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A BAYESIAN ALTERNATIVE TO GENERALIZED CROSS ENTROPY SOLUTIONS FOR UNDERDETERMINED ECONOMETRIC MODELS AgEcon
Heckelei, Thomas; Mittelhammer, Ronald C.; Jansson, Torbjorn.
This paper presents a Bayesian alternative to Generalized Maximum Entropy (GME) and Generalized Cross Entropy (GCE) methods for deriving solutions to econometric models represented by underdetermined systems of equations. For certain types of econometric model specifications, the Bayesian approach provides fully equivalent results to GME-GCE techniques. However, in its general form, the proposed Bayesian methodology allows a more direct and straightforwardly interpretable formulation of available prior information and can reduce significantly the computational effort involved in finding solutions. The technique can be adapted to provide solutions in situations characterized by either informative or uninformative prior information.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Underdetermined Equation Systems; Maximum Entropy; Bayesian Priors; Structural Estimation; Calibration; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C11; C13; C51.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56973
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A Flexible Multistage Demand System Based on Indirect Separability AgEcon
Moschini, GianCarlo.
The notion of indirect separability is exploited to derive a new multistage demand system. The model allows a consistent parameterization of demand relations at various budgeting stages and it fulfills the requirement of flexibility while satisfying separability globally. Two propositions are derived to characterize flexible and separable functional forms, which lead to the specification of a flexible and separable translog (FAST) demand system. The model is particularly attractive for modeling large complete demand systems, and is illustrated with an application to Canadian food demand.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; D11; D12; C51.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18514
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A metafrontier approach to measuring technical efficiencies across the UK dairy sector AgEcon
Barnes, Andrew Peter; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Sauer, Johannes.
A regional approach is applied to measure technical efficiencies on dairy farms which employs the deterministic metafrontier approach. We construct six super regions for the UK, i.e. Eastern, Western, Northern England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Data are collected through three different administrative systems, all be it under the same FADN guidance. We find for dairy farming comparative indicators of performance in all three data sets. The stochastic frontier approach is applied to construct 6 regional frontiers and a pooled (UK) dataset for comparison. A likelihood ratio test rejects the null hypothesis that these regions operate under a common frontier which may indicate bias in previous attempts to measure dairying efficiency at the country...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Stochastic Production Frontiers; Metafrontiers; UK Farm Account Data; Dairy farming.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q12; D24; C23; C51.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99369
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A MODEL OF HOUSEHOLD TYPE SPECIFIC FOOD DEMAND BEHAVIOUR IN HUNGARY AgEcon
Brosig, Stephan.
The paper describes a two stage model of Hungarian households'’ food demand. Demand for the food aggregate is represented by a Working-Leser type single equation model while demand for seven distinct food types is modelled in a complete demand system using the LA/AIDS functional form. Estimation is based on household budget survey data for 1996. Demand elasticities are estimated for average households as well as for specific groups defined by sociodemographic characteristics. Fruit and vegetables are found to be the food types with most elastic demand but in general, differences between elasticities for different products as well as between different sociodemographic groups are relatively small.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food demand; Demand modelling; Hungary; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; D12; C31; C51.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14864
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A Model of Inflation for Sri Lanka AgEcon
Cooray, Arusha.
This paper uses two models: an open economy model and a closed economy model to estimate a price equation for Sri Lanka. The results suggest greater support for the open economy model. Consistent with previous studies for Sri Lanka, supply side factors appear to be important in influencing the general price level in Sri Lanka.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Sri Lanka; Inflation; Price; Nested - non nested models; Cointegration; Error correction; Farm Management; E31; E64; C51; C52.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50017
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A SPATIAL ECONOMETRIC STAR MODEL WITH AN APPLICATION TO U.S. COUNTY ECONOMIC GROWTH, 1969–2003 AgEcon
Pede, Valerien O.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M.; Holt, Matthew T..
Spatial regression models incorporating non-stationarity in the regression coefficients are popular. We propose a spatial variant of the Smooth Transition AutoRegressive (STAR) model that is more parsimonious than commonly used approaches and endogenously determines the extent of spatial parameter variation. Uncomplicated estimation and inference procedures are demonstrated using a neoclassical convergence model for United States counties.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Spatial autoregression; Smooth transition; Spatial econometrics; STAR; GWR; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Labor and Human Capital; Political Economy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C21; C51; R11; R12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48117
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A Spatiotemporal Fixed Effects Estimation of U.S. State-Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions AgEcon
Burnett, J. Wesley; Bergstrom, John C..
One of the major shortcommings of past environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) studies is that the spatiotemporal aspects within the data have largely been ignored. By ignoring the spatial aspect of pollution emissions past estimates of the EKC implicitly assume that a region’s emissions are unaffected by events in neighboring regions (i.e., assume there are no transboundary pollution emissions between neighbors). By ignoring the spatial aspects within the data several past estimates of the EKC could have generated biased or inconsistent regression results. By ignoring the temporal aspect within the data several past estimates of the EKC could have generated spurious regression results or misspecified t and F statistics. To address this potential...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Pollution Economics; Environmental Kuznets Curve; Spatial Econometrics; Dynamic Panel Data; Carbon Dioxide Emissions; Global Climate Change; Environmental Economics and Policy; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C33; C51; Q43; Q50; Q53; Q58.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103580
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Adapting agriculture to climate change AgEcon
Iglesias, Ana; Quiroga, Sonia; Diz, Agustin; Garrote, Luis.
