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Agriculture biologique et génie génétique Organic Eprints
Nowack Heimgartner, Karin; Bickel, Regula; Wyss, Eric.
Ce dossier explique pourquoi l'agriculture biologique renonce aux organismes génétiquement modifiés (OGM). Il décrit dans quelles circonstances les produits biologiques peuvent être contaminés par des OGM et les mesures à prendre pour éviter de tels incidents. Ces conseils sont complétés par une analyse de la situation actuelle. Un glossaire définit les principaux termes utilisés.
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general Food security; Food quality and human health.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/25325/1/1205-genie-genetique.pdf
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Aktivitäten im Bereich Obstbau-Entomologie 2002 Organic Eprints
Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric.
Blattläuse im Steinobst: Die Grüne Zwetschgenblattlaus ist mit einer Austriebsspritzung Mineralöl / Pyrethrum gut bekämpfbar, während keines der geprüften Mittel eine befriedigende Wirkung gegen die Schwarze Kirschenblattlaus zeigte. Eine Zulassung von Neem als Nachblütebehandlung würde dieses Problem entschärfen. Die Wirkung von Spinosad („Audienz“) gegen den Apfelblütenstecher und den Pflaumenwickler: Spinosad zeigte in unseren Versuchen eine gute Wirkung gegen Apfelblütenstecher. Untersuchungen anderer Institutionen brachten jedoch gegenteilige Ergebnisse. Daher muss die Wirkung von Spinosad gegen den Apfelblütenstecher noch in weiteren Versuchen überprüft werden. Gegen den Pflaumenwickler konnte nur eine Teilwirkung von Spinosad („Audienz“,...
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: Fruit and berries Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/2647/1/daniel%2D2003%2Daktivit%C3%A4ten%2Dobstbau%2DEntomologie.pdf
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Amara ovata und A. similata (Coleoptera, Carabidae), zwei phytophage Laufkäferarten in Rapsfeldern Organic Eprints
Luka, Henryk; Pfiffner, Lukas; Wyss, Eric.
Amara ovata und A. similata, zwei im Adultstadium phytophage Laufkäferarten, wiesen in Rapskulturen im Vergleich zu Winterweizenflächen und ökologischen Ausgleichsflächen (Buntbrache und extensiven Wieslandstreifen) in der Nähe von Basel ein mit TRichterfallen gemessene, hohe Aktivitätsdichte auf. Handfänge und Beobachtungen auf fünf anderen Rapsfeldern in der Umgebung von Basel zeigten, dass Amara ovata und A. similata Schoten, Samen und Blüten der Rapskultur fressen. Aufgrund der nahen Verwandtschaft des Rapses mit anderen Brassicaceen nehmen wir an, dass Raps für A. ovata und A. similata eine bevorzugte Nahrungsquelle darstellt. Ob dadurch ein wirtschaftlicher Schaden entsteht, ist zurzeit noch nicht klar. Ein stärkerer Befall ist in der Nähe von...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Biodiversity and ecosystem services Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://orgprints.org/20216/1/19_Luka_et_al_PCA_1998_Amara_Raps.pdf
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Anthonome du pommier: On a enfin trouvé une solution Organic Eprints
Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric; Tschabold, Jean-Luc.
L’anthonome du pommier, qui peut causer localement de gros dégâts, n’avait encore jamais pu être efficacement contré en arboriculture biologique. Un produit efficace est maintenant disponible.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/4567/1/daniel%2Detal%2D2005%2Dbioactualites.pdf
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Apfelblütenstecher: Endlich eine Lösung Organic Eprints
Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric; Tschabold, Jean-Luc.
Bisher gab es im Bioobstbau keine Möglichkeit, den Apfelblütenstecher zu bekämpfen. Der Schädling kann lokal grosse Schäden anrichten. Mit dem neuen Wirkstoff Spinosad, einem bakteriellen Fermentationsprodukt, steht jetzt ein wirksames Mittel zur Verfügung.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/4299/1/daniel%2Detal%2D2005%2Dapfelbluetenstecher.pdf
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Applications de soufre en automne: une nouvelle manière de lutter contre l`ériophyide à galles du poirier. Organic Eprints
Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric; Linder, Christian.
Autumn applications of sulphur – a new approach to control the pear leaf blister mite Eriophyes pyri. Abstract: The pear leaf blister mite can cause severe damage to pear leaves and young fruits in some regions. Due to hidden living inside leaf blisters, the mites are largely protected against the impact of plant protecting agents. Until now, treatments with mineral oil or rape oil in early spring, during the time when the mites leave their hibernation sites under the bud scales to invade the young leaves and blossoms, are the only possibility to control these mites in Swiss organic fruit growing. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sulphur, mineral oil and Surround®WP applied after harvest during the time, when the mites leave their...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/6139/1/daniel%2D2004_04SchwefelPockenmilbeRSVAH.pdf
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Approaches to pest management in organic agriculture: a case study in European apple orchards Organic Eprints
Wyss, Eric; Luka, Henryk; Pfiffner, Lukas; Schlatter, Christian; Gabriela, Uehlinger; Daniel, Claudia.
