat? Commodity pass-through patterns for ready to eat cereal (smallest share of commodity in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Commodity prices; Retail prices; Statistical analysis; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51600
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Reformulating competition? Gasoline content regulation and wholesale gasoline prices AgEcon
Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
Revised from an earlier version from January 2006. Published in JEEM v. 55:1, January 2008.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental economics; Fuel requirements; Gasoline; Oligopoly; Prices; Regulations; Environmental Economics and Policy; L13; L51; Q50.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120475
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Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices AgEcon
Brown, Jennifer; Mansur, Erin T.; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments stipulated gasoline content requirements for metropolitan areas with air pollution levels above predetermined federal thresholds. The legislation led to exogenous changes in the type of gasoline required for sale across U.S. metropolitan areas. This paper uses a panel of detailed wholesale gasoline price data to estimate the effect of gasoline content regulation on wholesale prices and price volatility. In addition, we investigate the extent to which the estimated price effects are driven by changes in the number of suppliers versus geographic segmentation resulting from regulation. We find that prices in regulated metropolitan areas increase significantly, relative to a control group, by an average of 3.6 cents per...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; L13; L51; Q50.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25038
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Sales: Tests of Theories on Causality and Timing AgEcon
Berck, Peter; Brown, Jennifer; Perloff, Jeffrey M.; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
Modern theories of sales make conflicting predictions about the temporal pattern of sales, which we test using grocery scanner data. We examine both frozen orange juice, which consumers can store, and refrigerated orange juice, which is more perishable, to determine what role—if any—durability plays in the pattern of sales. We start with a simple reduced-form probit analysis to examine the timing of sales and whether sales are determined nationally by manufacturers or locally by retailers. We then turn to a vector autoregressive analysis and conduct Granger tests of temporal ordering (“causality tests”) to determine whether the sale of one brand is followed in a predictable way by the sale of another brand or its own later sales. Based on the VAR...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7165
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Short on Shots: Are Calls on Cooperative Restraint Effective in Managing the Scarcity of Flu Vaccines? AgEcon
de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
This is the 3rd revision of this paper.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Randomized experiment; Shortage; Cooperative restraint; Cheating.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37861
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Short on Shots: Can Calls on Self-Restraint be Effective in Managing the Scarcity of a Vital Good? AgEcon
de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth; Villas-Boas, Sofia Berto.
This paper has two objectives. The first is to analyze the effectiveness of the scarcity management strategy used for the Fall 2004 U.S. flu vaccine shortage, based on defining priority groups and calling on self-restraint to favor these groups. The second is to reveal differentiated behavioral responses across categories of individuals and the apparent motivations behind these responses. To do this, we observed the responses of the members of a campus population to two distinct randomized treatments in a designed field experiment during the flu vaccine shortage. Corresponding to the management strategy followed by the Center for Disease Control, one treatment provided information about a sharply reduced number of vaccination clinics (scarcity) and their...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Randomized experiment; Shortage; Self-restraint; Cheating; Health Economics and Policy; C93.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7162
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