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A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATING SOCIAL WELFARE EFFECTS OF NEW AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY AgEcon
Young, Douglas L..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1977 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/32187
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AGGREGATION ISSUES IN PEST CONTROL ECONOMICS: A BIOECONOMIC APPROACH AgEcon
Young, Douglas L.; Smith, Elwin G.; Kwon, Tae-Jin.
Previous research has defined “aggregate pesticide expenditures” as the control variable; however, virtually all managerial recommendations and environmental restrictions target specific pesticides, rates, and crops. A bioeconomic approach considering particular pesticides on specific pests and crops is recommended for managerial-policy applications and testing for increasing returns. Exponential weed control and seven popular yield damage functional forms were estimated for a bioeconomic weed control model for winter wheat in Washington. Concavity with respect to herbicide rate was observed for most popular damage functions at normal weed densities and manufacturers’ label rates, but convexity existed outside these ranges and should be checked.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bioeconomic; Data aggregation; Herbicide; Increasing returns; Pest control; Pesticide; Weed; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36448
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AN ECONOMIC THRESHOLD FOR TICK CONTROL CONSIDERING MULTIPLE DAMAGES AND PROBABILITY-BASED DAMAGE FUNCTIONS AgEcon
Young, Douglas L.; Haantuba, Hyde H..
The economic threshold for thick infestations on Zambian cattle was analyzed considering both direct production losses and mortality from transmitted diseases. Probability theory applied to mortality risks was used to derive the functional form for disease damage. With only noninfectious ticks, the economic threshold based on liveweight gain losses was three ticks per calf. The threshold recommended dipping calves whenever any disease-infectious ticks were present. Similar threshold results held for cows when considering milk production and disease mortality losses. If disease control benefits are omitted, as in some past work, thresholds will be overstated and dipping recommendations understated when infectious ticks are present.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31204
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AN EXAMINATION OF CASH FLOW AND CONVENTIONAL NET INCOME MEASURES FOR EVALUATING THE ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF FARMS OF VARYING SIZE AgEcon
Holland, David W.; Young, Douglas L..
This study examines the question of income adequacy as it relates to the broader issue of an economically viable farm size in the Columbia Basin of Washington State. The issue is especially relevant because of possible limitations on farm size resulting from enforcement of the 1902 Reclamation Act. Income estimates derived under two alternative accounting frameworks - the standard economic accounting method and the after-tax cash flow accounting method - were examined. Findings were that the after tax cash flow accounting framework was more appropriate for examining the income adequacy aspect of the viability issue as it incorporated the effect of federal income taxes and farmer's equity, both of which are important determinates of income levels. Using the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Finance.
Ano: 1980 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/32524
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An Investment Analysis Approach to Examining Bio-Control of Invasive Weeds AgEcon
Smith, Elwin G.; Young, Douglas L..
Invasive weeds are a large problem on large tracts of rangeland in North America. Biological methods of control have been instituted, but many information gaps remain. An investment model approach is used to demonstrate some of the potentially key pieces of biological data that are required for an analysis. This model is applied to the control of leafy spurge on rangeland. The results of control are very dependent on the rate of spread and control by the biological control agent, the initial density of the weed, and the recovery of the forage (grass) after the weed has been controlled. Benefits of control are relatively low, as is the cost of the biological control practice. It takes several years before net benefits of the control practice are positive.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36286
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An Operational Approach for Evaluating Investment Risk: An Application to the No-Till Transition AgEcon
Upadhyay, Bharat Mani; Young, Douglas L..
Roy's safety-first rule is used to provide measures popular with farmers of short and long term business risk associated with various no-till transition strategies over an investment horizon. The short run rule provided more sensitivity to inter-year financial risk than other commonly used criteria. Results revealed that speed of adoption influenced the probability of successful transition more than did the sequence of drill acquisition methods. Higher equity and larger farms had a greater chance of transition success. Slow acreage expansion with a custom or rental drill reduces risk until a no-till yield penalty is eliminated.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Investment risk; Monte Carlo simulation; No-till; Rent-purchase; Risk; Safety-first; Technology adoption; Transition strategy; Farm Management; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12958
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AN OPERATIONAL APPROACH FOR EVALUATING INVESTMENT RISK: AN APPLICATION TO THE NO-TILL TRANSITION AgEcon
Upadhyay, Bharat Mani; Young, Douglas L..