Although the European organic agriculture movement was founded by Rudolf Steiner and Hans Mueller in the years between 1924 and 1940, it was not until the 1980s that pest management researchers began to develop strategies to control pests in organic systems. Today, insect pest management in organic agriculture involves the adoption of scientificallybased and ecologically sound strategies as specified by international and national organic production standards. These include a ban on synthetic insecticides and, more recently, on genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The first phase of an insect pest management program for organic systems is the adoption of cultural practices including diverse crop rotation, enhancement of soil quality by incorporation of...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/8717/1/Wyss-2005-OrganicResearchAustralien.pdf
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Arthropod pest management in organic crops Organic Eprints
Zehnder, Geoff; Gurr, Geoff M.; Kühne, Stefan; Wade, Mark R.; Wratten, Steve D.; Wyss, Eric.
Burgeoning consumer interest in organically produced foods has made organic farming one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture. This growth has not been supported adequately by rigorous research to address challenges such as arthropod pest management. The research that has been conducted, however, is complemented by research in aspects of conventional agriculture that may have applicability in organic systems, as well as by research in underpinning fields such as applied ecology. This article synthesizes the available literature in relation to a conceptual model of arthropod pest management strategies suitable for organic systems. The present work uses the four phases of the model to review the strategies in an agroecological context and provides a...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/13126/1/Zehnder%2Detal%2D2007%2DAnnuals_of_Entomology.pdf
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Attaques en rase-mottes dans les cultures maraîchères biologiques suisses Organic Eprints
Wyss, Eric; Daniel, Claudia.
De nombreux ravageurs des légumes, comme p. ex. la mouche de la carotte, la mouche du chou ou la cécidomyie du chou, font vraiment du rase-mottes: ils se déplacent dans la végétation ou très bas au-dessus d’elle. Des filets verticaux, véritables clôtures anti-insectes, permettent de les stopper à leur entrée dans les cultures.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Vegetables.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/7170/1/daniel%2D2004_02InsektennetzeBioactualites.pdf
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Attraktivität verschiedener Köder auf die Kirschfruchtfliege Rhagoletis cerasi in biologischen Kirschenanlagen Organic Eprints
Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric.
Fragestellung: Prüfung verschiedener Köder in Frutect-Fallen gegen Rhagoletis cerasi in biologischen Kirschenanlagen Verfahren: Spinosad GF120 (Köder), Israelischer Köder, Nulur 1:3, Nulur 1:10, Leere Falle
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://orgprints.org/8501/1/daniel%2Dwyss%2D2002_07e_Kifli_Fallenversuch.pdf
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Attraktivität verschiedener Köder und Fallen auf die Kirschfruchtfliege Rhagoletis cerasi Organic Eprints
Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric.
Prüfung verschiedener Köder und Fallen gegen Rhagoletis cerasi.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Fruit and berries Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/2602/1/daniel%2D2003%2Dkirschenfliegen%2Dk%C3%B6derversuch.pdf
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Autumn acaricide applications as a new strategy to control the pear leaf blister mite Eriophyes pyri Organic Eprints
Daniel, Claudia; Linder, Christian; Wyss, Eric.
The pear leaf blister mite Eriophyes pyri (Pagenstecher) causes severe damage to pear leaves and fruits. As mites are well sheltered from exposure to plant protection agents during summer and acaricide efficacy is reduced when temperatures are low in early spring, autumn acaricide applications were evaluated to control mites as they migrate to their hibernation sites. Post-harvest sulphur and mineral oil treatments were applied in September 2003 and mites were monitored in the following spring. Only the sulphur treated trees were virtually free of blisters. Sulphur treatments showed an efficacy of 95.3% (one application) to 99.6% (three applications), whereas, mineral oil treatments only had an efficacy of 12.8% (one application) to 69.6% (three...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/13124/1/daniel-etal-2007-CropProtectionSchwefelPockenmilbe.pdf
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Autumn applications of sulphur – a new approach to control the pear leaf blister mite Eriophyes pyri Organic Eprints
Daniel, Claudia; Linder, Christian; Wyss, Eric.
The pear leaf blister mite can cause severe damages to pear trees. By their hidden way of living inside the leaf blisters, the mites are protected from plant protection agents. Until now, oil treatments in early spring, when the mites leave their hibernation sites and invade the young leaves, are the only possibility to control these mites. Because of the low temperatures during this period (February/ March) the efficacy of pesticides is often not reliable. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of sulphur applied after harvest at the time, when mites are leaving the blisters and migrate to the hibernation sites. The treatments were applied shortly after harvest to benefit from the mild temperatures in September. Visual controls in...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/13770/1/ecofruit_12th_9.pdf
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Barrieren gegen die Kohldrehherzgallmücke Organic Eprints
Wyss, Eric; Daniel, Claudia.
