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A metafrontier approach to measuring technical efficiencies across the UK dairy sector AgEcon
Barnes, Andrew Peter; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Sauer, Johannes.
A regional approach is applied to measure technical efficiencies on dairy farms which employs the deterministic metafrontier approach. We construct six super regions for the UK, i.e. Eastern, Western, Northern England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Data are collected through three different administrative systems, all be it under the same FADN guidance. We find for dairy farming comparative indicators of performance in all three data sets. The stochastic frontier approach is applied to construct 6 regional frontiers and a pooled (UK) dataset for comparison. A likelihood ratio test rejects the null hypothesis that these regions operate under a common frontier which may indicate bias in previous attempts to measure dairying efficiency at the country...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Stochastic Production Frontiers; Metafrontiers; UK Farm Account Data; Dairy farming.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q12; D24; C23; C51.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99369
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A mosaic type of development - the Agri-food Districts experience in Italy AgEcon
Brasili, Cristina; Fanfani, Roberto.
The Italian Industrial Districts (IDs) are now considered in the national and international literature as one of the main factors of the successful and rapid industrial development of Italy after the Second World War. In this paper we outline the general characteristics of the IDs approach and then the distinctive figures of the agrifood districts. A mosaic type of development characterised the geographical distribution of the different agrifood districts in the Italian experience. The different origins of agrifood districts often determines their production and structural characteristics of firms, with a relevant role of SMEs. In many cases, these districts originated from handcraft traditions and specific local demand. Their specialized production is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-Food Districts; Italian Industrial Districts (IDs); Technical efficiency of a panel of firms; Economic Development; International Development; A1; C23; O1; Q10; Q17.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9404
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A Mosaic Type of Development: The Agri-Food Districts Experience in Italy AgEcon
Brasili, Cristina; Fanfani, Roberto.
The Italian Industrial Districts (IDs) are now considered in the national and international literature as one of the main factors of the successful and rapid industrial development of Italy after the Second World War. In this paper we outline the general characteristics of the IDs approach and then the distinctive figures of the agrifood districts. A mosaic type of development characterised the geographical distribution of the different agrifood districts in the Italian experience. The different origins of agrifood districts often determines their production and structural characteristics of firms, with a relevant role of SMEs. In many cases, these districts originated from handcraft traditions and specific local demand. Their specialized production is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agri-Food Districts; Italian Industrial Districts (IDs); Technical efficiency of a panel of firms; Economic Development.; International Development; A1; C23; O1; Q10; Q17.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25405
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Abatement and Allocation in the Pilot Phase of the EU ETS AgEcon
Anderson, Barry; Di Maria, Corrado; Convery, Frank J..
We use historical industrial emissions data to assess the level of abatement and overallocation that took place across European countries during the pilot phase (2005-2007)of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. Using a dynamic panel data model, we estimate the counterfactual (business-as-usual) emissions scenario for EU member states. Comparing this baseline to allocated and verified emissions, we conclude that both overallocation and abatement occurred, along with under-allocation and emissions inflation. Over the three trading years of the pilot phase we find over-allocation of approximately 376 million EUAs (6%) and total abatement at the member state level of 107 Mt CO2 (1.8%). However, due to over-allocation and possible uncertainty about...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions Trading Scheme; Climate Policy; Dynamic Panel Data Analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; C23; O13; Q54; Q58.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55831
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Agricultural Trade Flows among Developing Countries: Do Regional Preferential Trade Agreements make a Difference? AgEcon
Tembo, Gelson; Jayne, Thomas S..
Regional integration through trade is recognized as one way to foster economic growth and poverty reduction. This paper uses the gravity model and 11-year panel data (1996-2006) on Southern African Development Community (SADC) member countries to study Zambia’s regional agricultural trade flows and the impact of the SADC Trade Protocol (SADC-TP). Zambia’s volume of trade is significantly related to most of the standard gravity variables. The results indicate that Zambia has been largely trading below potential, especially with respect to exports. There have been improvements in Zambia’s trade flows during the SADC-TP period but only with a few countries. Further improvements will require re-examining protocol implementation and individual countries’...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Southern Africa; Regional trade; Gravity analysis; Zambia; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C23; C51; F12; F14; F15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51733
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Analisis de la calidad de la leche en un modelo microeconomico multi-output: el papel de la genetica AgEcon
Alvarez, Antonio; Arias, Carlos; Roibas, David.