This study analyses short and long term safety first business risk associated with twenty six no-till transition strategies across four types of farms in eastern Washington. Risk of transition failure generated from risk averse criteria are also contrasted with a risk neutral criterion. Results revealed (1) that speeds of adoption have a larger effect than drill acquisition sequences in successful transition, (2) high equity farm have higher chance of success, and (3) slow acreage expansion with a custom or rental drill is preferred until yield penalty is eliminated.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm Management; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/35992
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Biofuels: Political/Economic Boondoggle or Energy Salvation for Western States? AgEcon
Young, Douglas L..
Nearly all western states lack comparative advantages for producing corn for ethanol and oilseeds for biodiesel. Despite this disadvantage, most western states have legislated incentives for production of biofuels. Unfavorable changes in price relationships, high transportation costs for imported feedstocks, and tight credit markets in 2008 and 2009 led to bankruptcies and plant closures at a disproportionate rate in the western biofuel industry. Policy makers in western states are advised to fund research and development for bioenergy and biofuel feedstocks in which they have a comparative advantage. These include forestry by-products, food processing and crop residues, and livestock wastes.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biodiesel; Bioenergy research; Biofuels; Biofuel bankruptcies; Biofuel feedstocks; Biofuel incentives; Corn ethanol; Western United States; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57632
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COMMODITY AND CONSERVATION POLICY IMPACTS ON RISK AND RETURNS AgEcon
Hoag, Dana L.; Young, Douglas L..
Crop yields, farm income risk and returns, and soil losses were simulated from 1974 to 1984 for southeastern Washington Palouse-region farms in three climatic subregions under alternative conservation and commodity policy scenarios. Historical commodity programs reinforced preexisting disincentives to retire highly erodible land to perennial grasses, but cropland base protection (CBP) legislation would eliminate such disincentives and increase profitability and decrease risk of land retirement. Nevertheless, additional incentives would be needed. Government rental payments can provide necessary incentives, but they are more costly without CBP. CBP was not included in the 1985 farm bill.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/32246
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CROPPING DIVERSITY AND FARM PROGRAMS AgEcon
Smith, Elwin G.; Young, Douglas L..
Cropping diversity along the United States - Canada border of the Great Plains has not been dominated by either country. U.S. wheat policies impacted diversity in both countries through price and in the U.S. by acreage reduction programs. In the 1990s, cropping diversity increased in Canada and declined in the U.S. Since the 1996 U.S. Farm Bill, cropping diversity has increased in the U.S.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36505
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ECONOMICALLY OPTIMAL NITROGEN FERTILIZATION FOR YIELD AND PROTEIN IN HARD RED SPRING WHEAT AgEcon
Baker, Dustin; Young, Douglas L.; Huggins, David R.; Pan, William.
This analysis determines profit maximizing N fertilization levels of hard red spring wheat (HRSW) for various wheat prices, N prices, and protein-based HRSW price premium/discount (P/D) structures for south eastern Washington data. Fertilizer response data consisting of rates of N fertilization (lb/ac), grain yield (bu/ac), and grain protein (%) were used to statistically estimate regression relationships that predicted yield and protein in response to N. All predicted net return maximizing N, protein, and yield levels were within the data range. Increasing P/D incentives for protein increased optimal N, the expected economic result. At the high P/D structures, the P/D structure dominated N and wheat prices in determining optimal N application levels....
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36037
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ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY REFORM: AN INTERREGIONAL COMPARISON AgEcon
Painter, Kathleen M.; Young, Douglas L..
Mathematical programming results revealed that moving toward more flexible agricultural policies would generate substantial economic and environmental gains in a North Carolina diversified cropping region. But in a Washington-Idaho dryland grains region, only the use of relatively new and sometimes problematic alternative cropping systems permitted environmental and economic gains under policy reform. In both regions, a recoupling policy, which links government payments to resource-conserving farming practices, was needed to protect environmental quality when market prices for program crops were high.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agrichemical leaching; Agricultural policy; Alternative agriculture; Erosion; Mathematical programming; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15173
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EVALUATING A PRECISION AGRICULTURE HERBICIDE DECISION MODEL FOR WINTER WHEAT AgEcon
Young, Douglas L.; Kwon, Tae-Jin; Smith, Elwin G.; Young, F.L..