Vertikale Netze haben Vorteile gegenüber Kulturschutznetzen: (1) sie liegen nicht auf der Kultur auf, (2) beeinflussen das Mikroklima kaum und (3) der Arbeitsaufwand, um die Netze für Durchfahrten (z.B. Hacken) zu öffnen, ist geringer. Die Ergebnisse müssen bestätigt, sowie die Anwendung auf weitere Schadorganismen (Möhrenfliege, Erdflöhe) ausgedehnt werden. Das Produkt «Audienz» weist, frühzeitig appliziert, eine genügende Wirkung gegen C. nasturtii auf.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Vegetables Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/2606/1/wyss%2D2003%2Dposter%2Dkohldrehherz%2Din%2DHalle.pdf
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Barrières contre les ravageurs à faible hauteur de vol dans les cultures maraîchères Organic Eprints
Wyss, Eric; Daniel, Claudia.
Beaucoup des revageurs des cultures maraîchères volent très près du sol. Ils se déplacent à hauteur de culture ou juste au-dessus. On peut barrer à ces ravageurs l'accès à la culture au moyen de filets verticaux, que l'on nomme barrières à insectes.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry Vegetables Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/20494/1/R_2005_01InsektennetzeDerGem%C3%BCsebau.pdf
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Bekämpfung des Apfelblütenstechers mit Spinosad im biologischen Anbau Organic Eprints
Daniel, Claudia; Tschabol, Jean-Luc; Wyss, Eric.
Der Apfelblütenstecher kann lokal sehr starke Schäden verursachen. Bisher gab es im biologischen Anbau keine Möglichkeit diesen Schädling zu bekämpfen. Mit dem neuen Wirkstoff Spinosad – einem bakteriellen Fermentationsprodukt – steht nun auch dem biologischen Anbau ein wirksames Produkt zur Apfelblütenstecherbekämpfung zur Verfügung.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Fruit and berries Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/6510/1/Wyss%2D2005%2DBl%C3%BCtenstecher%2DSZOW.pdf
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Biocontrol potential of entomopathogenic nematodes against nut and orchard pests Organic Eprints
Kuske, S.; Daniel, Claudia; Wyss, Eric; Sarraquigne, J.; Jermini, M.; Conedera, M.; Grunder, M..
Semi-field and field experiments were carried out to evaluate the biological control potential of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) against grubs in hazelnut, chestnut and cherry orchards. Mortality of hazelnut weevils in interred containers treated with 2.2x106 infective juveniles (IJ) m-2 of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora was 75.4%. H. indica caused 65.2% and S. feltiae 43.3% pest mortality, but numbers were not significantly different from the untreated control (33.4%). Mortality of the chestnut weevil was slightly increased in S. carpocapsae (2x106 IJ m-2) treated containers (44.6%) compared to untreated control containers (39.2%), but differences were either not significant. Soil applications against the European cherry fruit fly did not lead to any...
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/6055/1/Daniel%2D2005%2Dnematodes.pdf
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Biodiversity in Organic Horticulture – an Indicator for Sustainability and a Tool for Pest Management Organic Eprints
Wyss, Eric; Pfiffner, Lukas.
Conservation and enhancement of biodiversity are mentioned in the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) standards and in all national guidelines as essential pillars for organic agriculture. Recent reviews show that organic agriculture enhances the number of species and the abundance of many taxa (plants, birds, mammals, earthworms, arthropods, soil microbes), compared with conventional agriculture. Considering the benefits for sustainability, a multi-criteria analysis shows that organic agriculture not only improves biodiversity but also has positive effects on soil (e.g., soil erosion, structure, biological activity), water (e.g., no pesticide residues) and climatic factors (e.g., air pollution). In organic horticulture,...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Vegetables; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Fruit and berries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/17807/1/wyss-pfiffner-2008-actahort.pdf
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Biodiversity in Organic Horticulture – an Indicator for Sustainability and a Tool for Pest Management Organic Eprints
Wyss, Eric; Pfiffner, Lukas.
Conservation and enhancement of biodiversity are mentioned in the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) standards and in all national guidelines as essential pillars for organic agriculture. Recent reviews show that organic agriculture enhances the number of species and the abundance of many taxa (plants, birds, mammals, earthworms, arthropods, soil microbes), compared with conventional agriculture. Considering the benefits for sustainability, a multi-criteria analysis shows that organic agriculture not only improves biodiversity but also has positive effects on soil (e.g., soil erosion, structure, biological activity), water (e.g., no pesticide residues) and climatic factors (e.g., air pollution). In organic horticulture,...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/16986/1/WyssPfiffner_2008_ActaHort767.pdf
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Biolandbau und Gentechnik - So bleibt der Biolandbau gentechnikfrei Organic Eprints
Nowack Heimgartner, Karin; Bickel, Regula; Wyss, Eric.
In dem Dossier wird erläutert, warum der Biolandbau keine «grüne Gentechnik» einsetzt. Es wird dargestellt, wo eine Kontamination der Bioprodukte möglich ist und welche Massnahmen dagegen ergriffen werden können. Eine Gesamteinschätzung der Situation und ein Glossar vervollkommnen den Ratgeber.
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/2866/1/do%2D1200%2Dpflanzenzuechtung.pdf
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