Resumen Este trabajo analiza la calidad en la producción de leche y su relación con la genética del rebaño. El marco analítico es un modelo de producción multi-output en el que la calidad de la leche se considera como un output del proceso productivo. El modelo propuesto abre la posibilidad del tratamiento empírico de la calidad y la genética mediante el uso de funciones distancia. En la parte empírica del trabajo se usa un panel de datos de 96 explotaciones lecheras asturianas que contiene índices genéticos del rebaño. Palabras clave: leche, calidad, genética, multi-output, función distancia. Abstract In this paper we analyze the influence of genetics on milk quality. For that purpose, we use a multi-output production model in which milk quality is...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Milk; Quality; Genetics; Multi-output production model; Distance function.; Livestock Production/Industries; D21; Q12; C23.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28791
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Are You SURE You Want to Waste Policy Chances? Waste Generation, Landfill Diversion and Environmental Policy Effectiveness in the EU15 AgEcon
Iafolla, Valentina; Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Nicolli, Francesco.
We empirically test delinking of waste dynamics with regard to economic growth and the effectiveness of environmental and specific waste-related policies, by exploiting a newly constructed, integrated waste-economic-policy dataset based on official data for the EU15 for 1995-2007. We find that absolute delinking for waste generation is far from being achieved in the EU despite fairly stringent and longstanding policy commitment that goes back to the mid 1990s, but which however is biased towards waste management and waste disposal rather than waste prevention. Policy as well as country structural factors seem to impact instead on landfill diversion. Nevertheless, country heterogeneity matters: SURE based analyses show that EU average figures often hide...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Waste Generation; Landfill Diversion; SUR; EU Waste Policy; Environmental Policy; Delinking; Environmental Economics and Policy; C23; Q38; Q56.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91010
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Assessing U.S. Household Purchase Dynamics for Dietary Fiber AgEcon
Henry-Osorio, Miguel; Dong, Diansheng.
This study updates existing literature on consumer/household demand for fiber by examining household purchase dynamics for dietary fiber. It uses a dynamic Tobit model that allows past purchase occasions to affect current purchase decisions for fiber in a framework that captures simultaneously state dependence, unobserved households heterogeneity preferences, and serial correlation caused by a stationary first-order choice process. The model controls for the unobserved heterogeneity by adopting a Gaussian random effects specification. It also captures variations in prices over time and controls for left-censoring. The dynamic model is estimated using the Geweke-Hajivasssiliou-Keane recursive probability simulator and a unique dataset that contains detailed...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Temporal dependence; Household choice dynamics; Habits; GHK recursive simulator; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; D10; Q11; C23; C61.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123954
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Between Estimates of the Environmental Kuznets Curve AgEcon
Stern, David I..
Acknowledgements: Elbert Dijkgraaf for providing the data used in their paper.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Carbon; Sulfur; Environmental Kuznets curve; Between estimator; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C23; Q53; Q56.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94883
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Can Co-Management Improve the Governance of A Common- Pool Resource? Lessons From A Framed Field Experiment in A Marine Protected Area in the Colombian Caribbean AgEcon
Moreno-Sanchez, Rocio del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio.
Complexities associated with the management of common pool resources (CPR) threaten governance at some marine protected areas (MPA). In this paper, using economic experimental games (EEG), we investigate the effects of both external regulation and the complementarities between internal regulation and non-coercive authority intervention—what we call co-management—on fishermen’s extraction decisions. We perform EEG with fishermen inhabiting the influence zone of an MPA in the Colombian Caribbean. The results show that co- management exhibits the best results, both in terms of resource sustainability and reduction in extraction, highlighting the importance of strategies that recognize communities as key actors in the decision-making process for the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Common-pool resources; Governance; Co-management; Experimental economic games; Fisheries; Latin America.; Environmental Economics and Policy; C93; C72; D02; D70; Q01; Q22; Q28; C23; C25.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60731
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CAP effects on labour use in agriculture: Evidence from alternative dynamic panel data models AgEcon
Petrick, Martin; Zier, Patrick.
