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Registros recuperados: 17
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AGRICULTURAL POLICY REFORM IN THE WTO: THE ROAD AHEAD AgEcon
Diao, Xinshen; Elbehri, Aziz; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Gibson, Paul R.; Leetmaa, Susan E.; Mitchell, Lorraine; Nelson, Frederick J.; Nimon, R. Wesley; Normile, Mary Anne; Roe, Terry L.; Shapouri, Shahla; Skully, David W.; Smith, Mark; Somwaru, Agapi; Trueblood, Michael A.; Tsigas, Marinos E.; Wainio, John; Whitley, Daniel B.; Young, C. Edwin.
Agricultural trade barriers and producer subsidies inflict real costs, both on the countries that use these policies and on their trade partners. Trade barriers lower demand for trade partners' products, domestic subsidies can induce an oversupply of agricultural products which depresses world prices, and export subsidies create increased competition for producers in other countries. Eliminating global agricultural policy distortions would result in an annual world welfare gain of $56 billion. High protection for agricultural commodities in the form of tariffs continues to be the major factor restricting world trade. In 2000, World Trade Organization (WTO) members continued global negotiations on agricultural policy reform. To help policymakers and others...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34015
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Agricultural Trade and Economic Integration in the Western Hemisphere: Current Status AgEcon
Valdes, Constanza; Wainio, John; Gehlhar, Mark J..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50813
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Agricultural Trade Preferences and the Developing Countries AgEcon
Wainio, John; Shapouri, Shahla; Trueblood, Michael A.; Gibson, Paul R..
Nonreciprocal trade preference programs originated in the 1970s under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) as an effort by high-income developed countries to provide tariff concessions for low-income countries. The goal of the programs was to increase export earnings, promote industrialization, and stimulate economic growth in the lower income countries. This study analyzes detailed trade and tariff data for the United States and the European Union (the two largest nonreciprocal preference donors) to determine the extent to which the programs have increased exports from beneficiary countries. For those products where the margins of preference are large and where beneficiaries have a comparative advantage and the capacity to expand production, these...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Tariff; Agricultural trade; Preferences; Least developed countries; Market access; World Trade Organization; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7258
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Are Competitors' Free Trade Agreements Putting U.S. Agricultural Exporters at a Disadvantage? AgEcon
Wainio, John; Dyck, John H.; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Vollrath, Thomas L..
The growing number of free trade agreements among U.S. competitors has prompted questions about whether U.S. agricultural exporters may lose a share of the global market. ERS research shows that the recently created ASEAN-China and ASEANAustralia/ New Zealand free trade agreements are likely to have modest adverse impacts on U.S. agricultural exports. The Mercosur-Colombia free trade agreement has reduced U.S. agricultural exports to Colombia; U.S. grain sellers face increasingly stiff competition due to preferential tariffs granted to Mercosur exporters.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121095
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International Agricultural Baseline Projections to 2007 AgEcon
Landes, Rip; Westcott, Paul C.; Wainio, John.
This report provides baseline projections for international supply, demand, and trade for major agricultural commodities to 2007. It is a companion report to USDA Agricultural Baseline Projections, providing the foreign country details supporting those projections. Projections of strong global economic growth, particularly in developing countries, combined with more open foreign markets and the emergence of China as a major bulk commodity importer, support strong projected gains in U.S. farm exports. The value of total U.S. agricultural exports is projected to rise from a record $57.3 billion in FY 1997 to nearly $85 billion in 2007. The projections were completed based on information available as of December 1997, and reflect a composite of model results...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Commodities; International; Projections; Supply; Use; Trade; Production Economics.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33951
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MARKET ACCESS FOR HIGH-VALUE FOODS AgEcon
Regmi, Anita; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Wainio, John; Vollrath, Thomas L.; Johnston, Paul V.; Kathuria, Nitin.
Market access remains a major impediment for expansion of global trade in high-value foods, particularly processed foods. Countries use tariffs and other measures that effectively stimulate imports of relatively unprocessed agricultural commodities at the expense of processed products. Tariff escalation, in which tariffs rise with the level of processing, discourages trade in high-value foods, and trade remedy measures, such as antidumping duties, are concentrated among high-value products. Globalization has provided countries with easier access to capital and technology needed to produce processed food, further affecting trade patterns and markets for high-value foods. A uniform cut in tariffs increases trade in high-value foods more than trade in raw...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food trade; Processed food; High-value foods; Tariff; Tariff escalation; Trade remedy measures; Sanitary and phytosanitary measures; Safeguard measures; Revealed comparative advantage; Trade complementarities; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33999
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Preferential Tariffs, WTO and Developing Countries: Do the Gains from Multilateral Market Access Outweigh Preferential Access? AgEcon
Elbehri, Aziz; Wainio, John.
WTO trade negotiations on market access follow the MFN treatment. However, an increasing share of trade falls under preferential regimes. For agriculture, trade liberalization analyses have showed that the impact on developing countries (DC) is not uniform, partly from omitting preferences. In this paper, we examine whether preference-recipient DC benefit more from across the board tariff cuts than from preferences. We employ a global CGE model with detailed preference-inclusive tariff database to examine the differential impact of trade liberalization on DC subject to preferences versus MFN-based market access. We focus on the European Union- the world largest preferences provider- and run two experiments of tariff cuts by the EU: a 50% across-the-board...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade preferences; MFN tariffs; Trade liberalization; Developing countries; Preferential trade Agreements; International Relations/Trade; D5; F13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25644
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PROFILES OF TARIFFS IN GLOBAL AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AgEcon
Gibson, Paul R.; Wainio, John; Whitley, Daniel B.; Bohman, Mary.
