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Registros recuperados: 17
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A Review of the Literature on Telecommuting and Its Implications for Vehicle Travel and Emissions AgEcon
Walls, Margaret; Safirova, Elena.
In this paper, we review 20 relatively recent empirical studies of telecommuting, all of which focus on the trip reduction perspective. The studies include earlier ones with smaller datasets, such as some pilot studies of individual employers, and more recent studies based on broader surveys of both telecommuters and nontelecommuters. We focus on the results of the studies with respect to participation and frequency of telecommuting, the effects on vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) and trips, and in some cases, the impacts on emissions and air quality. Although there does not seem to be a consensus, there is a predominant view that certain factors increase both the likelihood of telecommuting and the frequency of telecommuting. These factors are having children...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Telecommuting; Mode choice; Air quality; Emissions; Labor and Human Capital; R4; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10492
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Assessment of Biomass Burning in the Conterminous United States Ecology and Society
Leenhouts, Bill; U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Bill_Leenhouts@.fws.gov.
Wildland fire has been an integral part of the landscape of the conterminous United States for millennia. Analysis of contemporary and pre-industrial (~ 200 - 500 yr BP) conditions, using potential natural vegetation, satellite imagery, and ecological fire regime information, shows that wildland fires burned 35 - 86 x 106 ha (megahectares) annually in the pre-industrial era, consuming 530 - 1230 teragram (Tg) of biomass. At present, in comparison, 5 - 7 Mha/yr burn, consuming 77 - 189 Tg of biomass annually. If historic fire regimes were restored to non-urban and non-agricultural lands today, 18 - 43 Mha would burn annually, consuming 285 - 602 Tg of biomass. For each era, 11 biomass (wildland and agricultural) burning emissions were estimated, and...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Air quality; Biomass burning; Climate change; Conterminous United States; Emission estimates; Fire regimes; Pre-industrial conditions; Prescribed burning; Wildland fire..
Ano: 1998
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Beyond Water-Quality Regulations for CAFOs? Manure Management Costs to Meet Air-Quality Objectives AgEcon
Aillery, Marcel P.; Gollehon, Noel R..
Federal policy on manure management has focused on water-quality protection. However, animal agriculture is an important source of ammonia-nitrogen and other air emissions, increasing attention on air-quality concerns. Policies to address air emissions would influence both the costs of meeting water-quality objectives and environmental tradeoffs. We consider hypothetical policies at a regional level.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Manure management; Confined animals; Water quality; Air quality; Regional optimization; Chesapeake Bay; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19208
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Electricity Restructuring: Consequences and Opportunities for the Environment AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Heintzelman, Martin.
The universal theme of deregulation of the electricity industry is the dismantling of the exclusive franchise, opening up some segments of the industry to competition. Technological changes in generation have helped eliminate the perception that generation is a natural monopoly, but this change has not occurred in transmission and distribution services. Marketing functions have also been opened up to competition in many places. This paper includes a brief overview of the different approaches to restructuring that have been adopted in selected countries around the world. It also surveys the existing literature that explores various aspects of how electricity restructuring is likely to affect the environment. The effect of restructuring on the environment...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity restructuring; Air quality; Incentive-based regulation; Technological change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; L51; L94.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10854
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Environmental conditions, potential heat-stress state and their relations in a sheep barn under hot climate CIGR Journal
Papanastasiou, Dimitris K.; Panagakis, Panagiotis; Anestis, Vasileios; Bartzanas, Thomas; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tzora, Athina; Kittas, Constantinos.
The aim of this study was to examine climate conditions, air quality, potential heat stress and their relations in a sheep barn under Greek hot weather conditions. Hourly averaged values of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and coarse and fine airborne Particulate Matter (PM) concentration recorded inside and outside a naturally ventilated sheep barn during July, August and September of 2015 were used. Indoors potential heat-stress levels were assessed by means of the Temperature Humidity Index (THI). Descriptive statistics were presented and relations between the environmental parameters and the THI values were investigated. The results showed that inside the sheep barn, THI was positively correlated (p < 0.0001) with temperature and wind...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Hot climate; Air quality; Particulate matter; Heat-stress; Temperature Humidity Index; Sheep.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4913
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Evaluation of additive for reducing gaseous emissions from swine waste CIGR Journal
Sanjay B. Shah; NC State University; Praveen Kolar; Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.