We evaluate the potential impacts and measure the potential limits of adaptation of agriculture to climate change. Pressures on land and water resources are expected to intensify existing risks in low latitude areas – e.g., South-East Asia deltas – and in regions with current water scarcity – e.g. Mediterranean, and create new opportunities in some northern temperate areas – e.g., Northern Russia, Northern Europe. The need to respond to these risks and opportunities is addressed by evaluating the costs and benefits of a number of technical and policy actions. The discussion aims to assist stakeholders facing the adaptation challenge and develop measures to reduce the vulnerability of the sector to climate change.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Climatic change; Global production; Mitigation; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C51; C53; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120200
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Agricultural Trade Flows among Developing Countries: Do Regional Preferential Trade Agreements make a Difference? AgEcon
Tembo, Gelson; Jayne, Thomas S..
Regional integration through trade is recognized as one way to foster economic growth and poverty reduction. This paper uses the gravity model and 11-year panel data (1996-2006) on Southern African Development Community (SADC) member countries to study Zambia’s regional agricultural trade flows and the impact of the SADC Trade Protocol (SADC-TP). Zambia’s volume of trade is significantly related to most of the standard gravity variables. The results indicate that Zambia has been largely trading below potential, especially with respect to exports. There have been improvements in Zambia’s trade flows during the SADC-TP period but only with a few countries. Further improvements will require re-examining protocol implementation and individual countries’...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Southern Africa; Regional trade; Gravity analysis; Zambia; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C23; C51; F12; F14; F15.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51733
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Alternative Theories and Empirical Approaches to Price Discovery: An Application to Fed Cattle AgEcon
Carlberg, Jared G.; Ward, Clement E..
Price discovery is a frequent topic of research, but many times is not clearly defined and thus purported to cover a myriad of topics. This article provides two alternative theories as the basis for one line of price discovery research. Empirical models consistent with the two theories are estimated using a common data set. Empirical results differ as expected. This article evidences why the theoretical basis for an empirical model depends on clearly defining the objective(s) of the research.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Derived demand; Fed cattle; Partial adjustment model; Price discovery; Q13; Q11; Q12; C51; C22.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43201
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An Assessment of Dynamic Behavior in the U.S. Catfish Market: An Application of the Generalized Dynamic Rotterdam Model AgEcon
Muhammad, Andrew; Jones, Keithly G..
The generalized dynamic Rotterdam model was used in estimating U.S. demand for disaggregated catfish. The overall goal was to examine habit persistence in consumption and to determine the adjustment process in demand. Results indicated that it took up to 1 month for catfish-product demand to fully adjust to changes in expenditures and prices. Additionally, habit persistence played a role in demand where present consumption of a given product was positively affected by past consumption of that product. Consequently, U.S. catfish demand was significantly more elastic in the long-run.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Catfish; Demand; Dynamics; Partial adjustment; Rotterdam model; Agribusiness; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; C51; Q11; Q13; Q17.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56660
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An Ordinal Regression Model using Dealer Satisfaction Data AgEcon
Staus, Alexander.
This article analyses dealer satisfaction data in the agricultural technology market in Germany. The dealers could rate their suppliers in the ’overall satisfaction’ and in 38 questions which can be summarized in 8 dimensions. An ordinal regression model which is also known as the proportional odds model is used to analyse the ordinal scaled rating of the dealers. The ordinal regression model is a well examined method in econometric theory, but many authors prefer using a linear regression model due to better interpretation, even the assumptions of a linear regression do not fit the data. Since the estimated coefficients of an ordinal regression model can not be properly interpreted we show other methods for a better insight of the relationship of the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Keywords: ordinal regression; Dealer satisfaction; Interpretation; Agricultural and Food Policy; Marketing; C25; C51; Q13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/98632
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Animal Efficiency in an Intensive Beef Production System AgEcon
Fleming, Euan M.; Fleming, Pauline; Rodgers, Heidi; Griffith, Garry R.; Johnston, David.
A stochastic input distance function is estimated to analyse the efficiency with which physical characteristics of individual lot-fed beef cattle in Australia are combined with conventional inputs to produce a final product possessing defined quality attributes. High mean technical efficiency estimates are reported for all animals and by breed. All partial output elasticities with respect to inputs are of expected sign. Of four outputs included in the analysis, carcass weight and moisture retention in meat after cooking have highly significant coefficients of expected sign, but two meat quality variables have coefficients of unexpected sign indicating that they decline as inputs increase. Some evidence is detected of scope economies between moisture...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Efficiency; Intensive agriculture; Scope economies; Livestock Production/Industries; Q12; C51.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24673
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APPLYING A METHOD OF PAIRED COMPARISONS TO MEASURE ECONOMIC VALUES FOR MULTIPLE GOODS SETS AgEcon
Rosenberger, Randall S.; Peterson, George L.; Loomis, John B..