High protection for agricultural commodities in the form of tariffs continues to be the major factor restricting world trade. The large differences in average tariffs across countries make it possible for farmers in one country to benefit from tariff protection while farmers in other countries lose income because of lower prices resulting from those tariffs. This report provides the first comprehensive analysis of agricultural tariffs and tariff-rate quotas (limits on imported goods) across a large number of countries and commodities and finds that high average tariffs create barriers to markets for U.S. and other farmers.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Market access; Megatariffs; Tariff profiles; Over-quota tariffs; In-quota tariffs; Tariff-rate quotas; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34055
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Selected Trade Agreements and Implications for U.S. Agriculture AgEcon
Wainio, John; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Dyck, John H..
Since 2001, the United States has concluded negotiations with 13 countries, resulting in 8 trade agreements (TAs). Three additional agreements have been negotiated but not yet ratified by Congress, as of March 2011. Other countries have become increasingly active in negotiating their own trade pacts. This proliferation of TAs between key U.S. trading partners and competitors may have raised concerns among U.S. exporters, whose share in established markets could be eroded by such deals. In this study, ERS examines how recently concluded TAs between ASEAN (Southeast Asia) countries and China and Australia/New Zealand, as well as pending TAs between the United States and Korea, Colombia, and Panama, will likely affect U.S. agricultural trade. Model results...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Market access; Free trade agreements; Tariffs; Trade agreements; Trade creation; Trade diversion; Trade promotion agreements; GTAP model.; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102754
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Tariff Escalation in the Doha Talks--Bringing the Issue to Resolution AgEcon
Wainio, John; Vanzetti, David.
Development objectives dictate that the Doha negotiations address tariff escalation. This could increase the production and export of processed goods in developing countries, expand investment and employment, and reduce dependence on primary product exports. Despite its importance, little progress has been made, notwithstanding that a final resolution to the negotiations will not be possible without bringing this issue to resolution. This paper quantifies tariff escalation within WTO members' tariff schedules and the degree to which a tiered formula could address this problem. Utilizing a detailed partial equilibrium global agricultural trade model we estimate the possible gains to developing countries from reducing tariff escalation.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Tariff escalation; Agriculture; Trade; Tariffs; WTO; International Relations/Trade; F13; Q17.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6034
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THE ANTI-DUMPING NEGOTIATIONS: PROPOSALS, POSITIONS AND ANTI-DUMPING PROFILES AgEcon
Young, Linda M.; Wainio, John.
Negotiations over the rules governing the use of anti-dumping duties are occurring in both the World Trade Organization and the Free Trade of the Americas. However, the goal of the negotiations is unclear as some governments want to restrict the use of anti-dumping while others seek to maintain the ability of national governments to use anti-dumping measures. We hypothesize that members who desire to preserve the use of anti-dumping are active in initiating suits. To explore this hypothesis, we examine the positions taken by major actors in the negotiations, and their anti-dumping profile. The anti-dumping profile includes data on a member's AD actions including investigations and measures, as well as the investigations and measures against the member's...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Anti-dumping; WTO negotiations; FTAA negotiations; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20041
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The Antidumping Negotiations: Proposals, Positions and Antidumping Profiles AgEcon
Young, Linda M.; Wainio, John.
Negotiations over the rules governing the use of antidumping (AD) duties are occurring in both the World Trade Organization and the Free Trade Area of the Americas. Unfortunately, the goal of the negotiations is unclear, as some governments want to restrict the use of antidumping while others seek to maintain the ability of national governments to use antidumping measures. We hypothesize that members who desire to preserve the use of antidumping are active in initiating suits. To explore this hypothesis, we examine the positions taken by major actors in the negotiations, and their antidumping profiles. An antidumping profile includes data on a member's AD actions, including investigations and measures the member initiates, as well as investigations and...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Antidumping; FTAA negotiations; WTO negotiations; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23869
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The Antidumping Negotiations: Proposals, Positions and Antidumping Profiles: Technical Annex AgEcon
Young, Linda M.; Wainio, John.
This document is the technical annex to the full paper "The Antidumping Negotiations: Proposals, Positions and Antidumping Profiles" which is available separately.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23868
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The Doha Agricultural Market Access Negotiations: Remaining Conceptual, Practical, and Technical Issues AgEcon
Wainio, John; Podbury, Troy.
Before the World Trade Organization’'s (WTO) Doha round of multilateral trade negotiations can be concluded negotiators will need to agree on a host of market access issues, including the size of tariff cuts, a methodology for opening tariff quotas in the case of products exempted from applying full tariff cuts, and the amount of flexibility to be provided under special and differential treatment for developing countries. Each of these issues harbours a number of complex problems that will have to be addressed. How these are resolved could have significant impacts on the actual level of market access created by the final agreement. This paper analyses the extensive inventory of outstanding issues yet to be resolved if an effective outcome is to be reached.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10399
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TRADE REMEDY ACTIONS IN NAFTA AGRICULTURE AND AGRI-FOOD INDUSTRIES AgEcon
Young, Linda M.; Wainio, John; Meilke, Karl D..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16935
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What is behind a free trade agreement? (PowerPoint) AgEcon
Wainio, John.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60367
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World Trade Organization and Globalization Help Facilitate Growth in Agricultural Trade AgEcon
Effland, Anne; Roberts, Donna; Normile, Mary Anne; Wainio, John.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122956
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