Additives can reduce gaseous emissions from swine waste lagoons and pits.  We have demonstrated for the first time that an additive has the potential to reduce methane emission from an anaerobic swine lagoon.  ManureMax®, a humate product was evaluated for its ability to reduce gas and odor emissions from swine anaerobic lagoon and barn flush-water.  Four treatments, Control (no additive), Low (label dosage), Medium (50% higher than label dosage), and High (200% higher than label dosage) were applied to inclined pipes installed in a swine lagoon.  While the Medium and High treatments were not effective, the Low treatment reduced methane, 2-butanone, and tetrahydrofuran concentrations by 34%, 44%, and 57%, respectively vs. the Control in the pipe headspace....
Palavras-chave: Agricultural engineering; Environmental engineering; Air quality; Greenhouse gases; Animal waste Hog; Mesocosm-scale; Methane; 2-butanone; Tetrahydrofuran; Volatile fatty acids; Toluene.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2111
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General Equilibrium Benefit Transfers for Spatial Externalities: Revisiting EPA's Prospective Analysis AgEcon
Smith, V. Kerry; Sieg, Holger; Banzhaf, H. Spencer; Walsh, Randy.
Environmental policy analyses increasingly require the evaluation of benefits from large changes in spatially differentiated public goods. Such changes are likely to induce general equilibrium effects through changes in household expenditures and local migration, yet current practice "transfers" constant marginal values for even the largest changes. Moreover, it ignores important distributional effects of policy. This paper demonstrates that recently developed locational equilibrium models can provide transferable general equilibrium benefit measures. Our results suggest that taking account of the potential for adjustment and household heterogeneity is important. Applying benefits estimated from this method to the effect of the Clean Air Act amendments in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air quality; Clean air act; Non-market valuation; Tiebout model; Environmental Economics and Policy; H41; Q25; R13.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10820
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Green Price Indices AgEcon
Banzhaf, H. Spencer.
This paper suggests two theoretically consistent and empirically tractable ways that a cost-ofliving index can be expanded to include the environment and other public goods. In addition, it presents an empirical illustration of such an index for Los Angeles, California, incorporating air quality and other spatially varying public goods using a hedonic model. The results indicate that the required information can be recovered and that including public goods can make a noticeable difference in the index.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air quality; Green accounting; Hedonic regression; Nonmarket valuation; Price index; Demand and Price Analysis; E31; H40; I00; Q25; R10.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10538
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Meta Analysis in Model Implementation: Choice Sets and the Valuation of Air Quality Improvements AgEcon
Banzhaf, H. Spencer; Smith, V. Kerry.
We document the sensitivity of welfare estimates derived from discrete choice models to assumptions about the choice set. Such assumptions can affect welfare estimates through both the estimated parameters of the model and, conditional on the parameters, the substitution among alternatives. Our analysis involves estimates of the benefits of air quality improvements in Los Angeles based on discrete choices of neighborhood and housing. We further illustrate the use of meta analysis to document and summarize voluminous information derived from repeated sensitivity analyses.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Meta analysis; Random utility model; Choice set; Air quality; Housing; Environmental Economics and Policy; C15; Q25; R21.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10453
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Quality Adjustment for Spatially-Delineated Public Goods: Theory and Application to Cost-of-Living Indices in Los Angeles AgEcon
Banzhaf, H. Spencer.
This paper illustrates how public goods may be incorporated into a cost-of-living index. When public goods are weak complements to a market good, quality-adjusted prices for the market good capture all the welfare information required. They are also consistent with a Laspeyres index that maintains the bound on a true cost-of-living index. The paper recovers this information from a discrete-choice model, using a simulation routine to solve for the appropriate price adjustments. These concepts are applied to the case of housing, education, crime, and air quality in Los Angeles for 1989 to 1994. Over a period of time when they are improving, incorporating pubic goods into the index lowers the estimated change in the cost of living by 0.5 to 2.6 percentage...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air quality; Discrete choice models; Green accounting; Nonmarket valuation; Price index; Public Economics; C51; D12; D60; E31; H40; R10.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10833
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Retrofitting multi-span dairy buildings to improve indoor environment CIGR Journal
Abdelbary, Khaled M..
Several dairy farms still have old multi-span barns which are encountering several problems in summer and they are: low ventilation rates, non-uniformed air distribution, heat stress and high indoor concentrations of harmful gases. A solution has been suggested, in this study, which is refurbishing the roofs of old multi-span dairy barns by modifying the roof design, increasing the cowshed height and the roof slope angle. In order to implement this new roof design, rigorous experimental measurements and theoretical calculations were carried out to evaluate the indoor environment before and after refurbishment which was determined by measuring and estimating the following parameters: air exchange rate, indoor temperature, gaseous concentrations (NH3, CH4,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering Farm Buildings dairy buildings; Roof refurbishment; Natural ventilation; Indoor environment; Air quality; Gaseous emissions.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4228
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Spatial Considerations in Air- and Water-Quality Tradeoffs for Animal Agriculture AgEcon
Gollehon, Noel R.; Aillery, Marcel P..