Our aim is to investigate whether the direct payments and rural development measures of the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) do make jobs in agriculture safer. We work with a dynamic labour demand equation that is augmented by the full set of policy instruments of the CAP. It is estimated on a unique regional panel dataset of three East German states for the period 1999-2006. We present results for three consistent estimators which differ in how they eliminate the fixed effects and how they instrument the lagged dependent variable, including estimators due to Arellano and Bond, Blundell and Bond, and a corrected least-squares dummy variable estimator due to Kiviet and Bruno. Our results suggest that there were few desirable effects on job maintenance...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural employment; Dynamic panel data models; Common Agricultural Policy; East Germany; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use; Q18; J43; C23.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61355
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CAP IMPACTS ON LABOUR USE IN EAST GERMAN AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Petrick, Martin; Zier, Patrick.
D2_2
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural employment; Dynamic panel data models; Common Agricultural Policy; East Germany; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Q18; J43; C23.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93962
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Carbon Kuznets Curves: Long-run Structural Dynamics and Policy Events AgEcon
Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Musolesi, Antonio.
We study the structural differences among climate change leading ‘factors’ - Northern EU members -, and lagging actors - southern EU countries and the ‘Umbrella group’ - with regard to long run carbon-income relationships. Homogeneous and heterogeneous panel models show that the groups of countries less in favour of stringent climate policy have yet to experience a Kuznets curve, though they show relative delinking. Northern EU instead robustly shows bell shapes. Exogenous policy events such as the 1992 climate change convention appear to be relevant in shaping the EKC of Northern EU. In addition, other events such as the second oil price shock appear to have also impacted in shaping the long run emission/GDP dynamics.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon Kuznets Curve; Panel Cointegration; Heterogeneous Panels; Cross-Section Correlation; Kyoto Framework; Bayesian Models; Policy Events; Long Run Dynamics; Environmental Economics and Policy; C23; Q53.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55286
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Causes of Diversification in Agriculture Over Time: Evidence From Norwegian Farming Sector AgEcon
Culas, Richard J.; Mahendrarajah, Mahen.
Farm planning generally focuses on optimal diversification with respect to risk and uncertainties, where the risk-management strategies combine production, marketing, financial and environmental responses of the production of farm firm. In this study an empirical examination of farm diversification has been carried out from a sample of farms in Eastern Norway in which four measures of diversification (indices) were defined to incorporate the risk and uncertainties in relation to farm production (total) income. Using these four alternative measures of diversification and panel-data techniques, it has been shown that larger farms are more diversified, and when there is productive location and access to labour the farmers have a greater incentive to spread...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Farm diversification; Risk and uncertainty; Environmental management; Panel data; Agribusiness; C23; Q12; Q20.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24647
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Climate Change and Tourism in Tuscany, Italy. What if heat becomes unbearable? AgEcon
Cai, Mattia; Nunes, Paulo A.L.D.; Ferrise, Roberto; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco.
This paper investigates the empirical magnitude of climate conditions on tourist flows in Tuscany, exploring the use of a fine spatial scale analysis. In fact, we explore the use of an 8-year panel dataset of Tuscany’s 254 municipalities, examining how tourist inflows respond to variation in local weather conditions. In particular, as the area enjoys a fairly mild Mediterranean climate, our analysis focused on temperature extremes at key times of the tourist season, i.e., on maximum summer temperature and minimum winter temperature. Separate analyses are conducted for domestic and international tourists, so as to test the differences in the preferences among these distinct groups (or types of demand). Estimation results show the impact of climate change on...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Domestic Tourists; International Tourists; Municipalities; Maximum And Minimum Daily Temperature; Dynamic Model; Temperature Demand Elasticity; GMM; Environmental Economics and Policy; C23; D01; L83.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/115851
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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF CO-REGULATORY APPROACHES TO FOOD SAFETY CONTROLS AgEcon
Hussein, Mohamud; Fearne, Andrew; Martinez, Marian Garcia; Di Falco, Salvatore.
