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A MODEL OF HOUSEHOLD TYPE SPECIFIC FOOD DEMAND BEHAVIOUR IN HUNGARY AgEcon
Brosig, Stephan.
The paper describes a two stage model of Hungarian households'’ food demand. Demand for the food aggregate is represented by a Working-Leser type single equation model while demand for seven distinct food types is modelled in a complete demand system using the LA/AIDS functional form. Estimation is based on household budget survey data for 1996. Demand elasticities are estimated for average households as well as for specific groups defined by sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and vegetables are found to be the food types with most elastic demand but in general, differences between elasticities for different products as well as between different sociodemographic groups are relatively small.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food demand; Demand modelling; Hungary; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; D12; C31; C51.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14864
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An Econometric Analysis of the Environmental Benefits Provided by the Conservation Reserve Program AgEcon
Fleming, Ronald A..
Over $1.7 billion has been spent on the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) since 1985. The purpose of this study is to show that these expenditures have aided the environment. Rather than quantify changes in environmental variables, a spatial econometric model is used to test if CRP enrollments are greater in counties with poorer environmental quality. In seven of nine regions, CRP enrollments are higher in counties with an environmental concern. This positive finding justifies past expenditures by the CRP and supports continued funding as an environmental program. The CRP is targeting current environmental concerns that will lead to future improvement.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Conservation Reserve Program; Econometrics; Environmental quality; Soil erosion; Spatial data; Water quality; Wildlife habitat; Q28; Q58; C31; Q24; Q25.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43388
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Assessing the Technical and Allocative Efficiency of Marketing Decisions by U.S. Organic Producers AgEcon
Lohr, Luanne; Park, Timothy A..
We develop measures of technical and allocative efficiency of producers in marketing certified organic products. A stochastic output distance frontier and the associated revenue share equations are estimated using comprehensive U.S. data on certified organic producers. Farm-level measures of technical efficiency are calculated and factors which enhance performance are identified. Factors that systematically influence allocative efficiency are assessed. The revenue mix of organic producers is systematically inefficient as both male and female producers rely too heavily on revenue from organic markets relative to conventional outlets.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Organic farming; Stochastic frontier; Technical efficiency; Allocative efficiency; Farm Management; Marketing; D21; C31; Q01.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103365
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Assessing the Technical and Allocative Efficiency of U.S. Organic Producers AgEcon
Park, Timothy A.; Lohr, Luanne.
We develop measures of technical and allocative efficiency of producers in marketing certified organic products. A stochastic output distance frontier and the associated revenue share equations are estimated using comprehensive U.S. data on certified organic producers. Farm-level measures of technical efficiency are calculated and factors that enhance performance are identified. Factors that systematically influence allocative efficiency are assessed. The revenue mix of organic producers is systematically inefficient as both male and female producers rely too heavily on revenue from organic markets relative to conventional outlets.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Organic farming; Stochastic frontier; Technical and allocative efficiency; Agribusiness; Farm Management; Marketing; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Public Economics; D21; C31; Q01.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90678
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BANDWIDTH SELECTION FOR SPATIAL HAC AND OTHER ROBUST COVARIANCE ESTIMATORS AgEcon
Lambert, Dayton M.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M.; Cho, Seong-Hoon.
This research note documents estimation procedures and results for an empirical investigation of the performance of the recently developed spatial, heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation consistent (HAC) covariance estimator calibrated with different kernel bandwidths. The empirical example is concerned with a hedonic price model for residential property values. The first bandwidth approach varies an a priori determined plug-in bandwidth criterion. The second method is a data driven cross-validation approach to determine the optimal neighborhood. The third approach uses a robust semivariogram to determine the range over which residuals are spatially correlated. Inference becomes more conservative as the plug-in bandwidth is increased. The data-driven...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Spatial HAC; Semivariogram; Bandwidth; Hedonic model; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Demand and Price Analysis; Land Economics/Use; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C13; C31; R21.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44258
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BANDWIDTH SELECTION FOR SPATIAL HAC AND OTHER ROBUST COVARIANCE ESTIMATORS AgEcon
Lambert, Dayton M.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M.; Cho, Seong-Hoon.