Total and average per ton costs of land-applying manure demonstrate the importance of spatial factors on the potential effect of policy limits for water and air emissions. Per ton costs vary with the need to transport greater distances for land application, reflecting the spatial distribution of cropland and animal production. Costs are estimated with a regional modeling framework, applied to the Chesapeake Bay watershed that integrates GIS-based spatial data within an optimization framework.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Regional optimization; Geographic information systems; Spatial data; Manure management; Confined animals; Nutrient policies; Water quality; Air quality; Chesapeake Bay; Environmental Economics and Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9848
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Telecommuting and Emissions Reductions: Evaluating Results from the ecommute Program AgEcon
Walls, Margaret; Nelson, Peter.
In 1999 Congress passed the National Air Quality and Telecommuting Act. This Act established pilot telecommuting programs in five major U.S. metropolitan areas with the express purpose of studying the feasibility of addressing air quality concerns through telecommuting. This study provides the first analysis of data from the "ecommute" program. Using two-and-one-half years of data, we look at telecommuting frequency, mode choice, and emissions reductions. We also look at reporting behavior, dropout rates, and other information to assess the program's performance. We analyze results by city- Denver, Washington, D.C., Houston, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia are the five pilot cities. And finally, we use the program's emissions reduction findings to calculate...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Telecommuting; Mode choice; Air quality; Emissions; Labor and Human Capital; R4; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10628
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The Effects of Driving Restrictions on Air Quality: São Paulo, Bogotá, Beijing, and Tianjin AgEcon
Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Zhang, Wei; Umanskaya, Victoria I..
In a typical driving restriction, vehicle use is restricted based on the vehicle’s license plate; one cannot drive vehicles with certain license plate numbers on certain days. Driving restrictions have been used as a method to reduce urban air pollution or traffic congestion because they are easy and inexpensive to implement. We investigate whether driving restrictions introduced in São Paulo, Bogotá, Beijing and Tianjin have improved air quality. Across different versions of the driving restrictions there is no evidence that the overall air quality at different places has been improved. However, several important results show up in this extensive analysis. Temporal shifting of driving is likely to appear when the restrictions are only effective during...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Driving restriction; Air quality; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103381
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The role of urban green spaces in air quality IPB - Escola Superior Agrária
Feliciano, Manuel; Fernandes, A.; Nunes, Luís; Nunes, T.; Alves, P.; Gonçalves, Artur; Cortez, José Paulo; Dias, L.G..
Tipo: ConferenceObject Palavras-chave: Urban forest; Air quality; Gaseous pollutants; Passive sampling; Spatial pattern.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10198/5778
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Who Changed Delhi's Air? The Roles of the Court and the Executive in Environmental Policymaking AgEcon
Narain, Urvashi; Bell, Ruth Greenspan.
Although there is general public approval of the improvements in Delhi's air quality in the recent years, the process by which this change was brought about has been criticized. A common perception is that air quality policies were prescribed by the Supreme Court, and not by an institution with the mandate for making environmental policy. A careful review of the policy process in Delhi suggests otherwise. We find that the government was intimately involved in policymaking and that the main role of the Supreme Court was to force the government to implement previously announced policies. A good understanding of what happened is essential, as the Delhi experience for instituting change has become a model for other Indian cities as well as neighboring countries.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air quality; Supreme Court; Compressed natural gas; Delhi; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q42; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10466
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Wildfire and Respiratory Illness: Linking Fire Events and Attributes to Health Outcomes AgEcon
Moeltner, Klaus; Kim, Man-Keun; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Erqian Julia.
Existing studies on the economic impact of wildfire smoke have focused either on single fire events or entire fire seasons without distinguishing between individual occurrences. Neither approach allows for an examination of the marginal effects of fire attributes, such as distance and fuel type, on health impacts and costs. Yet, improved knowledge of these marginal effects can provide important guidance for efficient wildfire management strategies. This study aims to bridge this gap using detailed information on 35 large-scale wildfires in the California and Nevada Sierras that have sent smoke plumes to the Reno / Sparks area of Northern Nevada over a three-year period. We relate the daily acreage burned by these fires to daily data on local hospital...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Wildfires; Air quality; Respiratory illness; Distributed lag models; Count data models; Environmental Economics and Policy; Health Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103433
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