Replaced with revised version of paper 08/02.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19819
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FEEDFORWARD NEURAL NETWORK ESTIMATION OF A CROP YIELD RESPONSE FUNCTION AgEcon
Joerding, Wayne H.; Li, Ying; Young, Douglas L..
Feedforward networks have powerful approximation capabilities without the "explosion of parameters" problem faced by Fourier and polynomial expansions. This paper first introduces feedforward networks and describes their approximation capabilities, then we address several practical issues faced by applications of feedforward networks. First, we demonstrate networks can provide a reasonable estimate of a Bermudagrass hay fertilizer response function with the relatively sparse data often available from experiments. Second, we demonstrate that the estimated network with a practical number of hidden units provides reasonable flexibility. Third, we show how one can constrain feedforward networks to satisfy a priori information without losing their flexible...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biological process models; Feedforward networks; Production function; Neural networks; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15430
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HOW DO FARMERS WHO ADOPT MULTIPLE CONSERVATION PRACTICES DIFFER FROM THEIR NEIGHBORS? AgEcon
Upadhyay, Bharat Mani; Young, Douglas L.; Wang, H. Holly; Wandschneider, Philip R..
This study analyses three key conservation practices adoption behavior for 266 farmers in eastern Washington. Results revealed (1) that multiple practice adopters contrast more sharply with non-adopters than do adopters of a single practice, and (2) single practice adopters differ more from zero practice adopters than from other farmers.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36658
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Prairie Crop Diversification AgEcon
Smith, Elwin G.; Young, Douglas L.; Zentner, Robert P..
The Canadian prairies traditionally have been dominated by spring wheat production. Crop diversification is now being advocated to enhance farm-level risk management, ecological benefits, nutrient cycling, and pest and disease control, and to reduce the farm economy’s reliance on income from a single crop. There has always been interest in diversifying away from wheat, but until recently, economically feasible alternatives have been limited, and government policies may have constrained the shift to other crops. Knowing the impact of prices and policies on crop diversification is essential to understanding producer response and to determining strategies to enhance cropping diversity.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Marketing.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45695
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RELEVANCE OF DUALITY THEORY TO THE PRACTICING AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIST: DISCUSSION AgEcon
Young, Douglas L..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 1982 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/32279
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RISK PERCEPTIONS AND MANAGEMENT RESPONSES: PRODUCER-GENERATED HYPOTHESES FOR RISK MODELING AgEcon
Patrick, George F.; Wilson, Paul N.; Barry, Peter J.; Boggess, William G.; Young, Douglas L..
Farm level risk analyses have used price and yield variability almost exclusively to represent risk. Results from a survey of 149 agricultural producers in 12 states indicate that producers consider a broader range of sources of variability in their operations. Significant differences exist among categories with respect to the importance of the sources of variability in crop and livestock production. Producers also used a variety of management responses to variability. There were significant difference among categories in the importance given to particular responses and their use of them. These results have implications for research, extension, and policy programs.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1985 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/29989
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THE IMPORTANCE OF USING FARM LEVEL RISK ESTIMATES IN CRP ENROLLMENT DECISIONS AgEcon
Bechtel, Amos I.; Young, Douglas L..
Easily accessible county data produced frontiers which substantially underestimated the reduction in risk by enrolling in the CRP. Furthermore, the county yield data portrayed an unattainable level of utility for a moderately risk averse farmer. Farm level data predicted CRP enrollment similar to actual enrollment in the study region.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm Management; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/35717
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THE INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS ON THE LONG RUN FARM LEVEL ECONOMICS OF SOIL CONSERVATION AgEcon
Taylor, Daniel B.; Young, Douglas L..
The complementary interaction between topsoil depth and technical progress for winter wheat in the Palouse region was found to strengthen the long run payoff to conservation tillage. Nonetheless, conservation tillage was found to be competitive with conventional tillage only if its current yield disadvantages were eliminated. Conservation tillage was relatively more competitive on shallower topsoils and for longer planning horizons. Short-term subsidies coupled with research directed towards reducing the cost and yield disadvantages of conservation tillage in the Palouse were advocated to maintain long-term soil productivity.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1985 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/32515
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