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1. Address the what to do. 2. Income generation is first priority Ecology and Society
Pasternak, Dov; ICRISAT; d.pasternak@cgiar.org.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports
Ano: 2003
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A basic guide for empirical environmental social science Ecology and Society
Cox, Michael; Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College; michael.e.cox@dartmouth.edu.
In this paper, I address a gap in the literature on environmental social science by providing a basic rubric for the conduct of empirical research in this interdisciplinary field. Current literature displays a healthy diversity of methods and techniques, but this has also been accompanied by a lack of consistency in the way in which research in this area is done. In part this can be seen as resulting from a lack in supporting texts that would provide a basis for this consistency. Although relevant methods texts do exist, these are not written with this type of research explicitly in mind, and so translating them to this field can be awkward. This paper is designed to fill this gap and enable more consistency in the conduct of empirical environmental social...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Environmental social science; Research design; Research methods.
Ano: 2015
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A Bayesian belief network model for community-based coastal resource management in the Kei Islands, Indonesia Ecology and Society
Hoshino, Eriko; CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, TAS, Australia; Tasmanian School of Business and Economics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; eriko.hoshino@csiro.au; van Putten, Ingrid; CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, TAS, Australia; Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; Ingrid.vanputten@csiro.au; Girsang, Wardis; Faculty of Agriculture, University of Pattimura, Ambon, Indonesia; girsang_2010@yahoo.com; Resosudarmo, Budy P; Indonesia Project, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics, Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University, ACT, Australia; budy.resosudarmo@anu.edu.au; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Tasmanian School of Business and Economics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; satoshi.yamazaki@utas.edu.au.
Understanding the specific relationships between ecological and socioeconomic conditions and marine tenure is likely to contribute to successful functioning of self-governance institutions for common-pool resources. Complex interrelationships of factors influencing fishing activities of coastal communities and implementation of customary marine tenure over their waters can be represented in a Bayesian belief network model. We developed a Bayesian belief network model that includes the links between factors for fishing communities in the Kei Islands in Indonesia, based on indepth local surveys. Our results showed that the cumulative impacts of multiple factors on key social, economic, and environmental outcomes can be much larger than the impact from a...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Bayesian belief network; Community-based management; Customary marine tenure; Indonesia; Small-scale fisheries; Social-ecological systems.
Ano: 2016
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A Biodiversity Informatics Approach to Ethnobotany: Meta-analysis of Plant Use Patterns in Ecuador Ecology and Society
Balslev, Henrik; Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University; henrik.balslev@biology.au.dk; Borchsenius, Finn; Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University; finn.borchsenius@biology.au.dk.
We explored the relative importance of ecosystem diversity, socioeconomic, environmental, and geographical factors in determining the pattern and diversity of people’s plant use in Ecuador, based on existing ethnobotanic investigations and a large database of georeferenced plant collections. For each of 40 communities, we determined the number of plants used and their distribution among 12 use categories. Plant species richness of the ecosystem surrounding each village was determined using herbarium data and rarefaction. Variation in socioeconomic, environmental, and geographical indicator variables at the community level was summarized using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Data were then analyzed using multiple regression and ordination...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Ecosystem diversity; Human– Plant interaction; Plant species richness; Socioeconomic environmental and geographical factors.
Ano: 2012
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A boundary-spanning organization for transdisciplinary science on land stewardship: The Stewardship Network Ecology and Society
Fischer, A. Paige; School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan; apfisch@umich.edu.
Although people and organizations in the Great Lakes region, USA take seriously their role as stewards of natural resources, many lack capacity to fulfill that role in a meaningful way. Stepping into that gap, The Stewardship Network (TSN) envisions “a world of empowered, connected communities caring for land and water, now and forever,” and fulfills that vision through its mission to “connect, equip, and mobilize people and organizations to care for land and water in their communities.” TSN uses a scalable model of linked local and regional capacity building, science communication, civic engagement, and on-the-ground stewardship activities to achieve these goals. The model engages local and regional groups in an...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed article Palavras-chave: Great Lakes; Restoration; Social learning; Stewardship.