Food safety controls are currently enforced in the UK by a variety of regulatory approaches that considerably differ in their efficiency and effectiveness in achieving social goals of safe food supply and improved consumer confidence. Aim of this study is to establish whether a coregulatory enforcement of these controls is more cost-effective than the traditional command-and- control enforcement modes. First of its kind, the study reviewed a vast theoretical literature on economics of food safety and incentives to develop a conceptual framework and appropriate methodology for comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of co-regulatory approaches to food hygiene controls in the UK meat industry. A panel data on costs and compliance of 710 meat firms operating...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Cost-effectiveness; Co-regulation; Food safety; Incentives; Panel data modelling; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; C23; K32; Q18; Q28.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91725
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Consumption Growth in a Booming Economy: Taiwan 1976-96 AgEcon
McKenzie, David.
Consumption and income have both grown rapidly in Taiwan over the past forty years, with younger birth cohorts experiencing faster growth. The long upward trend in consumption presents a strong challenge to the consumption smoothing predictions of the Permanent Income Hypothesis. We investigate the extent to which consumption theory can account for this trend in an environment where a large majority of households have high savings rates. Household survey data from 1976-96 are used to estimate dynamic pseudo-panel models with inter-cohort heterogeneity. We evaluate the impacts on consumption of migration, mortality, household composition, liquidity constraints, unanticipated aggregate shocks, hyperbolic discounting, habit formation and precautionary saving....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumption growth; Pseudo-panel; Prudence; Taiwan; International Development; O12; O16; E21; C23.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28398
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Contributions towards climate change vulnerability and resilience from institutional economics AgEcon
Diaz Simal, P.; Torres Ortega, S..
This paper analyzes the various contributions made in the economic literature that influence climate change vulnerability. We try to create conceptual order and transparence in the contributions identifying the assumptions and constraints that each school has introduced into academic debate and practical application. We analyze the conceptual framework that articulates the debate, review the theoretical approaches developed in the literature identifying the object of analysis and the basics of each theory, so that the real model implications are established in each case study. From this scheme we derive a clarifying proposal for organizing theoretical discourse. We specifically focus on the theoretical assumptions underlying each model. We conclude with...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Evolutionary; Institutional; Resilience; Vulnerability; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Q12; C23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/117621
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Creating the Conditions for International Business Expansion: The Impact of Regulation on Economic Growth in Developing Countries - A Cross-Country Analysis AgEcon
Jililian, Hossein; Kirkpatrick, Colin; Parker, David.
The role of an effective regulatory regime in promoting economic growth and development and therefore international business has generated considerable interest among researchers and practitioners in recent years. In particular, building effective regulatory structures in developing countries is not simply an issue of the technical design of the most appropriate regulatory instruments, it is also concerned with the quality of supporting regulatory institutions and capacity. Many of the institutions that support markets are publicly provided and the effectiveness of these regulatory institutions can be expected to be an important determinant of how well markets function. This paper explores the role of regulation in affecting economic outcomes using an...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Economic growth; Regulation; Governance; Institutions; Economic performance; International Development; C23; I18; L33; L51; L98; O38; O50.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30554
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Democratic Institutions and Environmental Quality: Effects and Transmission Channels AgEcon
Romuald, Kinda Somlanare.
This paper aims at analysing the effect of democratic institutions on environmental quality (carbon dioxide per capita, sulfure dioxide per capita) and at identifying potential channel transmissions. We use panel data from 1960 to 2008 in 122 developing and developed countries and modern econometric methods. The results are as follows: Firstly, we show that democratic institutions have opposite effects on environment quality: a positive direct effect on environment quality and a negative indirect effect through investments and income inequality. Indeed, democratic institutions attract investments that hurt environment quality. Moreover, as democratic institutions reduce income inequality, they also damage environment. Secondly, we find that the direct...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Democratic institutions; Air pollution; Panel data; Income inequality; Investments; Environmental Economics and Policy; O43; Q53; C23; D31; E22.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120396
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