This research note documents estimation procedures and results for an empirical investigation of the performance of the recently developed spatial, heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation consistent (HAC) covariance estimator calibrated with different kernel bandwidths. The empirical example is concerned with a hedonic price model for residential property values. The first bandwidth approach varies an a priori determined plug-in bandwidth criterion. The second method is a data driven cross-validation approach to determine the optimal neighborhood. The third approach uses a robust semivariogram to determine the range over which residuals are spatially correlated. Inference becomes more conservative as the plug-in bandwidth is increased. The data-driven...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Spatial HAC; Semivariogram; Bandwidth; Hedonic model; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C13; C31; R21.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45964
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CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: A SPATIAL SAMPLE SELECTION MODEL AgEcon
Ward, Patrick S.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M.; Flores-Lagunes, Alfonso.
Using data at a high spatial resolution, we estimate a cereal yield response function conditional upon climatological and topographical features using a recently developed estimator for spatial process models when sample selection is of concern. We control for localized spatial correlation in unobserved disturbances affecting both the selection to plant cereals as well as in the resulting conditional yield response. We find that cereal yields across Sub-Saharan Africa will decline with increasing temperatures resulting from global climate change, and that failing to control for sample selection leads to underestimation of these adverse effects.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural productivity; Climate change; Spatial econometrics; Sample selection; Generalized method of moments; Land Economics/Use; Productivity Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C31; Q18; C50.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116182
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Demand for Urban Forests and Economic Welfare: Evidence from the Southeastern U.S. Cities AgEcon
Zhu, Pengyu; Zhang, Yaoqi.
This study examines the relationship between urban forests and household income and population density in the 149 cities with populations over 40,000 in nine southeastern states. Our empirical results show that urban forest percentage across the cities has characteristics of the environmental Kuznets curve. We find that household income around $39,000 is a threshold that changes the relationship between income and urban forest coverage from negative to positive, whereas the impact of population density on urban forests is just the opposite, from positive to negative when population density is around 180 persons per square kilometer.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environmental Kuznets curve; Environmental quality; Income; Land use; Population density; Tree canopy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; C31; Q23; Q56; Q57; R14.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43758
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Democracy and FDI AgEcon
Busse, Matthias.
Many believe that multinational enterprises insensitively ignore political rights and civil liberties in the countries of their investments. Frequently, non-governmental organisations accuse multinationals of fostering repressive regimes in developing countries and consider foreign direct investment (FDI) as a tool of exploitation. This paper tries to examine empirically the complex relationship between democracy and FDI in a systematic way, using cross-sectional and panel data analysis. The results indicate that - on average - investments by multinationals are significantly higher in democratic countries, thereby refuting the hypothesis that political repression fosters FDI. Yet this positive link does not hold for the 1970s, when a considerable share of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: FDI; Democracy; Political Rights; Civil Liberties; Political Economy; C31; C 33; F21; F23.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26260
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Does Where You Live Make You Fat? Obesity and Access to Chain Grocers AgEcon
Chen, Susan E.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M.; Snyder, Samantha D..
This paper investigates the role that aspects of the physical environment play in determining health outcomes in adults as measured by body mass index (BMI). Using spatial econometric techniques that allow for spatial spillovers and feedback processes, this research specifically examines how differing levels of access to large chain grocers has on individual health outcomes. While other studies have investigated the impact of proximity to food retailers, the point-coordinate data used in this paper is uniquely suited to spatial econometric estimation at the individual level. In addition to modeling spatial dependence and allowing for unobserved neighborhood effects, the flexibility of the model is increased by incorporating potential spatial...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Body mass index; Obesity; Spatial dependence; Obesogenic environments; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; C31; D12; I12; I18.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53838
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Economic Efficiency of Smallholder Intensive Dairy Farms in Iran: Adjusted for Market Distortion AgEcon
Bakhshoodeh, Mohamad; Shahnoushi, Naser.