Ano: 2015
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A Case for Developing Place-Based Fire Management Strategies from Traditional Ecological Knowledge Ecology and Society
Ray, Lily A; Department of Geography, Clark University; Resilience and Adaptation Program, University of Alaska, Fairbanks ; lray@kawerak.org; Kolden, Crystal A; Department of Geography, University of Idaho; ckolden@uidaho.edu; Chapin III, F. Stuart; Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks ; terry.chapin@alaska.edu.
Sustainability science promotes place-based resource management because natural processes vary among ecosystems. When local science is limited, land managers may be forced to generalize from other ecosystems that function differently. One proposed solution is to draw upon the traditional ecological knowledge that indigenous groups have accumulated through resource use. Integrating traditional ecological knowledge with conventional resource management is difficult, especially when the two offer competing explanations of local environments. Although resource managers may discount traditional ecological knowledge that contradicts conventional resource management, we investigate the possibility that these disagreements can arise when nonlocal resource...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Alaska; Climate change; Indigenous knowledge; Traditional ecological knowledge; Wildfire.
Ano: 2012
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A Cautionary Note on Individual Transferable Quotas Ecology and Society
Sumaila, U. Rashid; UBC Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia; r.sumaila@fisheries.ubc.ca.
Individual transferable quotas (ITQs) are a type of catch share system, which is a tool used by some governments to manage fisheries. Technical reasons for taking a rather cautious approach to the implementation of ITQs have been provided previously. In the current contribution, I first highlight the strengths and weaknesses of ITQs and then provide suggestions on how to design and implement these quotas to mitigate their weaknesses. ITQs need to be designed carefully as part of a broad ecosystem-based management scheme to meet the three generally accepted objectives of modern fisheries management: ecological, economic, and social sustainability.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Catch shares; Ecological sustainability; Economic sustainability; Economic efficiency; Exclusive and transferable rights; Ecosystem-based fisheries management; Fisheries; Individual transferable quotas; ITQs; Social sustainability.
Ano: 2010
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A Classification Framework for Running Adaptive Management Rapids Ecology and Society
Harm Benson, Melinda; University of New Mexico; mhbenson@unm.edu; Morrison, Ryan R.; University of New Mexico; rmorriso@unm.edu; Stone, Mark C.; University of New Mexico; stone@unm.edu.
While adaptive management (AM) is becoming a preferred natural resource management approach, the conditions necessary to engage in AM are not always present. In order for AM to work, there must be an ability to engage in experimentation and then incorporate what is learned. Just as few rivers are unequivocally either “runnable” or “unrunnable” by a whitewater boater, successful AM depends on a number of factors, including legal frameworks and requirements, resource allocation regimes, and existing infrastructure. We provide a classification framework for assessing the physical and institutional capacity necessary for AM using the international classification for whitewater. We then apply this classification framework...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Adaptive management; Conceptual model; Rio Chama; River restoration.
Ano: 2013
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A Classification of Collaborative Management Methods Ecology and Society
Blumenthal, Dana M; University of Minnesota; dblumenthal@npa.ars.usda.gov; Jannink, Jean-Luc; University of Minnesota; jjannink@iastate.edu.
Collaboration among multiple stakeholders can be crucial to the success of natural resource management. In recent years, a wide variety of methods have been developed to facilitate such collaboration. Because these methods are relatively new and come from different disciplines, little attention has been paid to drawing comparisons among them. Thus, it is very difficult for potential users to sort through the increasingly large literature regarding such methods. We suggest the use of a consistent framework for comparing collaborative management methods, and develop such a framework based on five criteria: participation, institutional analysis, simplification of the natural resource, spatial scale, and stages in the process of natural resource management. We...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive management; Agriculture; Agroecosystem analysis; Collaboration; Ecosystem management; Natural resource management; Participatory rural appraisal; Rapid rural appraisal; Soft systems analysis.
