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Registros recuperados: 25
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Benefit-Cost Analysis of Uganda’s Clonal Coffee Replanting Program: An Ex-Ante Analysis AgEcon
Benin, Samuel; You, Liangzhi.
The Ugandan coffee industry is facing some serious challenges, including low international prices in the international coffee market, aging coffee trees and declining productivity, and, more recently, the appearance of coffee-wilt disease, which have all contributed to the decline in both the quantity and value of coffee exports. The government of Uganda, through the Uganda Coffee Development Authority (UCDA), in 1993/94 started a coffee-replanting program to both replace coffee trees that were old or affected by coffee-wilt and expand coffee production into other suitable areas in northern and eastern Uganda. This program seems to be helping to both combat the industry’s problems and reverse the declining trends. However, the UCDA announced in 2004 that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Clonal coffee; Benefit-cost analysis; IRR; DREAM; Uganda; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42355
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Benefit-costs analysis of climate-related agricultural investments in Africa: a case study AgEcon
Branca, Giacomo; Lipper, Leslie; Sorrentino, Alessandro.
Paper removed at the request of the first (corresponding) author.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Food security; Adaptation; Mitigation; Benefit-cost analysis; Externalities; Environmental Economics and Policy; D61; D62; H54; O13; Q55.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124109
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Can health warnings and nutritional information lower welfare? AgEcon
Perloff, Jeffrey M..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Benefit-cost analysis; Competition; Health; Monopolies; Nutrition; Welfare economics; Food Security and Poverty; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 1981 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47006
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Climate Change Policy AgEcon
Shogren, Jason F.; Toman, Michael.
Having risen from relative obscurity as few as ten years ago, climate change now looms large among environmental policy issues. Its scope is global; the potential environmental and economic impacts are ubiquitous; the potential restrictions on human choices touch the most basic goals of people in all nations; and the sheer scope of the potential response - a significant shift away from using fossil fuels as the primary energy source in the modern economy -is daunting. In this paper, we explore the economics of climate change policy. We examine the risks that climate change poses for society, the benefits of protection against the effects of climate change, and the costs of alternative protection policies. We organize our discussion around three broad...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Incentive-based policy; International environmental cooperation; Benefit-cost analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q25; Q28; Q48.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10767
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Comparative economic evaluation of solarization in agriculture. Repositório Alice
SHIROTA, R.; GHINI, R.; PACHECO, F.B..
1996
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Environmental contamination; Soil solarization; Economic evaluation; Agrochemicals; Environmental impact; Benefit-cost analysis; Soil.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/12547
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Cost Savings, Market Performance, and Economic Benefits of the U.S. Acid Rain Program AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas.
This paper reports on four areas of research concerning Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that regulates emissions of SO2 from electricity generation. The first is the costs of the program over the long-run as estimated from the current perspective taking into account recent changes in fuel markets and technology. We compare projected costs with potential cost savings that can be attributable to formal trading of emission allowances. The second area is an evaluation of how well allowance trading has worked to date. The third area is the relationship between compliance costs and economic costs from a general equilibrium perspective. The fourth area is a comparison of benefits and costs for the program.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Acid rain; Benefit-cost analysis; Air pollution; Permit trading; Clean Air Act; Environmental Economics and Policy; H43; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10885
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Does Nature Limit Environmental Federalism? AgEcon
Smith, V. Kerry; Schwabe, Kurt A.; Mansfield, Carol.
This research considers whether the principles developed to analyze the optimal jurisdiction for producing public goods can be applied in cases where regulations of private activities provide the primary means to deliver different amounts of public and quasi-public goods. The analysis evaluates how devolution affects the development of benefit cost analyses for regulations and the role of economic versus environmental factors in defining the extent of the regulatory market. Using a study of nutrient control for the Neuse River in North Carolina, the analysis develops area specific measures of the benefits and costs of regulations and illustrates how changes in the composition of the areas allowed to "count" for policy design can affect decisions about the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental federalism; Benefit-cost analysis; Nutrient control; Environmental Economics and Policy; H11; H23; Q28.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10684
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Ecology, Planning, and River Management in the United States: Some Historical Reflections Ecology and Society
Reuss, Martin; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Martin.A.Reuss@HQ02.USACE.ARMY.MIL.