The dairy farmers in Iran are faced with milk price distortion due to the market imperfection. To measure an unbiased farm-specific efficiency, prices should be adjusted in an imperfect market. To examine this issue, a shadow-price profit frontier was applied to a sample of 860 Iranian small intensive dairy farms surveyed in 2005-06 in order to calculate profit efficiency of individual dairy farmers. This adjusted measure was then compared with that of unadjusted measure that assumes undistorted market. A multiple general linear model (GLM) technique was applied to the data to examine the multiple effects of pure-bred animals, and the used farm capacity on profit efficiency indices. The mean value of adjusted profit efficiency was 0.40, significantly...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Profit efficiency; Dairy farms; Iran; Agribusiness; Livestock Production/Industries; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C31; N55; Q12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52996
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Economies of Scale in the Floriculture Industry AgEcon
Schumacher, Sara K.; Marsh, Thomas L..
This study investigated the cost structure of the floriculture industry in the United States. Economies of scale and input elasticities were estimated with a normalized quadratic cost function. Results suggest that economies of scale exist in the floriculture industry. As producers become large and more automated, they have a cost advantage relative to smaller producers who are producing the same output product mix. The existence of economies of scale suggests that average grower size can increase in the future as growers increase in size to take advantage of cost efficiencies.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Duality; Economies of scale; Floriculture; Nonprice variables; Q12; C31; D20.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43145
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Effects of Traceability on the Italian Fresh Vegetables Market: A Demand System Simulation AgEcon
Caracciolo, Francesco; Cembalo, Luigi.
Traceability can serve various purposes in the food sector, including that of chain quality control. However, the aspects that seem to be most frequently required of traceability are those related to food safety. Nevertheless, traceability systems development has recently shifted its focus from the major aspects of food safety to a price premium search approach. Although such an approach often appears to lie behind production strategies, there is no technical or theoretical evidence to support it: traceability systems do not guarantee, per se, quality. On the other hand, a rigorous traceability system that pursues multiple objectives involves costly procedures that are very likely to feed all the way up to the consumer side. The mainstream literature is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Traceability; Early potato; Censored demand system estimation; Sample selection approach; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Production Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; D12; C31; C34.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/100503
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Estimating Poverty Over Time and Space: Construction of a Time-Variant Poverty Index for Costa Rica AgEcon
Cavatassi, Romina; Davis, Benjamin; Lipper, Leslie.
This paper presents the construction of a spatially explicit, nationally disaggregated measure of poverty over time in Costa Rica. The paper first describes the two possible methods considered for the construction of a poverty map: principal component analysis (PCA) versus small area estimation. Next, reasons for choosing PCA and a description of its application both at one point in time (1973) and over time are presented together with the resulting poverty maps. The methodology applied represents a methodological innovation in that the resulting poverty map is time variant rather than concentrated in a single moment in time. A comparison of the results obtainable using various techniques and a discussion on the relative merits of the various options...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty Mapping; Principal Component Analysis; Time-variant Poverty Index; Small-area Estimation.; Food Security and Poverty; C43; I32; C31.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23791
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Estimation of Treatment Effect of Asthma Case Management Using Propensity Score Methods AgEcon
Brandt, Sylvia J.; Gale, Sara; Tager, Ira.
Objective: To estimate the treatment effect from participating in an asthma intervention that was part of the National Asthma Control Program. Study Setting: Data on children who participated in asthma case management (N=270) and eligible children who did not participate in case management (N=2,742) were extracted from a claims database. Study Design: We created 81 measures of health care utilization and 40 measures of neighborhood characteristics that could be related to participation in the program. The participation model was selected using the cross-validation-based Deletion Substitution and Addition (DSA) algorithm. We used optimal full matching for the vector of Mahalanobis’ distances and propensity scores to estimate the difference between...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Asthma; Treatment effect; Health intervention; Propensity scores; Consumer/Household Economics; Health Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; I1; D13; H51; C31; C80; C81; C83.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53124
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Estrategias empresariales y propension exportadora de la industria agroalimentaria catalana y espanola AgEcon
Ameur, Mehrez; Gil, Jose Maria.