Ano: 2000
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A Classification of Landscape Services to Support Local Landscape Planning Ecology and Society
Van Eetvelde, Veerle; Ghent University, Department of Geography; veerle.vaneetvelde@UGent.be.
The ecosystem services approach has been proven successful to measure the contributions of nature and greenery to human well-being. Ecosystems have an effect on quality of life, but landscapes also, as a broader concept, may contribute to people’s well-being. The concept of landscape services, compared to ecosystem services, involves the social dimension of landscape and the spatial pattern resulting from both natural and human processes in the provision of benefits for human-well being. Our aim is to develop a classification for landscape services. The proposed typology of services is built on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) and on a critical review of existing literature on human well-being dimensions,...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Cultural services; Ecosystem services; Holism; Landscape services; Spatial pattern; Transdiciplinarity.
Ano: 2014
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A coastal foodscape: examining the relationship between changing fisheries and community food security on the west coast of Newfoundland Ecology and Society
Lowitt, Kristen N.; McGill University; kristen.lowitt@mcgill.ca.
Fisheries make vital contributions to food security and food security is an important part of fisheries governance. However, there are relatively few in-depth studies examining the consequences of collapsed and changing fisheries for the food security of coastal communities. In this case study I use the concept of the coastal foodscape to look at the relationship between changing fisheries and community food security in the Bonne Bay region on the west coast of Newfoundland. I examine the social-ecological interactions that compose the local food system and their changing relationship to community food security, and point to directions for developing a more resilient and democratic food system.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Community food security; Fisheries restructuring; Foodscapes.
Ano: 2014
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A Cognition-based View of Decision Processes in Complex Social–Ecological Systems Ecology and Society
Beratan, Kathi K.; Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University; Kathi_Beratan@ncsu.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Cognition; Complex social– Ecological systems; Cultural change; Decision making; Discourse; Natural resource management; Schemas.
Ano: 2007
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A Collaborative Research Process Studying Fruit Availability and Seed Dispersal within an Indigenous Community in the Middle Caqueta River Region, Colombian Amazon Ecology and Society
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight
Ano: 2007
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A Community Conversation About a Watershed Ecology and Society
Collay, Ryan; Oregon State University; ryan.collay@smile.oregonstate.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Response
Ano: 2010
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A conceptual framework to evaluate human-wildlife interactions within coupled human and natural systems Ecology and Society
Morzillo, Anita T.; University of Connecticut; anita.morzillo@uconn.edu; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; University of Oklahoma; kdebeurs@ou.edu; Martin-Mikle, Chelsea J.; University of Oklahoma; chelseajane.martin@gmail.com.
Landscape characteristics affect human-wildlife interactions. However, there is a need to better understand mechanisms that drive those interactions, particularly feedbacks that exist between wildlife-related impacts, human reaction to and behavior as a result of those impacts, and how land use and landscape characteristics may influence those components within coupled human and natural systems. Current conceptual models of human-wildlife interactions often focus on species population size as the independent variable driving those interactions. Such an approach potentially overlooks important feedbacks among and drivers of human-wildlife interactions that result from mere wildlife presence versus absence. We describe an emerging conceptual framework...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Coupled human and natural systems; Human-wildlife conflict; Human-wildlife interactions; Landscape ecology; Pesticides; Rodenticides; Wildlife management.
Ano: 2014
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A Contextual Analysis of Land-Use and Vegetation Changes in Two Wooded Pastures in the Swiss Jura Mountains Ecology and Society
Wettstein, Jean-Bruno; Bureau d'agronomie, Switzerland; jeanbrunowettstein97@gmail.com.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports
Ano: 2013
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A Critical Systems Approach to Social Learning: Building Adaptive Capacity in Social, Ecological, Epistemological (SEE) Systems Ecology and Society
McCarthy, Daniel D. P.; Waterloo Institute for Social innovation and Resilience (WISIR) University of Waterloo; dmccarth@uwaterloo.ca; Crandall, Debbe D.; Save the Oak Ridges Moraine Coalition; dcrandall@stormcoalition.org; Whitelaw, Graham S.; Queen's University; graham.whitelaw@queenu.ca; General, Zachariah; University of Waterloo; zachgeneral@gmail.com; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.; University of Waterloo; ljtsuji@uwaterloo.ca.