River ecologists are also river-basin planners. However, their role in planning has developed slowly over the decades since the beginning of the 20th century. Three major factors explain this phenomenon. First, ecologists focused on plant and animal communities rather than on broader policy issues related to land settlement and water development. Second, the federal government, and most state and local governments as well, used mainly economic criteria to justify projects. Intangible benefits, including the value of species or an aesthetically pleasing landscape, drew relatively little attention. Third, the public generally favored development, especially during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Only after World War II did the public's position shift in...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: History; Ecology; River basins; Water management; Planning; Benefit-cost analysis; Multiobjective planning; River restoration; Geomorphology.
Ano: 2005
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Ecotourism as a Means of Conserving Wetlands AgEcon
Pemberton, Carlisle A.; Mader-Charles, Kathleen.
The Nariva Swamp on the island of Trinidad in the Caribbean is being degraded due to increasing human activity. However, its conservation is desirable, as it is an internationally recognized wetland. The study examined an ecotourism project, with an emphasis on community participation, as a conservation approach to the Swamp, via benefit-cost analysis, where the benefits of conservation were measured by contingent valuation. Contingent valuation showed that the residents of Trinidad were willing to pay an average of $56 for conserving the Swamp. The analysis also showed that ecotourism represents an economically feasible use of ecologically fragile resources of this wetland.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Benefit-cost analysis; Contingent valuation of wetlands; Ecotourism; Q26; Q51; Q57; R14.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43521
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Environmental Economics AgEcon
Stavins, Robert N..
This article, prepared for the forthcoming second edition of the New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, provides an overview of the economics of environmental policy. Included are the setting of goals and targets, notably the Kaldor-Hicks criterion, and the related method of assessment known as benefit-cost analysis. Also reviewed are the means of environmental policy, that is, the choice of specific policy instruments, featuring an examination of potential criteria for assessing alternative instruments, with focus on cost-effectiveness. The theoretical foundations and experiential highlights of individual instruments are reviewed, including conventional command-and-control mechanisms and market-based instruments.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental economics; Efficiency; Cost-effectiveness; Benefit-cost analysis; Market-based instruments; Tradeable permits; Pollution taxes; Environmental Economics and Policy; K320; Q280; Q380; Q480.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10841
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Environmental Law and Public Policy AgEcon
Revesz, Richard L.; Stavins, Robert N..
This chapter provides an economic perspective of environmental law and policy with regard to both normative and positive dimensions. It begins with an examination of the central problem in environmental regulation: the tendency of pollution generators in an unconstrained market economy to externalize some of the costs of their production, leading to an inefficiently large amount of pollution. We examine the ends of environmental policy, that is, the setting of goals and targets, beginning with normative issues, notably the Kaldor-Hicks criterion and the related method of assessment known as benefit-cost analysis. We examine this analytical method in detail, including its theoretical foundations and empirical methods of estimation of compliance costs and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental economics; Environmental law; Efficiency; Cost-effectiveness; Benefit-cost analysis; Environmental federalism; Environmental Economics and Policy; K320; Q280; Q380; Q480.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10742
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Evaluating Regulatory Impact Analyses AgEcon
Harrington, Winston; Morgenstern, Richard D..
Federal agencies in the United States are required to prepare regulatory impact analyses (RIAs) for every major regulatory action they undertake. Increasingly, other OECD countries are imposing similar requirements. However, there has been little examination of the quality of these documents or of the uses to which they have been put in the regulatory process or elsewhere. In this paper we survey previous efforts to evaluate RIAs and find a fair amount of evaluation of RIAs as stand-alone documents, but much less evaluation of their contribution to producing better regulations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regulation; RIA; Benefit-cost analysis; Cost-effectiveness analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; H11; H43.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10774
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Labour inputs and financial profitability of conventional and agroforestry-based soil fertility management practices in Zambia AgEcon
Ajayi, Olu Clifford; Akinnifesi, Festus K.; Sileshi, G.; Kanjipite, W..
Several agro-ecological practices have been developed to increase the range of soil fertility management options available to farmers, but little information is available on their labour input requirement and profitability relative to conventional practices. This study used a multiple visit cost-route method to estimate labour inputs and financial profitability of agroforestry-based and conventional (with and without fertiliser) soil fertility management practices in eastern Zambia. Results show that aggregated over a five-year cycle, labour inputs used under agroforestry practices were lower than fertilised maize fields but higher than non-fertilised continuous cropped maize. Agroforestry practices were more profitable (NPV ranging between $233 and $327...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Benefit-cost analysis; Impact assessment; Land use management; Project analysis; Sustainable agriculture; Demand and Price Analysis; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55046
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Measuring the Benefits to Advertising under Monopolistic Competition AgEcon
Boland, Michael A.; Crespi, John M.; Silva, Jena; Xia, Tian.