A method of paired comparison is adapted for use in estimating economic measures of value. The method elicits multiple binary choices for paired items in a choice set. Probability distributions and economic values are estimated nonparametrically and parametrically. The method is applied in an experimental context with a choice set composed of four private goods and several sums of money. The sample's median value estimtes for the goods are generally not different than the market prices for these goods. People who are in the market for a good value it higher than those not in the market for the good.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Alternative gains; Economic valuation; Hypothetical market; Paired comparisons; Stated choice method; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C51; C80; D12; Q26.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15516
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ASSET FIXITY IN U.S. AGRICULTURE: ROBUSTNESS TO FUNCTIONAL FORM AgEcon
Lin, Ni; Shumway, C. Richard.
The sensitivity of asset fixity conclusions, input adjustment rates, and elasticities to choice of functional form is examined using a dynamic dual model of U.S. agriculture. A very general initial specification allows tests of instantaneous adjustment to be performed for every input. Test results are mixed across functional forms for all inputs except real estate, which is consistently found to be quasi-fixed. Important differences in estimated adjustment rates and elasticities are also found among the functional forms. The translog has higher likelihood support than either the generalized Leontief or normalized quadratic functional forms for this dynamic model specification and data set.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural Finance; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Q11; C51.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12967
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Bargaining over governments in a stochastic environment AgEcon
Merlo, Antonio.
In this paper we structurally estimate a game-theoretic model of government formation in a multiparty parliamentary democracy. We focus on the timing and the terms of government agreements in the context of a multilateral stochastic model of sequential bargaining with complete information (Merlo and Wilson (1194, 1995)) where efficient delays may occur in the unique equilibrium. Besides showing that our model yields a good fit to the data on the duration of negotiations over government formation as well as government durations in postwar Italy, we use our estimates to quantify the advantage to proposing and to conduct policy experiments to evaluate the effects of changes in the bargaining procedure. We show that the gains from proposing tend to be quite...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Noncooperative bargaining; Delay; Government formation; Structural estimation; Duration models.; Political Economy; C41; C51; C73; C78; D72.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7476
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Business Establishment Growth in the Appalachian Region, 2000-2007: An Application of Smooth Transition Spatial Process Models AgEcon
Xu, Wan; Lambert, Dayton M..
Business establishment growth in the Appalachian region (2000–2007) was regressed on industry sector composition controlling for demographic, physical, and economic determinants. We test the hypothesis that local response to growth determinants is geographically heterogeneous using Smooth Transition spatial process models. This class of models exhibiting endogenous regime switching behavior provides another tool for exploring the spatially heterogeneous effects of local determinants on economic growth.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Appalachia; Business establishment growth; Smooth transition models; Spatial processes; Community/Rural/Urban Development; C21; C51; O47; R11.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113517
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Capital Use Intensity and Productivity Biases AgEcon
Andersen, Matthew A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G..
This is a substantially revised version of “Capital Use Intensity and Productivity Biases.” Andersen, Matt A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G., St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics; University of Minnesota, International Science and Technology Practice and Policy (InSTePP), 2007. (Staff paper P07-06; InSTePP paper 07-02)
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: U.S. agriculture; Pro-cyclical productivity; Capital utilization; Primal productivity bias; Productivity Analysis; D24; C51; Q1; O4; O47.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93143
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Discussion: Applications and Innovations in Spatial Econometrics AgEcon
LeSage, James P..
These articles provide a discussion of studies presented in a session on spatial econometrics, focusing on the ability of spatial regression models to quantify the magnitude of spatial spillover impacts. Both articles presented argue that a proper modeling of spatial spillovers is required to truly understand the phenomena under study, in one case the impact of climate change on land values (or crop yields) and in the second the role of regional industry composition on regional business establishment growth.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Lagged variables; Panel data; Spatial spillovers; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Environmental Economics and Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; C33; C51.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113519
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Dynamic adjustments in the Dutch greenhouse sector due to environmental regulations AgEcon
Verreth, Daphne M.I.; Emvalomatis, Grigorios; Bunte, Frank H.J.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M..
Horticultural firms are dependent on energy to produce, while policy makers focus on reducing the use of energy and investment in energy-saving technologies. The paper aimed to asses Dutch greenhouse farmers‘ responses to policies that would affect prices of different energy inputs. The farmer’s behaviour is modelled in two steps: firms are assumed to maximize profit at given energy use level, and firms are assumed to minimize the discounted sum of energy costs. The model is estimated using farm survey data spanning the period 2001-2008. Short-run and long-run elasticities with respect to prices and investments in energy-using technology are estimated. The greenhouse sector shows a fast adjustment of energy capital towards its long-run equilibrium. This...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Greenhouse horticulture; Energy; Dynamic duality; Adjustment costs; Agricultural and Food Policy; C51; C61; D92; Q12; Q18; Q48..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/99364
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