This paper presents a conceptual tool, or heuristic, for describing the epistemological context for social learning within complex social–ecological systems. The heuristic integrates several definitions of social learning that emphasize the importance of critical reflection and its collaborative nature and that it is rooted in and oriented toward practice through social interactions. The conceptual tool is useful in identifying and conceptually mapping different perspectives based on types of learning described along three dimensions: typology of knowledge; different levels of critical reflection; and scale. The heuristic was originally developed in the context of an environmental planning process in southern Ontario, Canada, and is applied to...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive capacity; Critical systems thinking; First Nations; Social learning.
Ano: 2011
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A cultural landscape approach to community-based conservation in Solomon Islands Ecology and Society
Walter, Richard K; University of Otago; richard.walter@otago.ac.nz; Hamilton, Richard J; The Nature Conservancy, Asia Pacific Division; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University; rhamilton@tnc.org.
International environmental organizations have an increasing commitment to the development of conservation programs in high-diversity regions where indigenous communities maintain customary rights to their lands and seas. A major challenge that these programs face is the alignment of international conservation values with those of the indigenous communities whose cooperation and support are vital. International environmental organizations are focused on biodiversity conservation, but local communities often have a different range of concerns and interests, only some of which relate to biodiversity. One solution to this problem involves adoption of a cultural landscape approach as the ethical and organizational foundation of the conservation program. In our...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Insight Palavras-chave: Archaeology; Biodiversity; Climate change; Coral Triangle; Heritage; Solomon Islands.
Ano: 2014
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A decade of adaptive governance scholarship: synthesis and future directions Ecology and Society
Chaffin, Brian C.; Geography Program, College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University; chaffinb@geo.oregonstate.edu; Gosnell, Hannah; Geography Program, College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University; gosnellh@geo.oregonstate.edu; Cosens, Barbara A.; College of Law and Waters of the West Program, University of Idaho; bcosens@uidaho.edu.
Adaptive governance is an emergent form of environmental governance that is increasingly called upon by scholars and practitioners to coordinate resource management regimes in the face of the complexity and uncertainty associated with rapid environmental change. Although the term “adaptive governance” is not exclusively applied to the governance of social-ecological systems, related research represents a significant outgrowth of literature on resilience, social-ecological systems, and environmental governance. We present a chronology of major scholarship on adaptive governance, synthesizing efforts to define the concept and identifying the array of governance concepts associated with transformation toward adaptive governance. Based...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Adaptive governance; Environmental governance; Literature review; Resilience.
Ano: 2014
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A diagnostic procedure for applying the social-ecological systems framework in diverse cases Ecology and Society
Hinkel, Jochen; Global Climate Forum (GCF), Berlin, Germany; hinkel@globalclimateforum.org; Cox, Michael E.; Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, New Hampshire; michael.e.cox@dartmouth.edu; Binder, Claudia R.; University of Munich, Germany; claudia.binder@geographie.uni-muenchen.de; Falk, Thomas; University of Marburg, Germany; falkt@staff.uni-marburg.de.
The framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems (SES) framework of Elinor Ostrom is a multitier collection of concepts and variables that have proven to be relevant for understanding outcomes in diverse SES. The first tier of this framework includes the concepts resource system (RS) and resource units (RU), which are then further characterized through lower tier variables such as clarity of system boundaries and mobility. The long-term goal of framework development is to derive conclusions about which combinations of variables explain outcomes across diverse types of SES. This will only be possible if the concepts and variables of the framework can be made operational unambiguously for the different types of SES, which, however,...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Common-pool resource; Commons; Complex commons; Public good; Resource system; Resource unit; SES; Social-ecological system; Social-ecological system framework; Sustainability.
Ano: 2015
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