Resumen En un entorno económico más globalizado, la competitividad de las empresas se convierte en una necesidad estratégica de supervivencia, sobre todo en el sector agroindustrial. Ante los cambios observados en los mercados y los hábitos del consumidor, las empresas deben adaptarse adoptando las estrategias adecuadas. El objetivo de este trabajo se centra en determinar los principales factores explicativos de la propensión exportadora de la industria agroalimentaria española y catalana. Los datos utilizados proceden de la Encuesta de Estrategias Empresariales (ESEE). Para alcanzar este objetivo, se ha especificado y estimado un modelo que tiene en cuenta la naturaleza microeconómica de los datos utilizados. La cualificación del personal, la presencia...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agrofood industry; Firms' strategies; Exports; Catalonia; Agribusiness; C31; L66.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28797
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Existe convergência espacial da produtividade agrícola no Brasil? AgEcon
Almeida, Eduardo Simões de; Perobelli, Fernando Salgueiro; Ferreira, Pedro Guilherme Costa.
This work analyzes the convergence of land productivity for Brazilian regions from 1991 to 2003. It evaluates if there is or not convergence of the agricultural productivity, controlling explicitly for spatial effects. To do so, an exploratory spatial data analysis was previously implemented and the presence of spatial autocorrelation for the land productivity was detected. In addition, spatial econometric models were developed for the convergence analysis.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Convergence; Land productivity; Spatial econometrics; Spatial autocorrelation.; Agribusiness; R12; C31; Q10..
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61267
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Export Structure, FDI and Child Labour AgEcon
Busse, Matthias; Braun, Sebastian.
The paper addresses the linkage between certain aspects of the increasing economic integration of world markets and the level of child labour. We empirically examine, first, the often-cited conventional wisdom that multinational enterprises invest in countries where the extent of child labour is relatively high and, second, the concern that countries may gain an unfair comparative advantage in trade by using child labour. The results indicate that multinationals are highly sensitive with respect to the location of their transplants and prefer countries with lower levels of child labour. The opposite outcome applies to child labour and comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, where we find a statistically significant positive relationship. Based on...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Child Labour; Economic Integration; Trade; FDI; International Relations/Trade; Labor and Human Capital; C31; F15; J82.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26174
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Farmland Allocation along the Rural-Urban Gradient: The Impacts of Urbanization and Urban Sprawl AgEcon
Delbecq, Benoit A.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M..
In the vicinity of a city, farmers are confronted with increasing agricultural land prices and rents along the rural-urban gradient, but they concurrently enjoy the advantages associated with proximity to a larger and wealthier consumer base. We hypothesize that farmers transition from low-value, land-intensive \traditional" crops to high-value, labor-intensive \specialized" crops on parcels located closer to urban centers. Once returns to development of a parcel exceed the profits associated with farming, exurban farmers may sell their land for conversion to urban use. Urban pressure in the rural-urban fringe intensifies as cities expand. We differentiate between a gradual process of urban growth (or urbanization) and urban sprawl. Utilizing farmland...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land use; Urban sprawl; Agriculture; Specialized crops; Spatial econometrics; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Land Economics/Use; C31; O13; Q15; R14.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61723
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Is Agricultural Production Spillover the Rationale Behind NEPAD CAADP Framework? Spatial Econometric Approach AgEcon
Ulimwengu, John M.; Sanyal, Prabuddha.
Since 2003, the NEPAD Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) has been endorsed by African Heads of State and Governments as a vision for the restoration of agricultural growth, food security, and rural development in Africa. The program aims at stimulating agriculture-led development that eliminates hunger and reduces poverty and food insecurity. As pointed out by Etro (2001), the creation of a union or adoption of a common agenda should move the equilibrium toward the first best solution whenever policies generate spillovers. This arises because the ability of a common agenda to reduce the scope of free-riding behavior among member countries. In addition, increasing world market integration leads to more externalities which call...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: CAADP; Agriculture; Spatial panel model; Externalities; Spillover.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C31; Q18.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60945
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