This paper determines the benefits and costs of firm-level advertising in a monopolistically competitive industry. The model is useful in an environment in which firm-level costs may be absent or imprecise. The empirical example uses data on the advertising for a new line of prune snacks by Sunsweet Growers between 2008 and 2010, revealing average benefit-cost estimates from $1.26 to $4.35 for every dollar allocated to the new product line.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Advertising; Benefit-cost analysis; Industrial organization; Monopolistic competition; Agricultural marketing; Agricultural Finance; Financial Economics; Marketing.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122308
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Measuring the poverty impact of ACIAR projects: a broad framework AgEcon
Pearce, David.
This report sets out some broad ideas about how poverty evaluation could be conducted for ACIAR research projects. As with good benefit–cost analysis, there are good practices that need to be observed when undertaking poverty analysis. While poverty is a broad concept, and can be addressed through many means, these need to be grounded in some common understanding of the economics of poverty. This report is concerned mostly with quantitative evaluation, in the same sense that current ACIAR project evaluations are quantitative. That is, it is concerned with saying something about the order of magnitude of the effects of the project. Of course, qualitative analysis is important, and in most cases is a prelude to quantification — there is little point...
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: Poverty evaluation; Benefit-cost analysis; Poverty analysis; Economics of poverty; Quantitative evaluation; Analytical; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Livestock Production/Industries; Production Economics.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47697
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Measuring the Value of Health Improvements from Great Lakes Cleanup AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan J..
Exposure to pollutants in the Great Lakes Region can have significant effects on human health. Some forms of pollution affect humans directly, through the air we breathe and water we drink. Other forms of pollution affect humans indirectly, for example through consumption of contaminated fish. In this paper we describe methods to measure health benefits in monetary and nonmonetary terms in the context of reductions in pollutants as part of a program to improve the environment in the Great Lakes. The paper is meant to be an introduction to this topic for a general audience interested in the Great Lakes.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Great Lakes; Health; Benefit-cost analysis; Health Economics and Policy; I12; Q25.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10861
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National Environmental Policy During the Clinton Years AgEcon
Cavanagh, Sheila M.; Hahn, Robert W.; Stavins, Robert N..
We review major developments in national environmental policy during the Clinton Administration, defining environmental policy to include not only the statutes, regulations, and policies associated with reducing pollution, but also major issues of public lands management and species preservation. We adopt economic criteria for policy assessment - principally efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and distributional equity. While the paper is primarily descriptive, we highlight a set of five themes that emerge in the economics of national environmental policy over the past decade. First, over the course of the decade, national environmental targets were made more stringent, and environmental quality improved. Most important among the new targets were the National...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Air Quality Standards; Benefit-cost analysis; Voluntary programs; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10703
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The Benefits and Costs of Informal Sector Pollution Control: Mexican Brick Kilns AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Newbold, Stephen C.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Cook, Joseph H..
In developing countries, urban clusters of manufacturers which are "informal"-small-scale, unlicensed and virtually unregulated-can have severe environmental impacts. Yet pollution control efforts have traditionally focused on large industrial sources, in part because the problem is not well understood. This paper presents a benefit-cost analysis of four practical strategies for reducing emissions from traditional brick kilns in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. To our knowledge, it is the first such analysis of informal sources. We find very significant net benefits for three of the four control strategies. These results suggest that informal polluters should be a high priority for environmental regulators.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Benefit-cost analysis; Informal sector; Air pollution; US-Mexico Border; Brick kiln; Environmental Economics and Policy; O13; O17; O54; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10532
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The Effects of Trading and Banking in the SO2 Allowance Market AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Mansur, Erin T..
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments initiated a dramatic reduction in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides by electric power plants. This paper provides an evaluation of the environmental and public health consequences of the trading and banking provisions of Title IV. A sizable shift in the geographic location of emissions under Title IV (in some states of over 20 percent of emissions after Title IV is implemented) is attributable to trading and/or to banking. There has been considerable concern that this shift in emissions would cause harm to downwind areas due to long-range transport of pollution. We find the resulting change in atmospheric concentrations and deposition of pollutants, and the change in monetized health benefits, are most...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Acid rain; Sulfur dioxide; Trading; Benefit-cost analysis; Clean Air Act; Environmental Economics and Policy; H43; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10630
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The impact of wage differentials on choosing to work in agriculture AgEcon
Perloff, Jeffrey M..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural labor; Agricultural wages; Benefit-cost analysis; Irca; Labor supply; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 1990 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47251
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